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thing under the sun :-I shall make a and God says, Be ye followers of Christ. figure which shall suggest to the beholder Walk as Christ also walked. Let the nothing that moveth upon the face of the mind be in you which was in Christ Jesus. earth-something so novel, that it has And a few sublime spirits, made generous never entered into the heart of man to by the Spirit of God, have been seized conceive it, and nobody will guess where with a blessed ambition, and not because the model was found ?" Had he said this, men would admire them, but because they he would have produced an original of were smitten by goodness so charming, that sorry sort which we call an oddity, they have gazed on it, and pondered it, something very grotesque and ungainly, and imbibed it, till they were sensibly something like an African fetich or a Hindoo changed into the same image, and men pagod. But the great artist said, “ I shall | felt, “ There you go, so noble, so lovely. make as near as possible a perfect man. We know where you have been : you Gathering up hints of strength and sym- could not have attained an excellence so metry wherever I can find them, I shall charming, had not Jesus Christ once been devoutly endeavor to realize that exqui- in the world, and had you not somehow site model which was in the eye of the been brought into contact with him.” Divine Artist himself ;” and, with the hu The most polished Englishman of the mility of genius, content to copy, limb by last century was Philip Dormer Stanhope, limb, and lineament by lineament, there the fourth Earl of Chesterfield. Highcame out from the dead rock the most born and well-bred, clever, eloquent, and unique of all originalities, a perfect figure, witty, and endowed with a large amount a glorified humanity, a vision of power and of natural amenity, he was bent on disjoy which makes us understand how very tinction. To dazzle his cotemporaries good, once on a time, was this mortal was the business of his life.
He was a frame-how fearfully and wonderfully man who made his own model. From the made at first,-how wonderful and fearful speeches of Cicero, from the epigrams of the resurrection may see it all again. Martial, from the saloons of Paris and Ver
The Belvidere Apollo is the most unique sailles, he gleaned the several ingredients and original of sculptures, because it is of classic grace and modern refinement, the most earnest and successful of imita- and sought to combine them in the courtier, tions. As far as he could catch sight of the statesman, and orator. He had no it, the artist kept constantly in view the God. In the shrine where the Most High model supplied by the Creator ; and it is should be, there was a dim outline which by combining so skillfully every fragment looked very like a colossal Stanhope carof peculiar beauty or vigor which came rying a young Chesterfield in its arms; in his way, and by copying the so faith- but unless this mixture of self-idolatry and Tully, that he has realized such a splendid son-worship deserve the name, there was conception.
no religion in the man. He had his reNow, making one proviso-remarking ward. At a levee, or in a drawing-room, that all genuine goodness is spontaneous, he moved “ the admired of all admirers." that it is excellence followed for its Few inade such formidable speeches in own sake not mimicked for admiration's Parliament. None uttered so many brilsake,-you will find the goodness will turn liant sayings in society. He got ribout the most original, not which makes its ins, plaudits, diplomatic appointments, the own model, or strikes out its own style, smiles of the fair, the envy of his peers ;but which most closely copies Perfection. everything except true human affection; This book supplies such a model. It ex- everything except the approbation of God. hibits a Pattern-Man,-a wearer of our Should any one wish to repeat the man, intellect, and will, and affections, who the mold is still extant. It will be found never spoke a word that was not the right in Lord Chesterfield's “ Letters to his one, and who never did a right deed so Son ;"-a book of which our great moralthat even he himself could have done it ist said, in effect, that “it inculcates the better. This peerless pattern,—this man morals of a profligate with the manners of so elevated, yet so tender,—so loyal to a dancing-master.” But before taking God, yet so loving to those around him, more trouble, it is well to know the result. so separate from sin, yet so void of sanc At the close, he confessed that his life timoniousness, the Word sets before you, I had been as joyless as it had been selfish
and hollow : “ I have recently read Solo more sublime topics of Holy Writ—the mon with a kind of sympathetic feeling. thoughts and the spirit I have been as wicked and as vain, though That touch'd Isaiah’s hallow'd lips with fire.'” not as wise as he ; but now I am old enough to feel the truth of his reflection, How much the individual advocacy of one • All is vanity and vexation of spirit.'" so loved and honored effected for MissionRepartees sparkled on his dying lips, but ary and Bible Societies, it would be diffiall was dreary within, all was darkness cult to tell ; but it is hardly metaphor tu ahead. The fame for which he lived ex say that Africa wept when he died. His pired before himself; and now truth de- country will never forget him : for although clines to write his epitaph, and virtue has poets, warriors, and statesmen, in numbers no garlands for his grave.
