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the side of some murmuring stream, where So, almost within sound of one of his the waters, flowing with a gentle sound, shall most favorite rivers, lies the body of the be the sweet and fitting accompaniment old high-priest of anglers. Peace to his to the voice of one who being dead yet ashes! It is by no means improbable that speaketh. It is the sweetest commentary the spot was selected by himself. Oftenon the scenery of river-ways that was ever times he would lay aside his rod and tackle sung or said. It is enough to persuade to cogitate and muse on the things that any one to turn piscator, and to realize its never fade.
Doubtless he must have contents in his own person. But let not wandered, amid the pausings of his art, the gentle reader forget that he has been through the cloisters and aisles of the roaming by the side of the Ichen; and, beautiful cathedral ; and, after reviewing having accomplished so agreeable a stroll, the delicate tracery and fretwork all round let him direct his steps to the antique Min- him, he may have entered Prior Silkstede's ster. There he may pause to admire the chapel, and letting his staff fall gently effect of the beautiful columns, and lose down, may have exclaimed, “Here let me himself in a transport of delight, as the lie!" organ's solemn peal is heard vibrating There are several portraits of him ; one through arch and transept. The choir, in the possession of the Earl of Cowper too, is particularly good; and he may bears a striking resemblance to the plate listen with ever-renewed pleasure to the which is appended to the first edition of voices so happily blended. But it is my his work on angling; it represents him to wish that he bend his steps to a chapel be precisely the figure and face one would formed in the eastern aisle of the south have expected to see. Generosity, benertransept by screens of stone tracery work. olence, charity with all men, beam in every It is called Silkstede's Chapel. He was a trait. The spectator might gaze upon it prior from 1498 to 1524. On the cornice till he could fancy the lips were utteror crest of the stone screen his Christian ingname, Thomas, is so carved that the mono
"Come away! gram M. A. is distinguished from the other
Turn, countrymen, with me!" letters. The Virgin Mary having been his patroness, it was in this manner he testified or speaking in goodly commendation of to the fact. A skain of silk, the rebus of the beauties of the outer world.-praising his surname, also appears.
the earth, the water, the skies, and in all Upon entering the chapel the eye will things else manifesting his poet-love for be soon arrested by a blue stone. Here- the sweet realities of life. To the voluptuunder lies all that is mortal of Isaac Wal- ary, the man sated with the unrealities of a ton. Reader! it is worth more than a career of mingled dissipation and folly, passing glance, so let us pause and read let me advise a stroll by some river's side, the inscription. Before doing so, we may and there, with Isaac Walton's pages in his see for a fleeting moment, in our mind's hand, he may taste new life,-ay, and ineye, the good old angler in his habit as he hale a vigor foreign to his wearied senses. lived; we may hear the utterance of one He will learn there, how full of fair and of his sweet homilies on nature, and then, soft compensations Nature is; how, to bending reverently forward, trace these him who seeks it with a trustful faith lines :
and a reverent love, she holds forth a draught of the purest nectar,-one which
never palls upon the taste; a draught Me, ISAAC WALTON,
every way superior to the Circean cup of Who died on the 15th of December, 1683. mad enjoyment which clings to the senAlas! he's gone before;
sualist, at the renewal of each intoxication, Gone, to return no more.
with disgust and loathsome tenacity. To Our panting breasts aspire After their aged sire,
the poet the book is a study, full of sweet Whose well-spent life did last conceits and quaint and pleasant prettiFull many years and past;
To the angler it is a manual, But now he hath begun
without which his piscatorial equipments That which will ne'er be done:
would be incomplete. Crown'd with eternal bliss, We wish our souls with his.
Surely the grave of such a man is worthy VOTIS MODESTIS SIC FLERUNT LIBERI." of a visit, if only to renew and refresh our
HERE PESTETH THE BODY OP
memories with a feeling of reverence for writers, less indefinite as to the locality, his excellence and worth. So may we place them in the interior of Africa, on pass from out the magnificent minster, toward Ethiopia, near the sources of the and the chapel of the old prior, into the Nile; whither the cranes came from the sunny air, and take our path again by the north to contend with them for the prodIchen banks; where we shall feel that the ucts of the earth. Strabo, with an affecspirit of the old poet-angler hovers all tation of accuracy, divides pigmies into around us ; and we shall be led, like him, two classes ; of which one contained those to praise and thanksgiving for all earth's which were three spans high, and the fairest blessings. Not unaptly may we other those which were five spans high. exclaim in the words of Sir Walter “ It was,” he gravely states, “the former Raleigh
who fought with the cranes." Ctesias “Blest silent groves ! O, may ye be
describes a similar race of dwarfs as exForever mirth's best nursery !
isting in India. Other authors speak of May pure contents
the northern pigmies, who dwelt near the Forever pitch their tents
legendary Thulé; as well as a race of pigUpon these rocks, these downs, these meads,
mies in Caria, in Asia Minor. Ovid, and these mountains, And peace still slumber by these purling fount- other ancient poets, found the pigmies ains,
suitable employment, or turned them to Which we may every year.
account as playthings for their wit. A faFind when we come a-fishing here.
vorite amusement with them was to con
trast their petty proportion with the huge DWARFS, ANCIENT AND MODERN. and brawny dimensions of Hercules.
