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There ia also, at fo. 39a, a later grant from King David I., which I give here for the sake of the Celtic names which-it contains :—

Dauid. rex scottorum omnibws probis hominibus suis salutes. Sciatis quod clerici. deder. aunt quieti et immunes abomni laicorum officio, et exactione indebita sicwtf inlibro eorum scribtum est. 'et dirationauerwwt a,pud banb et iurauerwnt a.Tpud abberdeon. quapropter firmiter precipio ut nullus eis. aut eorum catellis. aliquam iniuriam inferre presumat. Teste gregorio episcopo deduncallden. Teste andrea eptscopo deca&ness. Teste samsone episcopo debrecin. Teste doncado comite defib. et malmori dathotla et ggillebrite comite dengus 7 gillecomded mac ted 7 brocin 7 cormac de turbrud. 7 adam mac ferdonmac 7 gillendrias mac matni (nfatni ?) apud abberdeon.

The philological value of the book lies in the six Gaelic entries which are found in fo. 2a to fo. 4a, and of which facsimiles are given in Dr. Stuart's excellent edition of the Book of Deir, Edinburgh, 1869. These I have distinguished by Roman numerals.

I. [fo. 2. a] Columcille 7 drostan mac c6sgreg adalta tangator ahi marroalseg dia d6ib gonfc abbordob6ir 7 be'de cruthnec robomormEer buchan araginn 7 ess^ rothidnaig d6ib ingathraig sain insaere gobraith 6m6rmaer 7 othosdc.

tangator asaathle sen incathraig5 ele 7 doraten ricolumcille si iarfallan [leg. air ba fallan ?] ddrath de' 7 dorodloeg arinmonnfer .i. be'de' gondastabrad d6 7 nitharat. 7 rogab mac d6 gal^,r iarne're3 naglerec4 7 robomarb5 act madbec iarsdn dochtiid inmormder dattac naglerec g6nddndses ernacde lesinmac gondisad slante6 d6 7 ddrat inedbdirt ddib uacloic7 intiprat gonice chloic pette meic garnait doronsat innernacde 7 tanic slante d6; iarse'n dorat collumcille dddrostan inchadraig se'n 7 rosbenact 7 foracaib imbrether gebe tisad ris nabad blienec buadacc tangator de'ara drostan arscarthain fri collumcille rolaboir columcille bede'ar anim [leg. a ainm] 6hunn8 imacc9.

Translation.

Columcille and Drostan son of Cosgrach his pupil, came from Hi (Iona), as God had shewn to them, unto Aberdour, and Bede the Pict was Grand Steward of Buchan before them, and it was he that gave them that town in freedom for ever from Grand Steward and chieftain. They came after that to the other town, and it was pleasing to Columcille, because it was full of God's grace, and he asked of the Grand Steward, to wit Bede, that he should give it to him; and he did not give it, and a son of his took an illness after [or in consequence of] refusing the clerics, and he was nearly dead [lit. he was dead but if it were a little]. After this the Grand Steward went to entreat the clerics that they should make prayer for the son that health should come to him; and he (Bede) gave in offering to them from Clock in tiprat to Clock

1 This no doubt does, as Mr. Bradshaw suggests, refer to the Gaelic entries. It thus helps us to the meaning of dolodib.

4 accent over h. 3 accent over n. * accent over r. 8 accent over r. 6 accent over t. 'accent over the first c. 8 accent over first n. 'accent over m and first c.

pette mic Garnait. They made the prayer, and health came to him. After that Columcille gave to Drostan that town and blessed it, and left as (his) -word "whosoever should come against it let him not be manyyeared [or] victorious." Drostan's tears came on parting with Columcille. Said Columcille "Let Dear ("tear") be its name henceforward."

