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took an active part in the politics of their the heart where patriotism erects her fatimes, but who are held up with honour to | vourite shrine, and from the hand which is posterity for doing so. Our Saviour bim- seldom withdrawn when the soldier solicits. self, while on earth, performed that most The ladies of Philadelphia immortalized stupendous miracle, the raising of Lazarus themselves by commencing the generous from the dead, at the petition of a woman! work, and it was a work too grateful to the To go from sacred history to profane, does American fair not to be followed up with the gentleman there find it discreditable' zeal and alacrity." for women to take any interest or any part Mr. Adams then read a long quotation in political affairs? In the history of Greece, from Dr. Ramsay's Iristory of South Caro let him rend and examine the character of lina, " which speaks," said he, " trumpetAspasia, in a country in which the character tongued, of the daring and intrepid spirit. and conduct of women were more restricted of patriotism burning in the bosoms of the than in any modern nation, save among ladies of that State." After reading an esthe Turks. Has he forgotten that Spartan tract from this History, Mr. Adams thus inother, who said to her son, when going out comments upon it: “. Politics,' sir ! 'rushto battle, “My son, come back to me with thy ing into the vortex of politics !'-glorying in shield, or upon thy shield ?' Does he not being called rebel ladies ; refusing to attend remember Clælia and her hundred compan- balls and entertainments, but crowding to ions, who swam across the river, under a the prison-ships! Mark this, and remember shower of darts, escaping from Porsenna? it was done with no small danger to their Ilas he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of own persons, and to the safety of their famithe Gracchi, who declared that her children lies. But it manifested the spirit by which were her jewels? And why? Because they they were animated; and, sir, is that spirit were the champions of freedom. Does he to be charged here, in this ball where we not remember Portia, the wife of Brutus are sitting, as being discreditable to our and daughter of Cato, and in what terms country's name? Shall it be said that such she is represented in the history of Rome? conduct was a national reproach, because it Hlas he not read of Arria, who, under im was the conduct of women who left 'their perial despotism, when her husband was domestic concerns, and rushed into the vorcondemned to die by a tyrant, plunged the tex of politics ! Sir, these women did more ; sword into her own bosom, and handing it they petitioned, -yes, they petitioned, and to her husband, said, "Take it, Pætus, it that in a matter of politics. It was for the does not hurt,' and expired ?

life of Hayne." “To come to a later period, -what says the history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? To say nothing of Boadicea, the British heroine in the time of the Cæsars, what name is more illustrious than that of Eliza

NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE, beth? Or, if he will go to the Continent, born at Ajaccio, Corsica, August 15, 1769, will he not find the names of Maria Theresa Commander-in-Chief of the French Army in of Hungary, the two Catherines of Russia, Italy, 1796, First_Consul of France, 1799, and of Isabella of Castile, the patroness of Emperor of the French, 1804, defeated at Columbus, the discoverer in substance of the Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815, pristhis hemisphere, for without her aid that

oner at St. Helena, October 15, 1815, until discovery would not have been made? Did his death, May 5, 1821. she bring discredit on her sex by mingling in politics? To come nearer home, --what NAPOLEON'S ARGUMENT FOR THE DIVINITY were the women of the United States in the

of Christ, AND TIIE SCRIPTURES, IY A struggle of the Revolution? Or what would

Conversation wity General BERTRAND, the men have been but for the influence of

AT St. IIELENA. the women of that day? Were they devoted exclusively to the duties and enjoyments of True, Christ offers to our faith a series of the fireside? Take, for example, the ladies mysteries. le commands us authoritatively of Philadelphia."

to believe, and gives no other reason than Mr. Adams here read a long extract from his awful word I am God. True, this is an Judge Johnson's Life of General Greene, article of mere faith, and upon it depend all relating that during the Revolutionary War the other articles of the Christian system; a call came from General Washington stat- but the doctrine of the divinity of Christ ing that the troops were destitute of shirts, once admitted, Christianity appears with the and of many indispensable articles of cloth- precision and clearness of algebra ; it has ing. “And from whence," writes Judge the connectedness and unity of a science. Johnson, " did relief arrive, at last? From This doctrine resting upon the Bible, best NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE.