When a better acquaintance with the THAT subject is there over which earth and its inhabitants had caused these
brooding and prolific fancy has not fables to fall into disrepute, or consigned thrown its colors ? Its ideal creations are them to the domain of mythology, grave of all kinds. Now it magnifies, and now history began to speak of dwarfs, without, it dwarfs the ordinary proportions of things. however, discriminating between the fabuAlways exaggerating realities, it makes lous and the true. According to the defithem either very small, or very large ; nition of Aulus Gellius, dwarfs were huvery bright, or very dark. And extending man beings of a short and low stature, its transmuting wand over human beings standing but little above the soil. In this as well as over inanimate subjects, it description he followed the popular view evokes a giant or a dwarf. Poetry, fancy's of dwarfs, according to which, the name is tongue, even in her earliest words, fabled given to individuals of the human race, the of diminutive races of men, partly in sport size of whom is much below the middle and partly in scorn. Homer, amid his size of their race. But in scientific langods and heroes, condescended to speak of guage, the application of the word dwarf is the legendary conflicts of the pigmies with restricted to the instances on which the the cranes :
diminutiveness of the stature depends on Thus by their leader's care each martial band
the small volume of all the parts of the body; Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land;
so that a general reduction of size, in due With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, proportion to the several members, is preProclaim their motions, and provoke the war: served. Buffon and others have attempted So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain,
more precision. Proceeding on the asTo warmer scenes the cranes embodied fly sumption that the normal height of human With noise and order through the midway sky; beings varies from four to six feet, they To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, consider as giants all whose height is above And all the war descends upon the wing. six feet, and as dwarfs, all whose height
Niad III, 1-7.
is under four feet. These pigmies were people about eight- In the period of the degeneracy of the een fingers high. Their height is indica- Roman people it is, that dwarfs come into ted in their name ; for the Greek pygmé prominence on the page of history. With denotes the length of the forearm, from worn and degraded affections, the voluptuthe point of the elbow to the joint of the ous Romans wearied of natural and ordifist. Thoir abode is placed by Homer nary pleasures, sought excitement in what near his fabulous and mystic ocean. Later I was strange, unusual, deformed, and monstrous. Not satisfied with the rare instan- of noble or royal existence. By force of ces of dwarfs which nature presented, contrast, those pitiable manikins enhanced men, greedy of gain, made it a trade to the pleasures of elevated rank, according produce dwarfs,' in order to pander to the to the words, " I think of what I am in perverted taste or the brutal passions of seeing what thou art." Catherine de the great and the opulent. By confining Medici brought together a number of male individuals of diminutive size in boxes, and female dwarfs, between couples of made for the purpose, and by the use of whom she formed marriages, which, howbandages devised so as to hinder the natu- ever, remained sterile. More recently ral growth, they produced monstrosities, dwarfs have become purely objects of cuand made themselves guilty of a species riosity. By men of science, however, of slow homicide. Pleasures prepared by their conformation and history have of late this horrible and disgraceful art were been carefully studied, and valuable inworthy of princes whose souls, at once struction in physiology has been gained. ignoble and atrocious, aimed to diversify In this case, as in others, it has been found the indulgences of debauchery by the sight that for a complete and useful knowledge of pain and blood. Accordingly, among of nature, nature must be investigated in those who most eagerly sought these grat- departures from its ordinary forms, and in ifications, the emperors Tiberius, Domi- the infractions of its own laws. The tian, and Heliogabalus have precedence. moral philosopher, too, has found his acTiberius admitted to his table a dwarf, in count in carefully observing the influences whom he tolerated great license of speech; produced on character by the disturbing and who, with a brutality not unlike his and modifying causes put into operation master's, hastened the execution