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The declensional forms are scanty, but sufficient to show that the Highlanders declined their noun in the eleventh century as fully as the Irish.


O-declension: nom. sg. Cathal gen. cathail: uachtar, gen. uac(h)tair, abstol gen. abstoil=apostoli: galar (a neut. o-stem) ace. galar: mac gen. meic or mec, ace. mac: clerech gen. pi. clerech: cenn dat. cinn (O. Ir. ciunn): mdr-maer gen. m6r-moir: toisech gen. toisig, toiseg: cosgrach gen. cosgreg: Muredach gen. muredig: Caerell gen. caerill: Donnclwd gen. Donncliaid: Colam gen. colaim: Peta/r gen. petir, petair and dia (=devo) gen. de=0. Ir. dei ex devi. dat. and ace. dia. dobor gen. doboir, Cormac gen. Cormaic, legenn gen. leginn.

io-declension: Bede, rige gen. rigi: Matni. ace. ere, ernacde, laithi. n. pi. m. uli, dat. pi. ulib.

fem.a-declension: cell gen. s. cille, dat. pi. cellaib: eland or clann gen. s. clande or clenni: clock dat. and ace. sg. cfow: (leg. chick): briathar ace. sg. bretker: eclas gen. s. eclasi: dabach ace. dual dd dabeg, gen. pi. dabach : edbart, dat. edbairt, ace. pi. edbarta: ingen. bliadan dat. sg. bliadin: der n. pi. deara.

fern, ia-declension: saere dat. sg. saeri: sldnte.

i-declension: maith n. pi. mathe: pett gen. pette: Brigit gen. Brigtce.

u-declension: Aed gen. eda:brdth gen. brdlha (dat. brdith seems a mistake for brdth).

Consonantal stems.

c-stems: catkair ace. sg. cathraig, cadraig: perhaps, too, the genitives sg. canneck, ferdomnac leg. ferdomnach.

g-stem : ri gen. sg. riig (leg. rig).

d (or t ?)-stems: comdiu gen. comded: bethu gen. be(tk)ad:

ant-stems: tipra gen. tiprat.

n-stems: masc. brithem, cil gen. con in dobar-ckon: fern, bennacht, mallact, alba gen. alban: neut. amm.

No example of r-stems occurs.

s-stems: sliab, mace, leg. mach, in imack, dim gen. <Mwe.

Diminutives are in <foj (Drostdn, Nectdn), in <£w (Colbdin, Matdin), in iw (Brocin, and perhaps aldin, alterin, domin? dvhbacin, bricin, and aechin), in wai< (Gartnait), in wa£ (Garnait, gen. s. of Garnat), in me (calline, molini), in ewe (fwine ?).

An example of a degree of comparison is wesw, for 0. Ir. compar. w«sa, here used as a superlative.

The forms of the article are: sing, in gen. m. in (aspirating), ace. s. inn, in, gen. plur. na (nasalizing), dat. and ace. pi. na.

The pronouns si or he 'is,' si 'ea' a 'ejus,' a (medializing) 'eorum' are identical with the corresponding forms in Irish : ge—cia 'qui.' Suffixed personal pronouns are in d6, ri-s and do-ib. Suffixed possessives: ara, cona, inna, dan. Of the infixed pronouns, which have for about 500 years been disused in Ireland, examples are d (do-ro-d-loeg), s (ro-s-benact), a (tarat=do-a-rat) and das in gon-clas-tabrad. Demonstratives are sin, sain or sen, sunn. Pronominal adjectives : ele, vie, each.

The only numerals which occur are the cardinals en 'one,' dd ' two,' cethri 'four,' and cet 'hundred,' and the ordinal ocmad 'eighth.'


The verbal forms, with the exception of the pret. part, passive ptista and a few infinitives (attach, tabart, bennachi, mallact), are all in the 3d singular or plural: is or es is the only example of the 3d sg. pres. indie. In almost all the preterites the particle ro is either prefixed or infixed: Prefixed sg. ro-(f)alseg, rothidnaig, ro-gab, ro-laboir, ro-bdith, ro-bo, ro-s-ben(n)ac(h)-t. Infixed do-r-aten, do-ro-d-loeg, fo-r-acaib. Plur. do-r6-nsat.

do occurs in do-rat, do-chuid (now chaidh), do-ratsat and do-ratsatar, and (provected) in tdnic (do-\-dnic, cf. Skr. dnancha) now thainig, plur. tdngator, O. Ir. tdncatar (do-\-dncatar) and tarat (do-\-a-\-rat.)

The only example of the simple future is tic/a 'veniet' (do-\-icfa): bad 'esto' or bed is a 3d sg. imperative : the relative 6-future is exemplified by chomallfas 'qui implebit:' the pres. conj. by gon-ice: the fut. conj. by be.