291

explains the traditions prevalent in the uals, their purity of conscience, their union world. It throws light upon them; and to the truth, their holiness of soul. all the other doctrines of Christianity are My last argument is, There is not a God strictly connected with it, as links of the in heaven, if a mere man was able to consame chain. The nature of Christ's exist-ceive and execute successfully the gigantic ence is mysterious, I admit; but this mys- design of making himself the object of sutery meets the wants of man : reject it, and preme worship, by usurping the name of the world is an inexplicable riddle,-believe God. Jesus alone dared to do this: he it, and the history of our race is satisfac- alone said clearly and unfalteringly of himtorily explained.

self, I am God; which is quite different Christianity has one advantage over all from saying, I am a god, or there are gods. systems of philosophy and all religions : History mentions no other individual who Christians do not delude themselves in re- has appropriated to himself the title of God gard to the nature of things. You can- in the absolute sense. Ileathen mythology not reproach them with the subtleties and now here pretends that Jupiter and the other artifices of those idealists who think to gods themselves assumed divinity. It would solve profound theological problems by their have been on their part the height of pride empty dissertations. Fools! their efforts are and absurdity. They were deified by their those of the infant who tries to touch the posterity, the heirs of the first despots. As sky with his hand, or cries to have the moon all men are of one race, Alexander could for his plaything. Christianity says simply, call himself the son of Jupiter ; but Greece "No man hath seen God but God. God re- laughed at the silly assumption ; and in veals what he is: his revelation is a mys- making gods of their emperors, the Romans tery which neither imagination nor reason were not serious. Mahomet and Confucius can conceive. But when God speaks, man merely gave out that they were agents of must believe." This is sound common sense. the Deity. Numa's goddess Egeria was only

The Gospel possesses a secret virtue of the personification of his reflections in the indescribable efficacy, a warmth which in- solitude of the woods. The Brahmas of fluences the understanding and softens the India are only deifications of mental attriheart; in meditating upon it, you feel as butes. you do in contemplating the heavens. The Ilow then should a Jew, the particulars Gospel is more than a book; it is a living of whose history are better attested than thing, active, powerful, orercoming every that of any of his contemporaries,-how obstacle in its way. See upon this table should he alone, the son of a carpenter, this book of books, -and here the emperor give out all at once that he was God, the touched it reverently, I never cease reading Creator of all things ? lle arrogates to himit, and always with new delight.

self the highest adoration. He constructs Christ never hesitates, never varies in his his worship with his own hands, not with instructions, and the least of his assertions stones but with men. You are amazed at is stamped with a simplicity and a depth the conquests of Alexander. But here is which captivate the ignorant and the learned, a conqueror who appropriates to his own if they give it their attention.

advantage, who incorporates with himself, Nowhere is to be found such a series of not a nation, but the human race. Wonderbeautiful thoughts, fine moral maxims, fol- full the human soul with all its faculties belowing one another like ranks of a celestial comes blended with the existence of Christ. army, and producing in the soul the same And how? by a prodigy surpassing all other emotion as is felt in contemplating the in- prodigies he seeks the love of men, the most finite extent of the resplendent heavens on a difficult thing in the world to obtain : he fine summer night.

seeks what a wise man would fain have Not only is our mind absorbed; it is con- from a few friends, a father from his chiltrolled, and the soul can never go astray dren, a wife from her husband, a brother with this book for its guide. Once master from a brother,-in a word, the heart: this of our mind, the Gospel is a faithful friend. he seeks, this he absolutely requires, and he God himself is our Friend, our Father, and gains his object. IIence I infer his divinity. truly our God. A mother has not greater Alexander, "Cæsar, llannibal, Louis XIV., care for the infant on her breast. The soul, with all their genius, failed here. They captivated by the beauty of the Gospel, is conquered the world and had not a friend. I no longer its own. God occupies it alto- am perhaps the only person of my day who gether; he directs its thoughts and all its loves Hannibal, Cæsar, Alexander. Louis faculties : it is his.