II. Comgeall mac e'da d6rat uaorti [go]nice faren^ docolumcille 7 dodrostan. Moridac mac morcunn dorat pett meic garnait 7 achad toche temni. 7 bahe' robomormair 7 robothosec. Matain mac caerill dorat cuit mormoir inalteri 7 culii mac batin dorat cuit t6iseg. Domnall mac giric 7 malbrigte mac chathail dorat pett inmulenn. do drostan. Cathal mac morcunt dorat achad naglerec dodrostan. Domnall mac ruadri 7 malcolum mac culeon doratsat bidbin do dia 7 do drostan. Malcoloum mac cinatha dorat cuit riig ibbidbin 7 inpett meic gobr6ig 7 da. dabeg uactair r6sabard. Malcolum mac moilbrigtse dorat indelerc. Malsnecte mac luloig dorat [fo. 3a] pett malduib do drostan; Domnall mac m&c dubbacin robaith nahule edbarta do drostan [Ms. rodrostan] arthabart ahule do. robaith cathal1 arachoir chetna acuitid thoisig 7 dorat p?ir6inn2 che't cecnolloce 7 ceccasc d6 dia 7 d6 drostan. Cainnech3 mac meic dobarchon 7 cathal doratsatar alterin alia uethe na camone(?) gonice inbelth edarda alterin. Dorat domnall 7 cathal e'tdanin d6 dia 7 d6 drostan. Robaith Cainnec 7 domnall 7 cathal nahule edbarta ridia 7 ri drostan 6thosach goderad isssere om6rmaer 7 othesech culaithi bratha.

Translation.

Comgeall, son of Aed, gave from Orte to Furene to Columcille and to Drostan. Moridach, son of Morcunn, gave Pett meic Garnait and Achad toche temni; and it was he that was Grand Steward and [it was Comgeall that] was chief. Matain, son of Caerell, gave (the) Grand Steward's share in AUere, and Culi, son of Baten, gave (the) Chiefs share. Domnall, son of Girec, and Maelbrigte, son of Cathal, gave Pett in mulenn to Drostan. Cathal, son of Morcunt, gave Achad nagUrech (' the clerics'field ') to Drostan. Domnall, son of Ruadre, and Maelcoluim, son of Culeon, gave Bidbin to God and to Drostan. Maelcoluim, son of Cinaed, gave (the) King's share in Bidbin and in Pett meic Gobroig and two davochs of upper Rosabard. Maelcoluim, son of Maelbrigte, gave the Belerc. Maelsnechte, son ef Ltiloeg, gave Pett Maelduib to Drostan Domnall, son of Mac Dubbacin, immolated all the offerings to Drostan, giving the whole of it to him. Cathal immolated in (the) same way his Chiefs share, and gave a dinner of a hundred every Christmas and every Easter to God and to Drostan. Cainnech, son of Mac Dobarcon, (Otter's son), gave Alterin alia bhethe (birch cliff) na camone as far as the birch tree between two Alterins. Domnall and Cathal gave Etdanin to God and to Drostan. Cainnech and Domnall and Cathal immolated all these offerings to God and to Drostan from beginning to end in freedom from Grand Steward and from Chief to (the) Day of Judgment.

1 accent over I.

? accent over the second n, and a mark over thep which may be the sign of aspiration. * accent over n.

III. Gartnait mac cannech 7 6te ingengillemichel doratsat pet mec c6brig ricosecrad e'clasi crist 7 petir abstoil 7 docolumcille 7 dodrostan se'r <5nahulib dolodib cdnanascad d6c6rmac e'scob dunicallenn. in6cmad blladin rigi dabid Testibus istis ne'ctan escob abberdeon. 7 leot ab brecini 7 maledonn mac meic bead. 7 algune mac arcill. 7 ruadri m6rmar marr 7 matadin brithem 7 gillecrist mac c6rmaic. 7 malpetir mac domnaill. 7 domongart ferleginn turbruad. 7 gillecolaim mac muredig. 7 dubni mac malcolaim.

IV. Dorat gartnait 7 ingengillemicel ball domin ipet ipair docrist 7 docolimcilli 7 dodrostan Teste. gille calline sacart. 7 feradac mac malbhricin. 7 malgirc mac tralin [fo. 36. in marg.] 7 Bennact INCHOMDED ARCECMORMAB 7 AKCECTOSECH CHOMALLFAS 7 DANSiL DANEIS.

Translation.

Gartnait, son of Cainnech, and Ete, daughter of Gille-Mfchel, gave Pett mac Cobrig for (the) consecration of a church of Christ and Peter (the) Apostle both to Columcille and to Drostan free from all the exactions (V) with the gift (?) of them to Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld in the eighth year of David's reign. Testibus istis Nectan, Bishop of Aberdeen and Leot, Abbot of Brechin, and Maledonn, son of Mac Be [th] ad, and Algune, son of Arcell, and Ruadri, Grand-Steward of Mar, and Matadin (the) Judge, and Gille Christ son of Cormac, and Maelpetir, son of Domnall, and Domongart, Reader of Turriff, and Gillecolaim, son of Muredach, and Dubni, son of Maelcolaim.

