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abolition of the Jesuits. He calls himself Ko, and signs himself Ko, Jesuit.
In 1772, there were fourteen Jesuits in Pekin, amongst whom was brother Ko, who still lives in their house. The Emperor Kien-Long has kept these monks of Europe about him in quality of painters, engravers, watch-makers, and mechanics, with an express prohibition from ever disputing on religion, or causing the least trouble in the empire.
The Jesuit Ko has sent manuscripts of his own como position from Pekin to Paris, entitled Memoirs relative to the History, Arts, and Sciences of the Chinese, by the Missionaries at Pekin. This book is printed, and is now selling at Paris by Nyon the bookseller. thor attacks all the philosophers of Europe. He calls a prince of the Tartar race, whom the Jesuits had seduced, and the late Emperor Yong-Chin had banished, an illustrious martyr to Jesus Christ. This Ko boasts of making many neophytes, who are ardent spirits, capable of troubling China even more than the Jesuits formerly troubled Japan. It is said that a Russian nobleman, indignant at this jesuitical insolence, which reaches the farthest corners of the earth, even after the 'extinction of the order, has resolved to find some means of sending to the President of the Tribunal of Rites at Pekin, an extract in Chinese from these Memoirs, which may serye to make the aforesaid Ko, and the Jesuits who labour with him, better known.
Angels of the Indians, Persians, &c. The author of the article ANGEL in the Encyclopèdia, says that all religions have admitted the existence of angels, although it is not demonstrated by natural reason, We have no reason but natural reason.
What is su. pernatural is above reason. If I mistake not, it should have been, several religions (and not all) have acknow
ledged the existence of angels, . That of Numa, that of Sabaism, that of the Druids, that of China, that of the Scythians, and that of the Phænicians and ancient Egyptians, did not admit their existence.
We understand by this word, ministers of God, de. puties, beings of a middle order between God and man, sent to make known to us his orders.
At the present time, in 1772, the Brahmins boast of having possessed in writing, for just four thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight years, their first sacred law, entitled the Shastah, fifteen hundred years before their second law, called Veidam, signifying the word of God. The Shastah contains five chapters: the first, of God and his attributes; the second, of the creation of the angels; the third, of the fall of the angels; the fourth, of their punishment; the fifth, of their pardon and the creation of man.
It is good, in the first place, to observe the manner in which this book speaks of God.
First Chapter of the Shastah, .
God is one: he has created all: it is a perfect sphere, without beginning or end. God conducts the whole creation by a general providence, resulting from a determined principle. Thou shalt not seek to discover the nature and essence of the Eternal, nor by what laws he governs : such an undertaking would be vain and criminal. It is enough for thee to contemplate day and night, in his works, his wisdom, his power, and his goodness.
After paying to this opening of the Shastah the tribute of admiration which is due to it, let us pass to the creation of the angels.
Second Chapter of the Shastah. 1.
The Eternal, absorbed in the contemplation of his own existence, resolved, in the fulness of time, to communicate his glory and his essence to beings capable of feeling and partaking his beatitude as well
as of contributing to his glory. The Eternal willed it, and they
were. He formed them partly of his own essence, ca pable of perfection or imperfection, according to their will,
The Eternal first created Brahma, Vishna, and Siva, then Mozazor, and all the multitude of the angels. The Eternal gave the pre-eminence to Brahma, Vishna, and Siva. Brahma was the prince of the angelic army: Vishna and Siva were his coadjutors. The Eternal divided the angelic army into several bands, and gave to each a chief. They adored the Eternal, ranged around his throne, each in the degree assigned him. There was harmony in heaven. Mozazor, chief of the first band, led the canticle of praise and adoration to the Creator, and the song of obedience to Brahma, his first creature; and the Eternal rejoiced in his new creation.
