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GEORGE BERKELEY, D.D., het dak* 1144 unit www.tae,

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tor wieluut relishing the one, a to carry out bis *** from converting the the mass wwel davet puuud any laste for the farave Amerieans to brintianity by a col.

lege to be erored in the Summer Íslands, 1 slik a metaphor, borrowed from the otherwise called the Isles of Bermudas" mala by which we approve or dirlike what (Berkeley), and at Newport, Rhode Island, s and we donk from the agreeableness or awaited for a long time in rain the receipt 4), *syikantsleder of the relixh in our mouth. of a parliamentary grant to enable him to bwinia dots us in the common use, and complete his project; in 1732 published hyeny dorty

sun tall sweet from bitter, what Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher, in ** wharp, or sour, or vapid, or nauseous ; seren Dialogues, containing an Apolony for but it sequires senses more refined and ex- the Christian Religion against Free-ThinkHIDA HA dover every taste that is more ers, Lond., 2 vols. $v0; in 1734 was made piteet in its kind, every palate is not to Bishop of Cloyne, and refused to exchange jwye of that, and yet 'drinking is more his see for that of Clogher, of double its Well than jening. All that I pretend to value ; in 1747 published Siris, a Chain of wow of the matter is, that wine should be, Philosophical Reflections and Inquiries redobu # blyle, clear, deep, bright, and strong, specting the Virtues of Tar Water in the imara and pure, sound and dry (as our Plague, Lond., 8vo, and in 1752 Farther wiyentimemento do well express it), which Thoughts on Tar Water, Lond., 8vo, and luat la #onmmendable term, that contains died in the next year. In 1776 was pubthe juice of the richest spirits, and only lished An Account of his Life, with Notes, Hosp out all oold and dumpness.

containing Strictures upon his Works, Evo : liis common to commend a man for an in 1784 his Whole Works, with an Account Par to misto, and a taste for printiny; l of his Life, and several of bis Letters to Whatol are nothing but a just discernment Thomas Prior, Esq., Dean Gervais, and Mr.

wwe in eroollent and most perfect in Pope, etc., by T. Prior, Esq., 2 vols. 4to, them The first depends entirely on the appeared. There have been two recent ediwoman can never expect to be a master tions of his Works, one in 3 vols. 8vo, and that has the an ear tuned and set to musie: another by Rev. G. N. Wright, in 2 vols ww.you no more sing an ole without Sro, 1843. Mr. W. gives a translation of u marthan without a genius rezu can write the Latin Essays (Arithmetica, Miscellanea e Paintings, we should think, requires Ma:hematira, and De Motu)and Notes on the

e munterstanding in the art, ani eraet Introduction to lluman Knowledge. Among Autosles of the least masters' warner, to his works is The Querist : containing sereral ho # ja otit; but this fuitr, ise tae Queries proposed to the Consideration of the GEORGE BERKELEY.

151

Public, 1735. He was also the author of short of man's understanding? Shall every fourteen of The Guardians.

other passion be rightly placed by nature, “Possessing a mind which, however inferior to and shall that appetite of immortality natthat of Locke in depth of reflection and in sound- ural to all mankind be alone misplaced, or ness of judgment, was fully its equal in logical designed to be frustrated ? Shall the 'inacuteness and invention, and in learning, fancy, dustrious application of the inferior animal and taste far its superior, Berkeley was siugularly powers in the meanest vocations be answered fitted to promote that reunion of Philosophy and by the ends we proposed, and shall not the of the Fine Arts which is so essential to the pros; generous efforts of a virtuous mind be remoral endowments, admired and blazoned as they warded ? In a word, Shall the corporeal were by the most distinguished wits of his age, it world be order and harmony: the intellec:is not surprising that Berkeley should have given tual, discord and confusion ? Ile who is a popularity and fashion to metaphysical pursuits bigot enough to believe these things must which they had never before acquired in England.” | bid adieu to that natural rule, “ of reasoning -DUGALD STEWART: 1st Prelim. Dissert, to Encyc. from analogy ;' must run counter to that Brit.

maxim of cominon sense, " that men ought “ Ancient learning, exact science, polished society, modern literature, and the fine arts contrib- to form their judgments of things unexperiuted to adorn and enrich the inind of this accom. enced from what they have experienced.” plished man. All his contemporaries agreed with If anything looks like a recompense of the satirist [Pope) in ascribing

calamitous virtue on this side the grave, it • To Berkeley every virtue under heaven.'