XIV., who shed so much lustre upon France What a proof it is of the divinity of Christ, and the world, had not a friend in all his that with so absolute an empire, his single kingdom, not even in his own family. True, aim is the spiritual melioration of individ- we love our children, but it is from instinct,

means.

from a necessity which the beasts them- nor have I the secret of perpetuating my selves obey: and how many children mani- name and love for me in the hearts of men, fest no proper sense of our kindness and the and to effect these things without physical cares we bestow on them,-how many ungrateful children! Do your children, Gen- Now that I am at St. IIelena,—now that I eral Bertrand, love you? You love them, am alone chained to this rock,—who fights but you are not sure of being requited. and wins empires for me? Where are any Neither natural affection nor your kindness to share my misfortunes, -any to think of will ever inspire in them such love as Chris-me? Who bestirs himself for me in Europe? tians have for God. When you die your Who remains faithful to me: where are my children will remember you, - doubtless friends? Yes, two or three of you, who are while spending your money; but your grand- immortalized by this fidelity, ye share, ye children will hardly know that you ever | alleriate my exile. existed. And yet you are General Bertrand ! Ilere the emperor's voice choked with grief. And we are here upon an island, where all Yes, my life once shone with all the brilyour cares and all your enjoyments are liance of the diadem and the throue, and centred in your family.

yours, Bertrand, reflected that brilliance, as Christ speaks, and at once generations the dome of the "Invalides,” gilt by me, rebecome his by stricter, closer ties than those flects the rays of the sun. But disasters of blood; by the most sacred, most indis- came, the gold gradually became dim, and soluble of all unions. He lights up the now all the brightness is effaced by the rain flame of a love which consumes sell-love, of misfortune and outrage with which I am which prevails over every other love. continually pelted. We are mere lead now,

In this wonderful power of his will we General Bertrand, and soon I shall be in recognize the Word that created the world.

my grave. The founders of other religions never con- Such is the fate of great men. So it was ceived of this mystical love, which is the with Cæsar, and Alexander, and I too am essence of Christianity, and is beautifully forgotten ; and the name of a conqueror called charity.

and an emperor is a college theme! our exllence it is that they have struck upon a ploits are tasks given to pupils by their rock. In every attempt to effect this thing, tutor, who sits in judgment upon us, awardnamely, to make himself beloved, man deeply ing us censure or praise. feels his own impotence.

How different the opinions formed of the So that Christ's greatest miracle undoubt- great Louis XIV.! Scarcely dead, the great edly is the reign of charity.

king was left alone in his solitary chamber IIe alone succeeded in lifting the heart at Versailles,-neglected by his courtiers, of man to things invisible, and in inducing and perhaps the object of their ridicule. him to sacrifice temporal things : he alone, Ile was no more their master. He was a by influencing him to this sacrifice, has dead body, in his coffin, the prey of a loathformed a bond of union between heaven some putrefaction. and earth. All who sincerely believe in And mark what is soon to become of me, him taste this wonderful, supernatural ex- assassinated by the English oligarchy, I die alted love, which is beyond the power of before my time, and my dead body too must reason, above the ability of man; a sacred return to the earth to become food for worms. fire brought down to earth by this new Such is soon to be the fate of the Great Prometheus, and of which Time, the great Napoleon! What a wide abyss between my destroyer, can neither exhaust the force nor deep misery, and the eternal kingdom of limit the duration. The more I, Napoleon, Christ, which is proclaimed, loved, adored, think of this, I admire it the more. And it and which is extending over all the earth! convinces me absolutely of the divinity of Is this death? Is it not life rather? The Christ.

death of Christ is the death of a God. I have inspired multitudes with such af- The emperor paused, and as General Berfection for me that they would die for me. trand did not answer, the emperor resumed: God forbid that I should compare the sol- You do not perceive that Jesus Christ is dier's enthusiasm with Christian charity, God? then I did wrong to appoint you general! which are as unlike as their cause. But after all, my presence was necessary,

The above is translated from a French the lightning of my eye, my voice, a word tract, printed in Paris, with the title “ Nafrom me: then the sacred fire was kindled poleon." The narratire is confirmed by a in their hearts. I do indeed possess the letter from the Rev. Dr. G. De Felice, Prosecret of this magical power which lists the fessor in the Theological Seminary at Monsoul, but I could never impart it to any one: tauban, France, in a communication inserted none of my generals ever learnt it from me; I in the New York Observer of April 16, 1842.

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Professor De Felice states that the Rev.