of a citi- by dwarfism. This branch of study has zen charged with a political misdemeanor. been far from pleasurable, seeing that the Domitian collected a number of dwarfs, in littleness of mind which commonly characorder to form of them a troop of diminu-terizes the dwarf, begetting vanity, pretive gladiators. Following his example, sumption, and self-conceit, excites a pity, Heliogabalus defiled his court with male which borders on contempt. It will, howand female dwarfs. Marc Antony is re- ever, be not without advantage should it corded as having in his house a dwarf less lead to a system of moral and intellectual than two feet high. Even Augustus training, specially adapted to the peculiarexhibited on the stage a young man of ities of the case. Of such a training there good family of similar stature, and who is great need ; for, in general, dwarfs are weighed only seventeen pounds. Pliny a neglected class. mentions the Roman knights, whose height The cause of dwarfism, after all the rewas about three feet. According to searches of the scientific, remains in obscuChampollion, the Egyptian princes also rity. We have here one of those anomahad their dwarfs. Among the Turks, lies in which, with all her regularity, nadwarfs were sought for as objects of ture sometimes indulges. In the constituamusement. On the conquest of Mexico, tion of some parents there may be tendenthe Spaniards found in the palace of Mon-cies which issue in the birth of dwarfs. tezuma several dwarfs, who had been pur- Yet, if such is the case, those tendencies chased for the amusement of the sovereign. seem as little subject to law as the general Thus, in ancient, as well as modern times, fact of dwarfism itself. Mention is made in the new world as well as the old, dwarfs of a woman who gave birth to eight chilhave been sought for, and kept in mansions dren; of which the third, the fifth, and the and in palaces for the amusement of seventh attained to the ordinary stature, princes and the derision of courtiers. while the other five were dwarfs. A GerSuch is the perversity of the human man female was born of parents of the orwill.
dinary height, who, however, had previIn modern times a better spirit has pre- ously produced a dwarf. At the age of vailed—which, however, is not without its eight years this girl was only eighteen exceptions. When toward the end of the inches high, and her weight was about seventeenth century the fashion of " court that of a new-born infant. She was lively fools," as the phrase was, began to decline, and gay, but not very intelligent. She did dwarfs were employed in their stead to di- not begin to walk and speak till near her versify the routine, and relieve the tedium fourth year. Her first set of teeth were
late in appearing. Her pulse beat about ignorant nursing; and might be expected ninety strokes in a minute.
to yield, at least to some extent, to the Disease is sometimes connected with healing and strengthening operation of that dwarfism in such a way as to wear some wise physiological education which all appearance of being its cause. Dantlow, human beings, and especially girls, ought thirty inches high, was very rickety, and to receive as a part of their training at even monstrous in his formation. His home and in school. smallness of stature appears to have arisen from the malformations produced in his
CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE BLOOD bones and limbs, especially in the vertebral column, by the rickets. Though without
CAUSED BY BREATHING. arms, and afflicted with a grievous malady, ГНАТ happens when the wick of a he was, at thirty years of age, of an agree- candle is lighted? It burns, you will able figure, and full of intelligence and ad- answer, as long as the candle lasts. Just dress. He wrote a legible hand in Latin so; but suppose you were to put it when and Russ with his left foot. By the same lighted into a glass jar, and cover it over, means he made pen-drawings and engra- what would happen then? If you were to vings of no mean kind. He also knitted try it, you would see it burn for a short stockings, and for that purpose formed time, then grow dim, and then go out. And needles of wood. He ate, as well as thus you would learn that the flame of dressed and undressed himself with his left the candle lived upon something in the foot. In a word, he executed a great air, and that as soon as it had consumed number of almost incredible things. Hav- it all, it could exist no longer, and exing a great desire for knowledge, he learned pired. with great facility. At the same time, he Now this shows us that the atmosphere succeeded in maintaining a cheerful dispo- is composed of more than one kind of gas, sition.