Chapter III.-The Fall of a part of the Angels. From the creation of the celestial army, joy and harmony surrounded the throne of the Eternal for a thou.
years multiplied by a thousand; and would have lasted until the end of time, had not envy seized Mozazor and other princes of the angelic bands, amongst whom was Raabon, the next in dignity to Mozazor. Forgetful of the blessing of their creation, and of their duty, they rejected the power of perfection and exercia sed the power of imperfection. They did evil in the sight of the Eternal; they disobeyed him; they refused to submit to God's lieutenant and his coadjutors Vishna and Siva, saying, We will govern! and, without fearing the power and the anger of their Creator, disseminated their seditious principles in the celestial army. They seduced the angels, and persuaded a great multitude of them to rebel; and they forsook the throne of the Eternal; and sorrow came upon the faithful'angelić spirits; and, for the first time, grief was known in heaven.
Chapter IV.—Punishment of the Guilty Angels. * The Eternal, whose omniscience, prescience, and influence extend over all things, except the action of the
beings whom he has created free, beheld with grief and anger the defection of Mozazor, Raabou, and the other chiefs of the angels.
Merciful in his wrath, he sent Brahma, Vishna, and Siva, to reproach them with their crime, and bring them back to their duty; but, confirmed in their spirit of independence, they persisted in their revolt. - The Eternal then commanded Siva to march against them, armed with almighty power, and hurl them down from the high place to the place of darkness, into the Ondera, there to be punished for a thousand years multiplied by a thousand.
Abstract of the Fifth Chapter. At the end of a thousand years, Brahma, Vishna, and Siva, implored the clemency of the Eternal in favour of the delinquents. The Eternal vouchsafed to deliver them from the prison of the Ondera, and place them in a state of probation during a great number of solar revolutions, There were other rebellions against God, during this time of penitence.
It was at one of these periods that God created the earth ; where the penitent angels underwent several metempsychoses, one of the last of which was their transformation into cows. Hence it was that cows became sacred in India. Lastly, they were metamorphosed into men. So that the Indian system of angels is precisely that of the Jesuit Bougeant, who asserts, that the bodies of beasts are inhabited by sinful angels. What the Brahmins had invented seriously, Bougeant, more than four thousand years after, imagined in jest—if
, indeed, this pleasantry of his was not a remnant of superstition, combined with the spirit of system-making, as is often the case.
Such is the history of the angels among the ancient Brahmins, which, after the lapse of about fifty centuries, they still continue to teach. Neither our merchants who have traded to India, nor our missionaries, have ever been informed of it; for the Brahmins, having never been edified by their science or their manners, have not communicated to them their secrets. It was left for an Engli shman, na med Holwell, to reside for thirty years at Benares, on the Ganges, an ancient school of the Brahmins, to learn the ancient sacred Sanscrit tongue, and read the ancient books of the Indian religion, in order at length to enrich our Europe with this singular knowledge; just as Mr. Sale lived long time in Arabia, to give us a faithful translation of the Koran, and information relative to ancient Sabaism, which has been succeeded by the Mussulman religion; and as Dr. Hyde continued for twenty years his researches into every thing concerning the religion of the Magi.
Angels of the Persians. The Persians had thirty-one angels. The first of all, who is served by four other angels, is named Bahaman;
he has the inspection of all animals except man, over whom God has reserved to himself an immediate jurisdiction.
God presides over the day on which the sun enters the Ram; and this day is a sabbath, which proves that the feast of the sabbath was observed among the Persians in the most ancient times.
The second angel presides over the seventh day, and is called Debadur.
The third is Kur, which probably was afterwards converted into Cyrus. He is the angel of the sun.
The fourth is called Mah, and presides over the moon. Thus each rel has his province. It was among the Persians that the doctrine of the guardian angel and the evil angel was first adopted. It is believed that Raphael was the guardian angel of the Persian empire.
Angels of the Hebrews. The Hebrews knew nothing of the fall of the angels, until the commencement of the Christian era. This seeret doctrine of the ancient. Brahmins must have reached them at that time; for it was then that the book attributed to Enoch, relative to the sinful angels driven from heaven, was fabricated.
Enoch must have been a very ancient writer; since,