JUNIUS. Dr. Bogue sent Napoleon at St. Helena a The Letters of Junius were originally copy of his “ Essay on the Divine Authority published in The Public Advertiser of Lonof the New Testament,''

, which eye-witnesses don, by llenry Sampson Woodfall, the first attest that he read with interest and satis-letter bearing date January 21, 1769, and faction. He also states that similar wit- the last January 21, 1772. They are adnesses attest that he read much in the Bible, dressed to the Printer of The Public Adand spoke of it with profound respect; and vertiser, Sir William Draper, the Duke of further, that there was a religious revival Grafton, the Duke of Bedford, Lord North, among the inhabitants of St. Ilelena, which Lord Mansfield, the King of England, Rev. extended to the soldiers, who prayed much Mr. Horne, and others. Who Junius was is for the conversion and salvation of the noble

as yet (July 8, 1878) unknown: we have reprisoner. Professor De Felice closes his viewed the controversy at length in another communication by translating from a recent place (Allibone's Critical Dictionary, vol. i. French journal the following conversation pp. 1001-1005), to which we refer the inrelated by Count de Montholon, the faithful quirer, adding to our authorities Notes and friend of the emperor:

Queries and (London) Athenæum, 1849, et I know men, said Napoleon, and I tell

seq.,

Indexes. Is it not possible that Sir you that Jesus is not a man:

Philip Francis was the amanuensis, or one The religion of Christ is a mystery, which of the amanuenses, of Junius,-probably in subsists by its own force, and proceeds from ignorance himself of the author? a mind which is not a human mind. We

“ The classic purity of their language, the exfind in it a marked individuality, which quisite force and perspicuity of their argument, originated a train of words and maxims un- the keen severity of their reproach, the extensive known before. Jesus borrowed nothing from information they evince, their fearless and decisivo our knowledge. He exhibited in himself the tone, and, above all, their stern and steady attachperfect example of his precepts. Jesus is not ment to the purest principles of the Constitution, a philosopher; for his proofs are miracles, and acquired for them, with an almost electric speed, from the first his disciples adored him. In possessed, nor, perhaps, ever will; and, what is

a popularity which no series of letters have since fact, learning and philosophy are of no use of far greater consequence, diffused among the in salvation; and Jesus came into the world body a clearer knowledge of their constitutional to reveal the mysteries of heaven and the rights than they had ever before attained, and laws of the Spirit.

animated them with a more determined spirit to Alexander, Cæsar, Charlemagne, and my- M.D.: Essay on Junius and his Writings.

maintain them in violate."-John Masox Good, self founded empires : but upon what did we rest the creations of our genius? Upon force. John Wade, Lond., 1850, 2 vols, post 8vo

See the Letters of Junius, third edition, by Jesus Christ alone founded his empire upon love; and at this hour millions of inen would (Bohn's Stand. Lib.). In his Supplementary die for him.

Essay Mr. Wade espouses the claims of Sir It was not a day or a battle which achieved Philip Francis; Lords Macaulay, Broughamn, the triumph of the Christian religion in the and Campbell, Sir James Mackintosh, and world. No: it was a long war, a contest for many others were of the same opinion. three centuries, begun by the apostles, then continued by the flood of Christian genera

From Junius's LETTER TO THE King. tions. In this war all the kings and poten- When the complaints of a brave and powertates of earth were on one side: on the ful people are observed to increase in proporother I see no army, but a mysterious force, tion to the wrongs they have suffered ; when, some men scattered here and there in all instead of sinking into submission, they are parts of the world, and who have no other roused to resistance, the time will soon arrive rallying point than a common faith in the at which every inferior consideration must mysteries of the cross.

yield to the security of the sovereign, and 1 die before my time, and my body will to the general safety of the state. There is he given back to the earth to becoine food a moment of difficulty and danger at which for worms. Such is the fate which so soon flattery can no longer deceive, and simplicity awaits him who has been called The Great | itself can no longer be misled. Let us supNapoleon. What an abyss between my pose it arrived. Let us suppose a gracious, deep misery and the eternal kingdom of well-intentioned prince made sensible at last Christ, which is proclaimed, loved, and of the great duty he owes to his people and adored, and which is extending over the of his own disgraceful situation, that he whole earth!

looks round him for assistance, and asks for Call you this dying? Is it not living no advice, but how to gratify the wishes, rather?' The death of Christ is the death and secure the happiness of his subjects. of a God!