repose under the roof of the Abbey, EnStill a boy, while this old worldling lay gland recognizes no originality more illusdying, William Wilberforce soon grew up, trious, no heroisin more patriotic, than his and the grace of God made him a Chris- who led the campaign of humanity so long, tian ; that is, it taught him to live not to and who achieved the abolition of the Slave himself, but to the glory of God. It taught Trade. him to worship. It showed him that he The model on which Wilberforce was was not his own proprietor ; that he had formed still exists. The reader will find no right to make his own enjoyment his it in the book which we have sought to chief pursuit ; and that he must put all his recommend ; and if, in exploring that book, faculties at God's disposal. In the Bible he finds thoughts to which no one yet he found the model on which God would has done justice, philanthropic suggestions have him form his character. He studied which no one has yet carried out, features it. He prayed for it. He watched him- of excellence which no one yet has exself, and struggled with his evil tenden- hibited, he will just repeat the ience cies.
of a thousand predecessors, and still will God's Spirit strengthened him, and leave a virgin-field for the researches of gave him wonderful self-conquest. Re- all who follow. taining all his natural elasticity, his wit, The Book of Nature is not exhausted. his bright fancy, his melodious voice and Gutta-percha and chloroform, coal-gas and fluent speech, his randonı hilarity was ex- steam-carriages, sun-pictures and electric changed for conscientious kindness, and telegraphs, have all come to light within all his gifts of mind and station were de- the last few years; and greater things voutly laid at the feet of his Redeemer. than these are coming. All that is wantWith his pen he expounded to the highest | ing is an explorer who distinctly underclasses that system of vital piety which stands what it is that he desires, and who Whitefield and Wesley had already preach- will accept the answer when nature flings ed to the populace ; and carrying it to the it at his feet. dinner-tables of Clapham, and the evening The Book of Revelation is not exhausted assemblies of Piccadilly, many who fan- either. In our own day it has yielded cied religion too severe in the sermons of treasures long latent; and we have seen Bishop Porteus or the strictures of Han- such things come out of it as, “ The Asnah More, confessed to its loveliness in tronomical Discourses,” and “ Elijah the the life of Mr. Wilberforce. Then, in his Tishbite.” Within the memory of some public career-keeping himself on purpose now living, it has yielded Sabbath schools "pure”-avoiding office, never using for and foreign missions, prison-visiting, ragpersonal ends the vast ascendency over ged schools, and convict-reformation. It others which his fascinating goodness gave has emancipated slaves. It has ransomed him, any more than the prestige of his thousands from ignorance and bondage. mighty Yorkshire constituency ; alike on It has sent Scripture-readers and evanthe floor of St. Stephen's and on the plat- gelists into the very abodes of sin. It has form of Freemasons' Tavern, he conse- given our higher classes kinder and fairer crated to every humane and Christian feelings toward their less-favored brethren.
a persuasive and pathetic elo- And scantily as it is even yet admitted quence, chastened by a pure taste, varied into the faith and affections of Christenby extensive information, enriched by clas-dom, it is the benevolence of the Bible sical allusion, sometimes elevated by the which at this moment keeps its spirit from
souring, and it is the “blessed hope" of the
SLAVE-HUNTS IN THE SAHARA. Bible which keeps its heart from breaking ; just as the existence of that Bible is a TROM the bondman, trembling under a pledge that its merciful Creator has in scourge in the American plantation, reserve for the world a long Sabbath of we sometimes turn to Africa, the mother peace and righteousness.
of bondage, who forges chains for her own Yet, like the good gifts which nature children. Of the iron dug from her own retained in her bosom, till the sage pur- mountains these fetters are made, and the chased them and handed them forth to his tribes of the sons of Tubal Cain beat and fellows, all these great thoughts and good shape them on her own soil. In the solischemes were treasures hid in the Scriptude of those central deserts man keeps ture, till Chalmers and Krummacher, the gate open to his enemy. The sword Raikes and Sadler, Sarah Martin and Mrs. never found a passage thither. Nothing Fry, found them out and brought them but gold ever penetrated the Sahara. Its forth. But the book is not exhausted ; dwellers were never conquered by an Alexand if you really wish to serve your fel- ander or a Cæsar, but any truckling kidlows, this Mentor will show you the way. napper can corrupt them. It is a bitter With its guidance you will find that the witness to the broken faith of man with true “excelsior” is humility, and that, like man, to see creatures born under the pledge Pascal, Edwards, and Vinet, the believer of a common compact and natural law on his knees sees further than the philoso- betraying and degrading one another; but pher on tiptoe. You will find that the the most miserable sight in the whole dark book which, among its affectionate copy- range of human debasement is that of the ists, has yielded characters so distinct, yet beginning of the slave's sorrow. He is so excellent, as Arnold and Buxton, How- pitiable when he has grown old in serviard and Williams, Martin and M'Cheyne, tude, but still more pitiable when the can make you as superior to your present anklets and manacles are new and bright self as these men were superior to or- upon his limbs, when liberty still lingers dinary mortals. In one word, you will in his thoughts, like the sweetest taste of find that in things intellectual, he is likely childhood, and he is torn from home, castto be the mightiest master who knows the ing a longing, wretched, hopeless look Bible best, and most meekly trusts in God; behind. and in things moral and philanthropic,-in Remote in the wilderness of Central conduct and character,-he is likely to be Africa slavery brings forth its offspring. the greatest original who is the closest copy- There, among beautiful hills and oäses ist-the most implicit imitator of Christ. watered by delicious springs, with date
groves shading hamlets which seem all TO MY WATCH,
pleasantness and peace, mothers nurse the
young brood which is to pine, and toil, and (LYING, STOPPED, IN THE DESK.)