is either en assurance that thereby we ob

tain the favour and protection of heaven. Adverse factions and hostile wits concurred only and shall, whatever befalls us in this, in in loving, admiring, and contributing to advance another life meet with a just return, or him. The severe sense of Swift endured his vis- else that applause and reputation which is ions; the modest Addison endeavoured to reconcile thought to attend virtuous actions. The Clarke to his ambitious speculations. His charac- former of these our free-thinkers, out of their ter converted the satire of Pope into fervid praise. Even the discerning, fastidious, and turbulent singular wisdom and benevolence to manAtterbury said, after an interview with hin, 'So kind, endeavour to erase from the minds of much understanding, so much knowledge, so much men. The latter can never be justly disinnocence, and such humility, I did not think had tributed in this life, where so many ill been the portion of any but angels, till I saw this actions are reputable, and so many good gentleman.' ... Of the exquisite grace and beauty actions disesteeined or misinterpreted; where of his diction, no man accustomed to English com subtle hypocrisy is placed in the most enposition can need to be informed. His works are, beyond dispute, the finest models of philosophical gaging light, and modest virtue lies constyle since Cicero. Perhaps they surpass those of cealed; where the heart and the soul aro the orator, in the wonderful art by which the fullest hid from the eyes of men, and the eyes of light is thrown on the most remote and evanescent men are dimmed and vitiated. ... Let us parts of the most subtile of human conceptions suppose a person blind and deaf from his simplicity.”—SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH : 2d Prelim. birth, who, being grown to men's estate, is Dissert. 1o Encyc. Brit.

by the dead palsy, or some other cause, de

prived of his feeling, tasting, and smelling, GROUNDS TO Expect a FUTURE STATE and at the same time has the impediment PROVED.

of his hearing removed, and the film taken

from his eyes. What the five senses are to Let the most steadfast unbeliever open his us, that the touch, taste, and smell were to eyes, and take a survey of the sensible world, him. And any other ways of perception of and then say if there be not a connexion, and a inore refined and extensive nature were to adjustment, and exact and constant order him as inconceivable, as to us those are discoverable in all the parts of it. Whatever which will one day be adapted to perceive be the cause, the thing itself is evident to all those things which "eye hath not seen, nor our faculties. Look into the animal system, ear heard, neither hath it entered into the the passions, senses, and locomotive powers; heart of man to conceive.” And it would be is not the like contrivance and propriety oh- just as reasonable in him to conclude that the servable in these too? Are they not fitted loss of those three senses could not possibly to certain ends, and are they not by nature he succeeded by any new inlets of percepdirected to proper objects ?

tion, as in a modern free-thinker to imagine Is it possible, then, that the smallest bodies there can be no state of life and perception should, by a management superior to the wit without the senses be enjoys at present. of man, be disposed in the most excellent Let us farther suppose the same person's manner agreeable to their respective natures, eyes, at their first opening, to be struck and yet the spirits or souls of men be neg- with a great variety of the most gay and lected, or managed by such rules as fall pleasing objects, and his ears with a melodi

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and aboard pursuit of trifles: one, that be un totems it that the tranquillity and may be called by a particular appellation; chenfulem with whose by I live pulmad my another. that he inay wear a particular ornaDate, we dhe attest, of haviny, ever since I ment, which I regard as a bit of riband that laias lo yawen of dienstencontinued my ban an agreeable effect on my sight, but is winning with former sort of plena no far from supplying the place of merit

where it is not, that it serves only to make Thyanowe objarta that compose the world the want of it more conspicuous. Faii were bry mulus fun and us delight our knees, weather is the joy of my soul: about noon www it in this alone that makes them de. I behold a blue sky with rapture, and re

able to an uncorrupted taste, a man mny crive great consolation from the rosy dashes Una amin naturally lo que me them when lies of light which adorn the clouds of the mornprodha whose enjoyment which they are ing and evening. When I am lost among to by nature to yold,

green trece, I do not envy a great man with Janu il in usual with me to consider my n grent crowd at his levee. And I often lay bell as having a natural property in every aside thoughts of going to an opera, that I w that wiministers pleiro to me, mny enjoy the silent pleasure of walking by When I am in the country, all the fine nents moonlight, or viewing the stars sparkle in wear the place of my residence, and to which their azure ground; which I look upon as ! invenire, I reunrul as mine. The namo part of my possessions, not without a secret I think of the groves and fields where I indignation at the tastelessness of mortal walk, and more on the folly of tho civil men, who, in their race through life, overlandland in London, who has the funtnation! look the real enjoyment of it. pilomuro of draining dry vont into his cof But the pleasure which naturally affects enjoyment. Hy these principles I am por transporting touches, I take to be the sense Hand of hull imaon of the limont sonts in that we not in the eye of infinite Wisdom, England, which in the eye of the law belong Power, and Goodness, that will crown our to oortuin of my woquaintanco, who being virtuous endenvours here, with a bappiness en of businoan choose to live near the hereafter, large us our desires, and lasting

