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whimsies. He sets up haberdasher of small there has been no men but heroes and poets, poetry, with a very small stock, and no no women but nymphs and shepherdesses : credit. He believes it is invention enough trees have borne fritters, and rivers flowed to find out other men's wit; and whatsoever plum-porridge. When he writes, he comhe lights upon, either in books or company, monly steers the sense of his lines by the he makes bold with as his own. This he rhyme that is at the end of them, as butchers puts together so untowardly, that you may do calves by the tail. For when he has perceive his own wit has the rickets by the made one line, which is easy enough, and has swelling disproportion of the joints. You found out some sturdy hard word that will may know his wit not to be natural, 'tis so but rhyme, he will hammer the sense upon unquiet and troublesome in him: for as it, like a piece of hot iron upon an anvil, those that have money but seldom are al- into what form he pleases. There is no art ways shaking their pockets when they have in the world so rich in terms as poetry; a it, so does be when he thinks he has got whole dictionary is scarce able to contain something that will make him appear. He them; for there is hardly a pond, a sheepis a perpetual talker; and you may know walk, or a gravel-pit in all Greece but the by the freedom of his discourse that he came ancient name of it is become a term of art lightly by it, as thieves spend freely what in poetry. By this means small poets have they get. He is like an Italian thief, that such a stock of able hard words lying by never robs but he murders, to prevent dis-them, as dryades, hamadryades, aönides, covery ; so sure is he to cry down the man fauni, nymphæ, sylvani, &c., that signify from whom he purloins, that his petty lar- nothing at all; and such a world of pedantic ceny of wit may pass unsuspected. He ap- terms of the same kind, as may serve to pears so over-concerned in all men's wits, as furnish all the new inventions and thorough if they were but disparagements of his own; reformations” that can happen between this and cries down all they do, as if they were and Plato's great year. encroachments upon him. He takes jests Characters. from the owners and breaks them, as justices do false weights and pots that want measure. When he meets with anything JOHN PEARSON, D.D., that is very good, he changes it into small money, like three groats for a shilling, to born at Snoring, Norfolk, 1612, became serve several occasions. He disclaims study, Bishop of Chester, Feb. 9, 1672–73, and pretends to take things in motion, and to died in 1686. His best-known work is An shoot flying, which appears to be very true, Exposition of the Creed, Lond., 1659, 4to. by his often missing of his mark. As for “A standard book in English divinity. It exepithets, he always avoids those that are pands beyond the literal purport of the Creed near akin to the sense. Such matches are itself to most articles of orthodox belief, and is a unlawful, and not fit to be made by a Chris- valuable summary of arguments and authorities

on that side. The closeness of Pearson, and his tian poet; and therefore all his care is to choose out such as will serve, like a wooden many, especially the earlier, theologians. Some

judicious selection of proofs, distinguish him from leg, to piece out a maimed verse that wants might surmise that his undeviating adherence to a foot or two, and if they will but rhyme what he calls The Church is hardly consistent now and then into the bargain, or run upon with independence of thinking; but, considered a letter, it is a work of supererogation. For as an advocate, he is one of much judgment and similitudes, he likes the hardest and most skill."--HALLAM: Lit. Hist. of Europe, 4th ed., obscure best: for as ladies wear black patches

1854, iii. 298. to make their complexions seem fairer than

THE ASCENSION of Christ. they are, so when an illustration is more obscure than the sense that went before it, The ascent of Christ into heaven was not it must of necessity make it appear clearer metaphorical or figurative, as if there were than it did ; for contraries are best set off no more to be understood by it, but only with contraries. He has found out a new that he attained a more heavenly and gloriset of poetical Georgies—a trick of sowing ous state or condition after his resurrection. wit like clover grass on barren subjects, For whatsoever alteration was made in the which would yield nothing before. This is body of Christ when he rose, whatsoever very useful for the times, wherein, some glorious qualities it was invested with theremen say, there is no room left for new in- by, that was not his ascension, as appeareth vention. He will take three grains of wit, by those words which he spake to Mary, like the elixir, and, projecting it upon the Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my iron age, turn it immediately into gold. All Father. Although he had said before to the business of mankind has presently van- Nicodemus, No man (hath] ascended up to ished, the whole world has kept holiday ; | heaven, but he that came down from heaven,