perish in the sugar or tobacco grounds of FAMILIAR time-piece-thou whose tick
Cuba or the Western Continent.
A great belt of populous country stretches And loud-now low, and slow, and light. across the desert, which spreads over the Dear monitor and friend, when thick
central region of Africa, and was by the And throbbing memories throng'd my brain, ancients compared, with its tawny surface Thy fluttering beat, so loud and quick, and spots of hill and verdure, to a leopard's Would soothe as if it shared my pain.
skin. Four great kingdoms are situated But hush'd is now thy faithful tick, That with each mood such chiming made ;
upon this populous belt-Wadaï, Bournou, Methinks thou, too, art crazed and sick,
Soudan, and Timbuctoo, whence four And thou, too, on thy back art laid.
caravan tracks lead down across sandy and And should that tick be heard no more,
stony wastes to the Barbary coast. Lesser And silent darkness be thy doom,
kingdoms lie around about, each in an Thy beat, my heart, shall soon be o'er,
oäsis of its own; and from all of these Hush'd in the dark and silent tomb.
come annually to the sea trains of captured And when (time ended) I shall stand
slaves, to be sold in the cities and ports, In judgment for eternity, May mercy vail, with pitying hand,
while others go westward to supply the The record thou shalt bear 'gainst me! traders who ply to the shores of Cuba. NEWPORT, R. I.
C. T. B. Ivory, ostrich feathers, senna, wax, and
indigo are also brought down; but this The chief slave-hunters in these kingdoms legitimate traffic is comparatively small, of are, of course the kings themselves. recent growth, and never likely to become Some of them go out once
a year, important without diminishing or extin- others once a month, and on various preguishing the commerce in human beings. tences, though many avow openly the
Melancholy everywhere, the slave sys- purposes of their expedition. Formerly, tem is most melancholy in Central Africa. when the rulers were Moslems, and the For, in those distant countries, defended people idolators, a religious cry covered on all sides by deserts, and only made ac the shame of the kidnapper; but the whole cessible by the cupidity of man, we per- population became Mohammedan, and then ceive the slave in his original home, en the faithful hunted the faithful as savagely joying that happiness which harmonizes as they had before hunted the Kaffirs or with his nature, and is interrupted by the infidels! Their common plan is this :stealth or violence of the kidnapper. A chief foments a quarrel with some town
We may choose a city of the once or village within his territories, upon some famous and mysterious kingdom of Bournou affair of taxation, and then, to vindicate -the city of Zinder, buried deep in the his rights, marches forth and captures all center of Africa. It is picturesquely the inhabitants. In order to enjoy this situated amid undulations of green hills, privilege he pays a tribute to the Great with sprinkles of gigantic knolls. Mead- Sheikh or Lord of Bournou. ows lie around it without fences, and corn A regular razzia, or slave-hunt in the stacks and granaries stand in the open Sahara, is perhaps the most extraordinary country without bolt or guard, illustrating of all the operations invented by man to a feeling of honor among these “mighty obtain wealth. For some time before, hunters” of their fellow-men. About there is generally a rumor in the city that twenty thousand people dwell here in this event is to take place, and great is the habitations which are scattered over a vast excitement in the bordering countries until space of ground. A conical hill, or a block it is known in which direction the sarkee, of granite, marks each separate quarter.
or governor, will march.