Gartnait and GillemfcheTs daughter gave Ball Domin in Pet Ipair to Christ and to Columcille and to Drostan. Teste Gillecalline, Priest, and Feradach, son of Maelbhricm, and Maelgirc, son of Tralin.

And The Lord's Blessing On Every Grand-steward And On Every Chieftain Who Shall Fulfil This, And To Their Seed After Them.

V. Donchad mac mec bead mec hidid dorat acchad madch6r1 docrist acus dodrostan do choluimchille ins6re gobrad malechi 7 c6mgell 7 gille crisi mac finguni innaienasi intestus. 7 malcoluim mac molini. Cormac mac cennedig dorat gonige scali merlec. Comgell mac caennaig taesec clande canan d6rat docrisi 7 dodrostan 7 d6choluim cille gonige ingort lie m6r iggmn infius isnesu daldin alenn 6dabaci g61urchari etarsliab 7 achad. issaeri othesseach cubrath 7 abennacht arcachhe'n chomallfas araes cubrath 7 amallact arcache'n ticfa ris;

Translation. Donchad, son of Mac Bethad, son of Hided, gave A chad Madchor to Christ and to Drostan and to Columcille in freedom for ever: Malechi and Comgell and Gille-Christ son of Fingune in witness thereof, in testimony, and Maelcoluim son of Moline. Cormac son of Cennedig gave as far as Scale Merlech. Comgell son of Caennech, chief of Clan Canan, gave to Christ and to Drostan and to Columcille as far as the Gort-lie-m6r (Great Pock-field) at (the) hither (?) end which is nearest to Aldin Alenn from Dabaci to Lurchari, both mountain and field ', in freedom from

1 The facsimile has niadch&r.
* The passage in italics is from the pen of Eugene Curry.

Chief for ever; and his blessing on every one who shall fulfil (this) after him, and his curse on every one who shall go against it.

VI. Robaid1 colbain mormser blichan 7 eua ingen garnait abenphusta 7 donnachac mac sithig toesech clenni morgainn nahuli edbarta ri dia 7 ridrostan 7 ria colum cilli 7 ri petar apstal onahulib dolaidib archuit cetri dabach do ni thissad arardinandaidib alban cucotchenn 7 arahardchellaib. testibus his brocein 7 cormac abb turbruaid 7 morgunn mac donnchaid 7 gilli petair mac donnchaid 7 malsechin 7 da mac matni 7 mathe buchan huli naiaidnaisse in helain:—

Translation.

Colbain, Grand Steward of Buchan, and Eva, daughter of Gartnat, his wedded wife, and Donnachac, son of Sithech, chief of Clann Morgainn, immolated all the offerings to God and to Drostan and to Columcille and to Peter the apostle from all the burthens for a share of four davochs of what would come on (the) chief residences of Scotland generally and on her chief churches, Testibus his Brocein and Cormac, abbot of Turriff, and Morgunn, son of Donchad, and Gille-Petair, son of Donchad, and Malaechin and Matne's two sons and (the) nobles of Buchan, all in witness hereof in Elan 2.

I will now make a few remarks on some of the grammatical forms exhibited by these Charters, and then add a glossary of all the words which they contain. First as to phonetics:

"We find a interchanging with o in tangator, and changing by umlaut into ai (laithi, petair, colaim), oi (rolaboir, abbor-doboir, luloig), ui (coluim), e (cosgreg, brether, ele), or ei (meic), or i (muredig, petir): e changes to i in cille and o to oi in cloich, to oe in do-ro-d-loeg. The following instances of umlaut of dipthongs occur: ae into oi (moil-brig tae gen. s. of maelrbrigte). But one of the most striking characteristics of the Gaelic in these charters is the absence of umlaut. Thus in marroalseg, mathe, doraten clande, eclasi, slante, tonic, the vowel a, whether short or long, remains unaffected by the subsequent e or i. So in the case of 0 (tosech, dolodib, comgell, cotchenn, domin, brocin, cosecrad) and M (crwthnech, cwleon, d«ni, mwlenn, hwle).