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even the Son of man which is in heaven; be dead, and now saw him alive, they were which words imply that he had then as- thereby assured that he rose again: for cended; yet even those concern not this whatsoever was a proof of his life after ascension. For that was therefore only death was a demonstration of his resurrectrue, because the Son of Man, not yet con- tion. But being the apostles were not to ceived in the Virgin's womb, was not in see our Saviour in heaven; being the sesheaven, and after his conception by virtue sion was not to be visible to them on earth; of the hypostatical union was in heaven: therefore it was necessary they should be from whence, speaking after the manner of eye-witnesses of the act, who were not with men, he might well say, that he had as the same eyes to behold the effect. cended into heaven; because whatsoever was Beside the eye-witness of the apostles, tirst on earth and then in heaven, we say there was added the testimony of the angels; ascended into heaven. Wherefore, beside those blessed spirits which ministered before, that grounded upon the hypostatical union, and saw the face of, God in heaven, and beside that glorious condition upon his resur

came down from thence, did know that rection, there was yet another and that more Christ ascended up from hence unto that proper ascension : for after he had both those place from whence they came; and because ways ascended, it was still true that he had the eyes of the apostles could not follow him not yet ascended to his Father.

so far, the inhabitants of that place did come Now this kind of ascension, by which to testify of his reception ; for behold two Christ had not yet ascended when he spake men stood by them in white apparel, which to Mary after his resurrection, was not long also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye after to be performed ; for at the same time gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus he said unto Mary, Go to my brethren, and which is taken up from you into heaven, say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and shall so come in like manner as ye have your Father. And when this ascension was seen him go into heaven. We must thereperformed, it appeared manifestly to be a fore acknowledge and confess against all true local translation of the Son of Man, as the wild heresies of old, that the eternal man, from these parts of the world below into Son of God, who died and rose again, did, the heaven above; by which that body which with the same body and soul with which was before locally present here on earth, he died and rose, ascend up to heaven; and was not so then present in heaven, which was the second particular considerbecame substantially present in heaven, and able in this Article. no longer locally present on earth. For An Exposition of the Creed, Article VI. when he had spoken unto the disciples, and blessed them, laying his hands upon them, and so was corporally present with them, even while he blessed them, he parted from JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D., them, and while they beheld, he was taken up; born 1613, at Cambridge, Bishop of Down and a cloud received him out of their sight; and Connor, 1661, died 1667, was the author and so he was carried up into heaven, while of many theological works, distinguished they looked steadfastly towards heaven as he for their learning, piety, and fervid imagiwent up. This was a visible departure, as

nation. it is described ; a real removing of that body of Christ, which was before present with “He was none of God's ordinary works, but his the apostles ; and that body living after the Endowments were so many and so great, as really resurrection, by virtue of that soul which ist, and hugely versed in all the polite parts of

He was a rare Humanwas united to it, and therefore the Son of Learning, and thoroughly concocted all the anGod according to his humanity, was really cient Moralists, Greek and Roman Poets and Oraand truly translated from these parts below tors, and was not unacquainted with the refined unto the heavens above, which is a proper wits of the later ages, whether French or Italian. local ascension.

This great Prelate had the good humour of a Thus was Christ's ascension visibly per- of a Poet, the acuteness of a Schoolman, the pro

Gentleman, the eloquence of an Orator, the fancy formed in the presence and sight of the foundness of a Philosopher, the wisdom of a Chanapostles, for the confirmation of the reality cellor, the sagacity of a Prophet, the reason of an and the certainty thereof. They did not Anges, and the picty of a Saint. He had devotion see him when he rose, but they saw him enough for a Cloister, learning enough for an Uniwhen he ascended ; because an eye-witness versity, and wit enough for a College of Virtuosi. was not necessary unto the act of his resur- And had his parts and endowments been parcelled rection, but it was necessary unto the act of

out among his poor Clergy that he left behind his ascension, it was sufficient that Christ him, it would perhaps have made one of the best

dioceses in the world."-Doctor GEORGE Rust, shewed himself to the apostles alive after his his chaplain, and subsequently his episcopal sucpassion; for being they knew him before to cessor in the see of Dromore.