as our immortal souls. This is a perpetual When I walk the streets I use the forego spring of gladness in the mind. This lesing natural waxim (via, That he is the true sens our calamities and doubles our joys. ponata **p of a thing who enjoy it, and not 'Without this the highest state of life is inhe chant on it without the enjoyment of sipid, and with it the lowest is a paradise. id), as pontine mimoll that I have a prop The Guardian, No. 49, Thursday, May 7, erly in the any part of all the gilt chariots 1713.

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NEVOLENCE.

Tur ATTRACTIONS of FriendSHIP AND BE- the great spring and source of moral actions.

This it is that inclines each individual to an

intercourse with his species, and models If we consider the whole scope of the every one to that behaviour which best suits creation that lies within our view, the moral with the common well-being. Hence that and intellectual, as well as the natural and sympathy in our nature, whereby we feel corporeal, we shall perceive throughout a the pains and joys of our fellow-creatures. certain correspondence of the parts, a simi- llence that prevalent love in parents towards litude of operation, and unity of design, their children, which is neither founded on which plainly demonstrate the universe to the merit of the object, nor yet on selfbe the work of one infinitely good and wise interest. It is this that makes us inquisitivo Being; and that the system of thinking concerning the affairs of distant nations, beings is actuated by laws derived from the which can have no influence on our own. It same divine power which ordained those by is this that extends our care to future generwhich the corporeal system is upheld. . . ations, and excites us to acts of beneficence Now if we carry our thoughts from the cor- towards those who are not yet in being, and poreal to the moral world, we may observe consequently from whom we can expect no in the spirits or minds of men a like prin- recompense. In a word, hence arises that ciple of attraction, whereby they are drawn diffusive sense of humanity so unaccounttogether in communities, clubs, families, able to the selfish man who is untouched friendships, and all the various species of with it, and is indeed a sort of monster, or society. As in bodies where the quantity anomalous production. is the same the attraction is strongest be- These thoughts do naturally suggest the tween those which are placed nearest to each following particulars : first, that as social other, so it is likewise in the mind of men, inclinations are absolutely necessary to the cæteris paribus, between those which are well-being of the world, it is the duty and most nearly related. ...

interest of each individual to cherish and A man who has no family is more strongly improve them to the benefit of mankind : attracted towards his friends and neighbours; the duty, because it is agreeable to the inand if absent from these, he naturally falls tention of the Author of our being, who aims into an acquaintance with those of his own at the common good of his creatures, and, city or country, who chance to be in the same as an indication of his will, hath implanted place. Two Englishmen meeting at Rome the seeds of mutual benevolence in our or Constantinople soon run into a famili- souls; the interest, because the good of the arity. And in China or Japan, Europeans whole is inseparable from that of the parts : would think their being so a good reason in promoting, therefore, the common good, for their uniting in particular converse. every one doth at the same time promote his Farther, in case we suppose ourselves trans- own private interest. Another observation lated into Jupiter or Saturn, and there to I shall draw from the premises is, that it meet a Chinese or other more distant native makes a signal proof of the divinity of the of our own planet, we should look on him Christian religion that the main duty which as a near relation, and readily commence a it inculcates above all others is Charity. friendship with him. These are natural re- Different maxims and precepts have distinfections, and such as may convince us that guished the different sects of philosophy and we are linked by an imperceptible chain to religion : our Lord's peculiar precept is, every individual of the human race. ... “Love thy neighbour as thysell. By this

The mutual gravitation of bodies cannot shall all inen know that you are my disbe explained any other way than by resolv- ciples, if you love one another." ing it into the immediate operation of God, The Guardian, No. 126, August 5, 1713. who never ceases to dispose and actuate his creatures in a manner suitable to their respective beings. So neither can that reciprocal attraction in the minds of men be EUSTACE BUDGELL, accounted for by any other cause. It is not the result of education, law, or fashion ; but born 1685, best known by his intimacy is a principle originally ingrafted in the very with Addison, his quarrel with Pope, and first formation of the soul by the Author of bis contributions to The Spectator (37 or 38 our nature.