for the jar is just as full of air when This instance suffices to show, that dwarfs the candle has burned out as before it are not necessarily those churls or those was lighted, but it is air of a different idiots which some authorities have fan- kind. cied. A proof to the same effect is found Before the candle was lighted the air in in Nannetta Stocker, who was exhibited the jar consisted of a mixture of oxygen as a dwarf in the early part of this century. and nitrogen gases, in the proportion of She was very intellectual and had great twenty-one parts of the former to seventyskill on the piano. The cure of dwarfism nine of the latter. These gases are not lies beyond the reach of human art. Yet, merely mingled but absorbed into one whatever tends to improve the natural de- another, (just as water is absorbed into a velopment and general vigor of the human lump of sugar,) so that we breathe both at frame may not unreasonably be supposed the same time. When the candle had to exert a favorable check on tendencies burned out you would find the whole of the to the production of dwarfs. Our ordinary nitrogen still remaining in the jar; but modes of life are unhappily detrimental to most of the oxygen would have disapthe soundness, vigor, and due development peared; and in its place there would be of the human frame. As an animal, man another gas of totally different properties, is subject to the ordinary laws of animal ex- called carbonic acid. If curious to know istence; and there is little reason to doubt how this came there, you would be told that a proper regard in intermarriages to that the lighted candle, being gradually the soundness and general well-being of melted and raised into vapour by the heat the constitution would, under the favor of of its flame, the carbon of the tallow united Divine Providence, in due time give birth with the oxygen of the air in which it was to a race of men far superior to that which burning, and thus formed the carbonic acid. now exists, and less liable to the painful The nitrogen merely served to dilute the exceptions in distortion and diminutive oxygen and thus to moderate the energy of stature that occasionally appear. The the combustion. The oxygen supported conclusion finds support in the fact, that the flame until it was overpowered and dwarfs are not seldom rickety. This dis- quenched by the carbonic acid. order has its origin partly in a weak and Now this is very like what takes place disordered maternal frame, and in bad and in the lungs every time we breathe. Our
blood-like the candle-contains carbon,
LITERARY GEMS OF THE BRITISH arising from the continual waste going on
MUSEUM. in the different parts of the body through which it circulates. In this state it is MHE art of producing and multiplying brought to the lungs to be purified, by impressions by means of lines and having the carbon removed from it. This figures cut on wood or metal may be traced takes place when air is drawn into the to a very remote antiquity. In the tombs lungs; it parts with its oxygen to the of ancient Thebes stamps which might carbon of the blood—which passes out of have been thus used have been found, and the chest again in the form of carbonic acid one of them of the date of a Pharaoh, who with the returning breath. Of course this lived at the time when the Israelites rerapidly contaminates the air around us, sided in Egypt. It is also conjectured and renders it unfit to breathe again--and that the arrow-headed characters impressed the inconvenience felt in close and crowded on bricks which have been brought from rooms is owing to this cause-aggravated, the ruins of ancient Babylon, and supposed as it frequently is, by many lights burning to be the most ancient species of inscripat the same time, and each one consuming tion now extant, were produced in the its share of the oxygen in the air which same way. A similar process gave rise the room contains. Oxygen supports life to the first books, which appeared in the as it supports flame. Carbonic acid tends early part of the fifteenth century. They to extinguish them both. In the open air were printed from engraved blocks of this evil is not felt, nor wherever proper wood, on which the first artists representmeans are taken to insure a due and con- ed Scriptural subjects, formerly portrayed stant supply of fresh air. Indeed, without by the limners of the monasteries, in rich it, like the candle, we should soon expire. colors and gilding, on the walls of their If a mouse were put into the jar in which institutions or on the missals and other the candle had just burned out, it would books which they were in the habit of die in less than a minute; and a bird, copying. under the same circumstances, could not Of these block-books, the memorials of support life longer than thirty or forty the first step taken in the art of printing, seconds.
several specimens may now be seen in As the conversion of carbon in the can The British Museum, and particularly dle into carbonic acid maintains the heat “ The Poor Man's Bible," a sort of cateof the flame, so the formation of carbonic chism for the young and the humbler orders acid in the blood is attended by the develop of the people. It consisted of about twenty ment of heat in the body by which the pages, each of which was cut on a separvital warmth is sustained. When death ate block of wood, and represented various puts a stop to this process, the body, like figures of Christ, angels, and prophets, any other heated substance, soon grows with texts or sentences in abbreviated cold.
Latin, by way of explanation. Plants may be said to breathe as well as The next step taken in this wondrous animals, by means of their leaves, which art was that of using metal types, which is serve the purpose of lungs. But the ascribed to John Guttenberg, who, aided leaves of plants, when in a healthy state, by John Fust, produced, to the astonishabsorb carbonic acid from the air by day, ment of western Europe, the earliest and give out oxygen.
By night, or when printed book known; and in the Museum the plant is in a sickly state, as when the the eye may fall upon it. It is “ The leaves are about to fall, the reverse takes Mazarine Bible,” in which there are no place-oxygen being absorbed, and carbonic fewer than six hundred and forty-one aeid given out as by animals—and this is leaves. With this most precious relic of the reason why plants should not be kept former times various specimens of the in sleeping apartments during the night. earliest printing in types will be observed By this beautiful arrangement the oxygen -a spectacle of extraordinary interest, consumed by animals is replaced by the and giving rise to the liveliest emotions of vegetable world, and a grand system of admiration and gratitude. compensation is constantly going forward Amidst the deep ignorance that preby which the preservation of the atmos- vailed at the time when this art arose, phere in a state of purity is accomplished. 'whatever effect could not readily be ac