This village is Circular walls of matting, inclosing a now named, and now that; but a mystery number of huts, or mud houses, denote usually prevails till within a few days of the residence of a chieftain ; while irregular the start. Meanwhile, small parties are clusters show where the inferior qualities sent out from time to time to steal “a of the population are congregated. At family or two,” in order to be exchanged sunset one or two hundred vultures fly in for certain nuts which the sarkee is pleased a circle over the city, and clean it from to like. Then, perhaps, a boy pilfers a refuse collected in the day. There are
little fruit. Public justice must be vinditwo weekly markets, when cattle, camels, cated! He is sold in the bazar, and not sheep, flesh, wheat, honey, hotkabobs, only he, but his father, mother, and sisters, and sweet potatos are exposed for sale, be- and perhaps the whole circle of his relasides merchandise and slaves. Fruit and tions, the money being appropriated by vegetables, of the most cooling kinds, are the chief. brought from gardens which pleasantly en Gradually, however, the plan of the circle Zinder; and thus a strange nation great razzia is completed. A thousand passes a strange but unromantic life. slaves are required-so many to be sent to
The great trade of the kingdom is in the sheikh, so many to be distributed slaves, who are classed in a peculiar man among the interior traders, and so many to ner: the men are assorted into those who be kept by the sarkee. If a common man have a beard, those who have none, and catches five, three belongs to him, and two those who have a beard beginning; while to his feudal master; if he kidnaps two, the women are valued according to the each has one for his share. Thus the size and shape of their bosoms. The best whole populace has an interest in the of them go to the city of Niffee, to be there result of the expedition ; and all join with shipped for America. There is an im- hope and glee to chase the peaceful vilmense traffic in these slaves, who are lagers of the contiguous country, and exchanged for American goods, which are bring them home desolate in chains. Five to be found in these markets more abun- thousand cavalry, and thirty thousand dantly than in those of any other country. I bowmen assemble on a plain near the city;
the drums of Zinder beat; the people Meanwhile, in Zinder the inhabitants shout; gaudy flags and emblems stream await eagerly the return of the hunters. in the sun; and away goes the cavalcade These are sent out to different elevations with as much pomp and pride as Napoleon's near the city, to watch for the shadow and legions winding along the hights to con- the dust of the homeward-marching army. quer at Marengo.
At length, after an absence more or less After three or four hours' ride they prolonged, a cry is heard, “ The sarkee is usually encamp, and a market is opened coming!" All the population throngs out for traffic in provisions. Since no women to learn the truth. If he is not himself accompany the razzia, the men cook and within sight, the fruits of his achievements do all the work. The first advance is often are visible.
A single horseman paces made in a direction contrary to that act along, showing the way to a miserable ually proposed to be taken—for the route train of newly-made slaves. Here comes of the expedition is kept a profound secret, a group of little boys, naked, fearless, so that an unsuspecting population may be playing about as though it were a holiday; taken by surprise. At night, the leader then a string of mothers dragging themcalls his chosen troops around him, dis- selves along, with babes at their breasts ; tributes nuts among them, indicates a part then girls of various ages, some scarcely of his plan, and orders the hour and the bloomed out of childhood, others ripened line of the next march. This is made at to maturity ; then, as Richardson describes midnight, or as soon as the moon rises, in his wonderfully-striking narrative, old when the whole black army is again in men bent two-double with the weight of motion, dragging its huge length through many years, their trembling chins dronping date-groves and stubble-fields, and valleys toward the ground, "their poor old heads and hills, toward some devoted town des- covered with white wool ;" next come aged tined for the first plunder. The chief women, tottering and helping themselves takes care not to expose himself, but along with staves, and after them stout marches with a body-guard, which sur- youths, chained ncck to neck together, rounds him while a battle goes on. These who are huddled through the gateways, warriors are covered with matress-stuffing never to pass them but in bonds. to protect them against arrows and spears; There is joy in Zinder. All day long while a number of “generals” direct the the triumph is prolonged. Following this attack, and the archers and the shield- vanguard—the abject trophies of misery, bearers press forward to capture or die ! come single cavaliers, then lines of horse
After several days' journey, the army men galloping over the plain, then cavalry reaches a country where slaves may be with drums beating, and then a body of caught, and disperses itself to the several mounted warriors, with helmets of brass cities and villages. Sometimes the people and padded coats, who march around the defend themselves heroically with their sarkee or sultan. At length the mass of bows and arrows, flying to the summits of the hunting army appears in sight, toiling rocks, and selling their liberty dearly. along a rolling canopy of dust, and with it Often, however, they are surprised while comes the spoil of the expedition, perhaps they are preparing their meals, or dancing, three thousand slaves. This is the beginor celebrating a bridal-feast; and then the ning of a sorrow which is to end perhaps enemy rush in, seize them, chain, and bear with insults and lashes on a plantationthem unresistingly away. If the hamlet God only knows where. be girt with stockades, a garrison of expert Some of the captives taken are, after the archers may occasionally drive back the general sales, domesticated in Zinder, or a forlorn hope of the slave-hunters, but a neighboring Bournou city. Almost every second assault is victorious; and the household has one or two trained, who, dwellings are left level with the earth. from the method in which the irons are The hut-doors are violently broken open; fixed on their limbs, cannot walk, but, the inside is ransacked; the milk-bowls when they are obliged to go about, move and calabashes are taken with the bows, along with little jumps. No sight can be arrows, and axes : and the ruin is next un- conceived more painful; but if the people roofed or set on fire, while the cattle, the will have slaves it is necessary to fetter sheep, and the goats, are swept out of them, because there are so many towns every field, to swell the general booty. and retreats near, to which they could