papers, marked X, and a letter), The GuarAnd as the attractive power in bodies is dian (Nos. 25, 31), and The Craftsman, also the inost universal principle which produceth published The Characters of Theophrastus, innumerable effects, and is a key to explain translated from the Greek, Lond., 1713, 8vo the various phenomena of nature, so the cor- (commended by Addison), Memoirs of the responding social appetite in human souls is illustrious Family of the Boyles, 3d edit.,

even whilst we disclaim and abjure the thing periodicals; and see the Prefaces to the various itself.

editions of those works. As for us of the church of England, if we

IvyORTALITY OF THE SOUL. will believe many of its greatest advocates, we have bishops in a succession as certainly To The SPECTATOR. uninterrupted from the apostles as your SIR-I am fully persuaded that one of church could communicate it to us. And the best springs of generous and worthy upon this bottom, which makes us a true actions is the having generous and worthy church, we have a right to separate from thoughts of ourselves. Whoever has a mean you ; but no persons living have a right to opinion of the dignity of his nature will act differ or separate from us. And they again, in no higher a rank than he has allotted who differ from us, value themselves upon himself in his own estimation. If he consomething or other in which we are sup- siders his being as circumscribed by the unposed defective, or upon being free from certain term of a few years, his designs will some superfluities which we enjoy; and be contracted into the same narrow span he think it hard that any will be still going imagines is to bound his existence. How further, and refine upon their scheme of can he exalt his thoughts to any thing great worship and discipline.

and noble who only believes that, after a Thus we have indeed left you ; but we short turn on the stage of this world, he is have fixed ourselves in your seat, and make to sink into oblivion, and to lose his conno scruple to resemble you in our defences sciousness forever? of ourselves and censurers of others when- For this reason I am of opinion that so ever we think it proper.

useful and elevated a contemplation as that From the Dedication to Pope Clement XI. of the soul's immortality cannot be resumed

prefixed to Sir R. Steele's Account of the too often. There is not a more improving State of the Roman Catholic Religion exercise to the human mind than to be frethroughout the World.

quently reviewing its own great privileges and endowments ; nor a

more effectual means to awaken in us an ambition raised

above low objects and little pursuits, than to JOHN HUGHES,

value ourselves as heirs of eternity. born 1677, died 1720, was a contributor to the best and wisest of mankind in all nations

It is a very great satisfaction to consider The Tatler, the Spectator, and the Guardian; and ages asserting as with one voice this co-author with Sir Richard Blackmore of the their birthright, and to find it ratified by Essays, Discourses, &c., of the Lay Monk,

an express revelation. At the same time if (in 40 Numbers, Nov. 16, 1713-Feb. 15, 1714, 2d edit., The Lay Monastery, Lond., selves, we may mert with a kind of secret

we turn our thoughts inwards upon our. 1714, 12.00); author of the Siege of Damas

sense concurring with the proofs of our own cus, 1720, 8vo, and of other productions,

immortality. together with translations. IIis Poems and

You have, in my opinion, raised a good Essays in Prose were published, Lond., 1735, 2 vols. 12mo, and his Correspondence

, presumptive argument from the increasing with Notes, Lond., 1772, 3 vols. 12mo, 2d appetite the mind has to knowledge, and to edit., 1773, 3 vols. 8vo. His poems were

the extending its own faculties, which cannot included in Dr. Johnson's collection, with rection of lower creatures may, in the limits

be accomplished, as the more restrained pera meagre sketch without any estimate of of a short life. I think another probable his merits.

conjecture may be raised from our appetite “He [Hughes) is too grave a poet for me, and,

to duration itself, and from a reflection on I think, among the Mediocrists in prose as well as our progress through the several stages of verse."-SWIFT to Pope.

it. We are complaining,' as you observed " What he wanted in genius he made up as an in a former speculation, “ of the shortness of honest man; but he was of the class you think life, and yet are perpetually hurrying over him."-.POPE TO Swift. “ Hughes has more merit as a translator of

the parts of it, to arrive at certain little setpoetry than as an original poet. ... On the prosetlements or imaginary points of rest, which of Hughes I am inclined to bestow more praise are dispersed up and down in it.” than on his poetry. . . . All the periodical essays Now let us consider what happens to us of Hughes are written in a style which is, in gen- when we arrive at these imaginary points eral, easy, correct, and elegant : they occasionally of rest. Do we stop our motion and sit down exhibit wit and humour; and they uniformly satisfied in the settlement we have gained? tend to inculcate the best precepts, moral, pruden- or are we not removing the boundary, and tial, and religious."-Dr. Drake: Essays Illustrative of the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian, iii. 26- marking out new points of rest, to which we 50, 9. v. for an account of Hughes's share in these press forward with the like eagerness, and

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