“The greatest ornament of the English pulpit good works, that thy time may be crowned up to the middle of the seventeenth century; and with eternity. we have no reason to believe, or rather much reason to disbelieve, that he had any competitor in often retire to God in short prayers and ejac

7. In the midst of the works of thy calling, other languages."-Hallam: Lit. Hist. of Europe, i. 359-60.

ulations; and those may make up the want The best edition of his Works is that pub

of those Jarger portions of time, which, it lished under the supervision of the Rev. c. may be, thou desirest for devotion, and in

which thou thinkest other persons have adP. Eden (and Rev. Alexander Taylor), Lond., vantage of thee; for so thou reconcilest the 1847–51 (again 1854, 1856, 1861), 10 vols. outward work and thy inward calling, the 8vo.

church and the commonwealth, the employRULES FOR EMPLOYING OUR TIME.

ment of the body and the interest of thy 1. In the morning, when you awake, ac- soul: for be sure, that God is present at thy custom yourself to think first upon God, or breathings and hearty sighings of prayer, something in order to his service; and at as soon as at the longer offices of less busied night, also, let him close thine eyes: and persons; and thy time is as truly sanctified let your sleep be necessary and healthful, by a trade, and devout though shorter praynot idle and expensive of time, beyond the ers, as by the longer offices of those whose needs and conveniences of nature; and time is not filled up with labour and useful sometimes be curious to see the preparation business. which the sun makes when he is coming 8. Let your employment be such as may forth from his chambers of the east.

become a reasonable person ; and not be a 2. Let every man that hath a calling be business fit for children or distracted people, diligent in pursuance of its employment, but fit for your age and understanding. For so as not lightly or without reasonable occa- a man may be very idly busy, and take great sion to neglect it in any of those times which pains to so little purpose, that in his labours are usually, and by the custom of prudent and expense of time he shall serve no end persons and good husbands, employed in it. hut of folly and vanity. There are some

3. Let all the intervals or void spaces of trades that wholly serve the ends of idle time be employed in prayers, reading, medi- persons and fools, and such as are fit to be tating works of nature, recreations, charity, seized upon by the severity of laws and friendliness, and neighbourhood, and means banished from under the sun: and there are of spiritual and corporal health: ever re- some people who are busy; but it is as Domembering so to work in our calling as not mitian was, in catching flies. to neglect the work of our high calling; but Rules and Exercises of Holy Living. to begin and end the day with God, with such forms of devotion as shall be proper to The InvalIDITY OF A LATE OR DEATH-BED our necessities.

REPENTANCE. 4. The resting days of Christians, and festivals of the church, must, in no sense, be But will not trusting in the merits of Jesus days of idleness ; for it is better to plough Christ save such a man? For that, we must upon holy days than to do nothing, or to do be tried by the word of God, in which there viciously: but let them be spent in the works is no contract at all made with a dying perof the day, that is, of religion and charity, son that lived in name a Christian, in pracaccording to the rule appointed.

tice a heathen: and we shall dishonour the 5. Avoid the company of drunkards and sufferings and redemption of our blessed busybodies, and all such as are apt to talk Saviour, if we think them to be an ummuch to little purpose; for no man can be brella to shelter our impious and ungodly provident of his time that is not prudent in living. But that no such person may, after the choice of his company; and if one of a wicked life, repose himself on his deaththe speakers be vain, tedious, and trifling, bed upon Christ's merits, observe but these he that hears, and he that answers, in the two places of Scripture: “Our Saviour discourse, are equal losers of their time. Jesus Christ, who gave himself for us"

6. Never walk with any man, or under what to do? that we might live as we list, take any trifling employment, merely to and hope to be saved by his merits? no:pass the time away; for every day well but “that he might redeem us from all inspent may become a “day of salvation," iquity, and purify to himself a peculiar peoand time rightly employed is an " acceptable ple, zealous of good works." These things time." And remember, that the time thou "speak and exhort," saith St. Paul. But triflest away was given thee to repent in, to more plainly yet in St. Peter : "Christ bare pray for pardon of sins, to work out thy sal- our sins in his own body on the tree"—to vation, to do the work of grace, to lay up what end ? " That we, being dead unto sin, against the day of judgment a treasure of should live unto righteousness." Since,