In these circumstances, it may be matter of curious speculation to consider, if an honest nance promised even more than his words, man were perunitted to approach a king, in and loyal to you, not only from principle, what terms he would address himself to his but passion. It was not á cold profession sovereign. Let it be imagined, no matter of allegiance to the first magistrate, but a how improbable, that the first prejudice partial, animated attachment to a favourite against his character is removed; that the prince, the native of their country. They ceremonious difficulties of an audience are did not wait to examine your conduct, nor surmounted ; that he feels himself animated to be determined by experience, but gave you by tl:e purest and most honourable affections a generous credit for the future blessings to his king and country; and that the great of your reign, and paid you in advance the person whom he addresses has spirit enough dearest tribute of their affections. Such, to bid him speak freely and understanding sir, was once the disposition of a people who enough to listen to him with attention. Un- now surround your throne with reproaches acquainted with the vain impertinence of and complaints. Do justice to yourself forms, he would deliver his sentiments with Banish from your mind those unworthy dignity and firmness, but not without respect: opinions with which some interested persons

SIR :—It is the misfortune of your life, have laboured to possess you. Distrust the and originally the cause of every reproach men who tell you that the English are and distress which has attended your gov- naturally light and inconstant; that they ernment, that you should never bave been complain without a cause.

Withdraw your acquainted with the language of truth until contidence equally from all parties; from you heard it in the complaints of your people. ministers, favourites, and relations; and let It is not, however, too late to correct the there be one moment in your life when you error of your education. We are still in- have consulted your own understanding. ... clined to make an indulgent allowance for These sentiments, sir, and the style they the pernicious lessons you received in your are conveyed in, may be offensive, perhaps, youth, and to form the most sanguine hopes because they are new to you. Accustomed from the natural benevolence of your dis- to the language of courtiers, you measure position. We are far from thinking you their affections by the vehemence of their capable of a direct, deliberate purpose to expressions; and when they only praise you invade those original rights of your subjects indirectly, you admire their sincerity. But on which all their civil and political liber- this is not a time to trifle with your fortune. ties depend. IIad it been possible for us They deceive you, sir, who tell you that to entertain a suspicion so dishonourable to you have many friends whose affections are your character, we should long since have founded upon a principle of personal attachadopted a style of remonstrance very distantment. The first foundation of friendship is froin the humility of complaint. The doc- not the power of conferring benefits, but the trine inculcated by our laws, " that the king equality with which they are received, and can do no wrong, is adınitted without re- may be returned. The fortune which made luctance. We separate the ainiable, good- you a king forbade you to bave a friend: it natured prince irom the folly and treachery is a law of nature, wbich cannot be violated of his servants, and the private virtues of with impunity. The mistaken prince who the man from the vices of the government. looks for friendship will find a favourite, Were it not for this just distinction, I know and in that favourite the ruin of his affairs. not whether your majesty's condition, or The people of England are loyal to the that of the English nation, would deserve house of Ilanover, not from a vain presermost to be lamented. I would prepare your ence of one family to another, but from a mind for a favourable reception of a truth, conviction that the establishment of that by removing every painful offensive idea of family was necessary to the support of their personal reproach. Your subjects, sir, wish civil and religious liberties. This, sir, is a for nothing, but that, as they are reasonable principle of allegiance equally solid and raand affectionate enough to separate your per- tional; fit for Englishmen to adopt and well son from your government, so you, in your worthy of your majesty's encouragement. turn, should distinguish between the conduct We cannot long be deluded by nominal diswhich becomes the permanent dignity of a tinctions. The name of Stuart of itself is king and that which serves only to promote only contemptible: armed with the sovereign the temporary interest and miserable ambi- authority, their principles are formidable. tion of a minister.

The prince who imitates their conduct should You ascended the throne with a declared be warned by their example; and while he (and, I doubt not, a sincere) resolution of plumes himself upon the security of his title giving universal satisfaction to your sub- to the crown, should remember that as it jects. You found them pleased with the was acquired by one revolution, it may be novelty of a young prince, whose counte- lost by another.

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