The change of e, e into ea, ia, is beginning Comgeall, m (e) andaidib, deara).

In auslaut t and e are confused. Thus we find i, where in Old Irish we should have had e (laithi, eclasi, clenni, dunt, mort, cillt, gilli), and e where in Old Irish we should have had i (nahule, cathraig, ele).

1 Perhaps Robhaid—there is a mark over the b.

* Eugene Curry adds this note: "Colbain, Lord of Buchah, and his wife Eva mortmained all the foregoing offerings from every burden for ever, except as much as would fall on four dabachs (i. e. the pay by four dabachs only) of such burdens as came upon all the high monasteries and high churches of Scotland. According to this, all Drostan's lands were freed from coigny (coinnmedh) &c. excepting the proportion of four dabachs of a sort of quitrent. If you take mandaidib to be mennaitib 'chief residences ' you will be right enough; but what was the custom V

As to the diphthongs, a is written for ae or ai in m6r-mar, malcoluim, mal-bhricin, malgirc, and e is -written for ae in eda, michel. So o is written for oe or oi in sore, tosec, and e is written for oe or oi in en 'one.'

Infected o/, d, t, are dropped in bri{gh)te, blie(dh)nec, fie(dh)nasi, be(th)ad: n is lost before t in cet, tiprat, and before s in pusta, cosecrad, but kept in auslaut (ira saere, igginn i. e. in-ginn, in pett, dan-sil, gon-disad): nn has become nd in mandaidib, and conversely Too3 has become nn in bennacht, clenni.

cc is oddly written for ch in buadacc, imacc (so in the Welsh laws): och for cA in acchad. Ld, In, tl have become 11 in mallacht, chomall/as, nolloce. In jre, gro, grow, (0. Ir. cia, co, con), we have instances in anlaut of the sinking of the tenuis which, in inlaut, is exemplified by gonige, abstoil, edar, dendces (O. Ir. coniei, apstoil, etor, dentis) and, in auslaut, by escob and tidnaig. In ocinad (O. Ir. ochtmad) t is dropt between c and m: p is dropt before sc in escob: c is lost before r in der, but the vowel is lengthened in compensation.

Then as to infection of the initials. Of vocalic infection, or, as Irish grammarians call it, 'aspiration,' we find the following instances:

after the article: in the gen. sg. masc. (in chomded) : in the ace. sg. fern, (in chadraig). The latter is inorganic.

in an adjective or participle agreeing with a fern, a-stem in the dat. or nom. sg. (coir chetna, ben phiista).

Where one substantive governs another in the genitive (mac mal bhricin, mac chathail, proinn chet, cuitid thoisig). Excepting the first, where mal stands for mail, *maili, *magli I these instances are all inorganic, for mac is a masc. o-stem in the nom. sg. which ended in s, and the governing words in the others are in the ace. sg. which ended in n. In do choluim-chille the aspiration of exile is organic, for the dative sg. colum ended in a vowel, as we judge from the assimilation and from Gaulish forms like Magalu, Alisanu, Anvalonnacu.

after the possessive pron. 3d sg. masc. ('na(/)iaidnaisse, inna(f)ienasi).

after the verbal prefixes ro and do (mar-ro-(/)alseg, ro-thidnaig, ro-bhaid, do-chuid).

after a verb in the 3d sg. conj. act. (gon-ice chloic). After the verb in the 3d sg. pret. (dorat phroinn, ro-bo thosec).

after the prepositions ar, air, do, and 6 (ar thabart, or chuit, air choir, do choluimchille, 6 thosec, 6 thosach, 6 thesech, 6 thesseach, 6 hunn).

after the negative ni (ni tharat).

in compounds (ard-chellaib, dobar-chon).

in relative forms (do ni thissad, ar cech thoseeh chomall/as, ar-cach hen chomall/as).

Of nasal infection of tenues, or, as Irish grammarians call it, eclipsis, we find the following instances:

after the article, in the ace. sg. f. (in gathraig), in the gen. plur. (na glerec).

after the possessive pronoun of the 3d plural (ar-a-ginn): after the conjunction gon, con, (gon disad): after the prep, in (igginn i. e. in-ginn).

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