In the secondary present there are two forms, both conjunctive: sg. tabrad 'daret' and pi. dendces 'facerent.' Compare with the latter form the Mid. Ir. no-adrates, 'adorabant' which occurs in a gloss on Fiacc's hymn, 21. An example of the s-conjunctive is tissad or tisad ' venerit' from "ticsath *do-ic-sath. These s-conjunctives, which have long been obsolete in Ireland, were held by Siegfried (Beitraege zur vergl. sprachforschung, III, 51) to have been originally futures in s, like the Sanskrit forms in sydmi. Compare, too, Umbr. finest, e-est, Osc. didest. The form rois Z. 929, seems a clear example of a fut. indie. 2d sg.: so promsat, lobsat (Felire, Epil. 217). On the other hand there are some forms in s which can only be explained as perfects conj. like Lat. locassim,faxim, ausim (Ebel, Beitr. Ill, 262).

Adverbs: act, mar, ohunn imacc, as-a-athle-sen.

Prepositions: d, air, ar, as, cu (go), do, edar, fri, iarn (iar), in (i), le, 6 (ua),ri. Nominal: ar-a-ginn, ar-a-fa, dan-Os.

Conjunctions: acus, gon (go), ma.

Negative particles: nd, ni.




N.B.—The Roman numerals refer to those of the entries.

dia-es, Fiacc's hymn 53 'after
him,' dian-eis Felire, Pro]. 73
'after them.'
ara-ginn, i. 'before them' lit.
'on their head' cinn O. It.

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Bidbin ii. ibbidbin ii. now the

hill of Biffie about a mile W. of

the church. S. bliadin iii. annum, anno? dat. or

ace. sg. of bliadain now bliadh

na. Hence blienec i. for blia

dhnach, 'annosus.' bo 'fuit' i. ii. brdth v. ace. sg. cubrdth, brdd

v. brdith i. gen. sg. brdtha

iii. 'judgment' i. e. 'Day of

Judgment' wrongly explained

in the Highland Soc. Diet, as

'conflagration.' Gaulish brdtu,

W. brawd. brecini iii. gen. sg. nom. pr. briathar 'verbum': ace. sg. brether

i. brigit nom. pr. gen. sg. Brigte ii.

Brigtce ii. brite see gillebrite. brithem, iii. now breitheamh, gen.

breitheamhan 'judex.' brocin vi. and p. 108. nom. pr. di

min. of brocc' badger.' buadacc (leg. buadach) 'victori

osus.' buchan i. vi. gen. s. 'Buchan.' each-hen v. cach-en v. would

now be gach aon. cadraig, see cathraig. caerill ii. nom. pr. gen. sg. cainnech cainnec ii. nom. pr. caen

naig v. gen. s. callinenom. pr. gen. sg. iv. cammone ii.?

canan v. nom. pr. gen. sg.
cannech ii. nom. pr. gen. s.
case ii. from pascha, now edsg.
cathal ii. gen. s. cathail ii.
cathraig, cadraig, i. ace. sg. of

cathair 'civitas.'
catness p. 108 "Caithness."
cec ii. iv. leg. cech, now gach

'quisque.' cellaib vi. 'cellis' dat. pi. of cell,

now ceall 6, from Lat. cella. cennedig v. gen. s. nom. pr. cet ii. 'centum' gen. now ceud

W. can. citna ii. now ceudna ' idem.' cetri vi. now ceithir '.four.' gen.

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of thine,' Will of Cathair Mor.

With these forms compare the

Cornish plural possessives ag-an,

ag-is, ag-a, Beitr. Ill, 156. dobarchon ii. gen. sg. of dobarchu

now dobharchii 'an otter' lit.

'waterdog,' W. dyfrgi, Bret.

dour-gi or Id-dour, doboir gen. sg. see Abordoboir. dochuid i. now do chaidh. dogniu see dortmsat. doib 'iis' i. dolaidib vi. dolodib iii. seems to

mean 'exactions:' cf. the

modern dolaidh, doluidh 'loss,'

'harm.' domin gen. s. iv. a dimin. of

dom? domnall ii. gen. sg. domnaill iii. domongart iii. nom. pr. donchad v. nom. pr. gen. donn

chaid vi. doncado p. 108. donnachac vi. nom. pr. dorat i. ii. iv. v. 'dedit': 3d plur.

s-pret. doratsat ii. iii. doratsatar

v. doraten i. 2d sg. pret. act. of tait

inn (do + aitinn) 'place,' 'ob

lecta,' 'satisfac.' Hence O. Ir.

taitnemach. do-ro-d-loeg, i. for do-ro-d-luig, 3d

sg. pret. of doluigim, with the

pronoun d infixed. dorbnsat i. 3d plur. s- pret. of dogniu 'facio.' drostdn nom. pr. i. gen. drostdn i.

dat. drostdn i. ii. iii. iv. v. ace.

drostdn ii. vi. This name occurs

in the Four Masters AD. 717. dubbacin ii. gen. sg. nom. pr. dubni iii. nom. pr. diin 'casirum' a neut. s- stem in duncallden dat. p. 108, duni cal

lenn gen. sg. iii. 'Dunkeld' the

Duin Caildenn, DUin Cealldin

of the Four Masters, A.D. 871,

864. he ii. 'he '=Lat. is. eclasi iii. gen. sg. of eclais, now

eaglais s. f. from ecclesia. eda ii. gen. sg. of Aed—aWos. edar, ii. 'inter,' now eadar.

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