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therefore, our living a holy life is the end groan, and call to God, and resolve to live of Christ's dying that sad and holy death well when he is dying. for us, he that trusts on it to evil purposes, Rules and Exercises of Holy Dying. and to excuse his vicious life, does as much as in him lies, make void the very purpose and design of Christ's passion, and dishonours the blood of the everlasting covenant; which covenant was confirmed by the blood

HENRY MORE, D.D., of Christ; but as it brought peace from God, born 1614, died 1687, famous for his learnso it requires a holy life from us. But why ing and piety, was the author of philosophimay not we be saved, as well as the thief on cal poems and treatises, theological disserthe cross? even because our case is nothing tations, and Aphorisins. alike. When Christ dies once more for us, we may look for such another instance; not till bined with the Pythagorean and Cabalistic, with

“No one defended the Platonic doctrine, comthen. But this thief did but then come to greater learning and subtlety than Cudworth's Christ, he knew him not before ; and his friend and colleague, Henry More. . . . He died case was, as if a Turk, or heathen, should leaving behind him a name highly celebrated be converted to Christianity, and be bap- among theologians and philosophers.”—ENFIELD: tized, and enter newly into the covenant Hist. of Philos., 1840, 546. upon his death-bed: then God pardons all tian philosopher

, who studied to establish men in

“ More was an open-hearted and sincere Chrishis sins. And so God does to Christians the great principles of religion against atheism." when they are baptized, or first give up their —Bishop Burnet: Hist. of My Own Times. names to Christ by a voluntary confirmation of their baptismal vow: but when they have

We give an extract from An Antidote once entered into the covenant they must against Atheism, which was included in his perform what they promise, and do what Philosophical Works, Lond., 1662, fol., 4th they are obliged. The thief had made no edit., corrected and much enlarged, Lond., contract with God in Jesus Christ, and there- | 1712, fol. fore failed of none; only the defailances of NATURE OF THE EVIDENCE OF THE Existthe state of ignorance Christ paid for at the thief's adinission: but we, that have

EXCE OF GOD. made a covenant with God in baptism, and When I say that I will demonstrate that failed of it all our days, and then return at there is a God, I do not promise that I will

night, when we cannot work,” have noth- always produce such arguments that the ing to plead for ourselves; because we have reader shall acknowledge so strong, as he made all that to be useless to us, which God, shall be forced to confess that it is utterly with so much mercy and miraculous wisdom, impossible that it should be otherwise ; but gave us to secure our interest and hopes of they shall be such as shall deserve full asheaven.

sent, and win full assent from any unprejuAnd therefore, let no Christian man who diced mind. hath covenanted with God to give him the For I conceive that we may give full asservice of his life, think that God will be sent to that which, notwithstanding, may answered with the sighs and prayers of a possibly be otherwise ; which I shall illusdying man: for all that great obligation trate by several examples: suppose two which lies upon us cannot be transacted in men got to the top of Mount Athos, and an instant, when we have loaded our souls there viewing a stone in the form of an altar with sin, and made them empty of virtue ; with ashes on it, and the footsteps of men we cannot so soon grow up to "a perfect on those ashes, or some words, if you will, man in Christ Jesus.'' Suffer not there as Optimo Maximo, or To agnósto Theo, or fore yourselves to be deceived by false prin- the like, written or scrawled out upon the ciples and vain confidences: for no man can in ashes; and one of them should cry out, Asa moment root out the long-contracted habits suredly here have been some men that have of vice, nor upon his death-bed make use of all done this. But the other, more nice than that variety of preventing, accompanying, wise, should reply, Nay, it may possibly be and persevering grace which God gave to otherwise ; for this stone may have natuman in mercy, because man would need it all, rally grown into this very shape, and the because without it he could not be saved ; seeming ashes may be no ashes, that is, no nor upon his death-bed can he exercise the remainders of any fuel burnt there ; but duty of mortification, nor cure his drunken- some unexplicable and unperceptible moness then, nor his lust, by any act of Chris- tions of the air, or other particles of this tian discipline, nor run with patience," Auid matter that is active everywhere, have nor" resist unto blood," nor "endure with wrought some parts of the matter into the long-sufferance;" but he can pray, and form and nature of ashes, and have fridged

and played about so, that they have also RICHARD BAXTER, figured those intelligible characters in the born 1615, died 1691, a divine first of the same. But would not anybody deem it a Church of England, and subsequently a piece of weakness, no less than dotage, for nonconformist, was the author of one hun. the other man one whit to recede from bis dred and sixty-eight works, of which The former apprehension, but as fully as ever to Saint's Everlasting Rest and the Call to the agree with what he pronounced first, not- Unconverted are still in high estimation. A withstanding this bare possibility of being collection of his Practical Works was puh. otherwise ? So of anchors that have been digged up, editions appeared, 1838, 4 vols

. imp. 8vo, and

lished, London, 1707, 4 vols. fol., and other either in plain fields or mountainous places, 1847, 4 vols. imp. 8vo, Works, with a Life of as also the Roman urns with ashes and in the Author by Rev. W. Orme, 1830, 23 vols. scriptions, as Severianus Ful. Linus, and the 8vo. After his death was published Reliquiæ like, or Roman coins with the effigies and Baxterianæ: A Narrative of his Life and names of the Cæsars on them, or that which Times, published by Matthew Sylvester, is more ordinary, the skulls of men in every 1696, fol. churchyard, with the right figure, and all those necessary perforations for the passing

Boswell tells: “I asked [Dr. Johnson) what of the vessels, besides those conspicuous works of Richard Baxter's I should read. He hollows for the eyes and rows of teeth, the said, Read any of them : they are all good.""

Another of Johnson's friends tells us that the docos stylocides, ethocides, and what not. If a tor" thought Baxter's Reasons of the Christian man will say of them that the motions of Religion contained the best collection of the evi. the particles of the matter, or some hidden dences of the divinity of the Christian system.” spermatic power, has gendered these, both " Baxter wrote as in the view of eternity; but anchors, urns, coins, and skulls, in the generally judicious, nervous, spiritual, and evanground, he doth but pronounce that which gelical, though often charged with the contrary. human reason must admit is possible. Nor He discovers a manly eloquence and the most evican any man ever so demonstrate that those which he may not improperly be called the English coins, anchors, and urns were once the arti- Demosthenes." — Doppridge: Lects. on Preaching. fice of men, or that this or that skull was “Pray read with great attention Baxter's life once a part of a living man, that he shall of himself; it is an inestimable work. There is force an acknowledgment that it is impossi

no substitute for it in a course of study for a cler. ble that it should be otherwise. But yet I gyman, or public man: I could almost as soon do not think that any man, without doing Coleridge.

doubt the Gospel verity as Baxter's veracity." manifest violence to his faculties, can at all suspend his assent, but freely and fully

Of Baxter's Life, thus praised, we give two agree that this or that skull was once a part specimens. of a living man, and that these anchors,

CONTROVERSY. urns, and coins were certainly once made by And this token of my weakness so accomhuman artifice, notwithstanding the possi- panied those my younger studies that I was bility of being otherwise. And what I have very apt to start up controversies in the way said of assent is also true in dissent; for the of my practical writings, and also more demind of man, not crazed nor prejudiced, will sirous to acquaint the world with all that I fully and irreconcilahly disagree, by its own took to be the truth, and to assault those natural sagacity, where, notwithstanding, books by name which I thought did tend to the thing that it doth thus resolvedly and deceive them, and did contain unsound and undoubtedly reject, no wit of man can prove dangerous doctrine; and the reason of all impossible to be true. As if we should this was, that I was then in the vigour of make such a fiction as this,—that Archi- my youthful apprehensions, and the new medes, with the same individual body that appearance of any sacred truth, it was more he had when the soldiers slew him, is now apt to affect me, and be more highly valued, safely intent upon his geometrical figures than afterwards, when commonness had under ground, at the centre of the earth, far dulled my delight; and I did not sufficiently from the noise and din of this world that discern then how much in most of our conmight disturb his meditations, or distract | troversies is verbal, and upon mutual mishim in his curious delineations he makes takes. And withal, I knew not how imwith his rod upon the dust; which no man patient divines were of being contradicted, living can prove impossible. Yet if any nor how it would stir up all their powers to man does not as irreconcilably dissent from defend what they have once said, and to rise such a fable as this, as from any falsehood up against the truth which is thus thrust imaginable, assuredly that man is next door upon them, as the mortal enemy of their to madness or dotage, or does enormous vio- honour; and I knew not how hardly men's lence to the free use of his faculties.

minds are changed from their former appre

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