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old Baron Steuben, whom we have been REMINISCENCES OF THE PILGRIMS-, accustomed to look upon as the ne plus

ultra of old-fashioned military tactics, had MASSASOIT.

not been present on this extraordinary ocN the 22d of March, 1621, a most in-casion ? Surely Captain Standish and his

teresting scene was witnessed in the company would have given him some new “Old Plymouth Colony." On a hill (now ideas of his favorite science. What the called Watson's Hill) overlooking the en savages thought of the wonderful performtire settlement, and but a short distance ance has never been told, but they must from the humble dwellings of the pilgrims, have been amused. stood a company of men most formidable, The fears of the affrighted pilgrims and exceedingly warlike in their appear soon allayed. Massasoit had not

This company consisted of the come for war: his noble soul abhorred venerable, peace-loving Indian sachem, bloodshed. Peace was his object. Though Massasoit, his brother, and sixty of his a heathen, and chief of one of the most best warriors. They were all armed with warlike Indian tribes, he took the earliest deadly weapons, such as bows and arrows, opportunity to visit the pilgrims, and protomahawks and scalping-knives ; and with pose to them terms of continued friendship their faces painted with almost every va and peace. He had heard of his new riety of color, some black, some red, neighbors, and he knew they were few, some yellow, and some white ; some with weak, and feeble. He could have extercrosses, and other antic works ; some were minated them with a blow. But he cherdressed in skins, and some were naked : ished toward them the highest respect, all tall and mighty men."

and bid them a hearty welcome to the new The pilgrims, as they rose at early world. His object now was to form a dawn, were startled at the appearance of treaty of peace with the English. The this new and strange company. Only one manner in which the parties were introhundred and one days had elapsed since duced to each other, and the ceremonies they landed on · Plymouth Rock," and which followed, are worthy of being told. during that time they had passed through Mr. Edward Winslow, a man of note the most distressing scenes. Sickness and among the pilgrims, first approached the death had made terrible havoc among heathen strangers, carrying a pair of them, and nearly one-half of their number knives, a chain, and a jewel, for Massasoit, were now no more. Most of the survivors and a knife and jewel for his brother; were feeble and sick, and but few were “ also a pot of strong water, with some bisprepared to meet so formidable an enemy cuit and butter for a treat, which were as these apparently hostile strangers. But readily accepted. Winslow remaining as something must be done ; a crisis had ar a hostage, Massasoit, with twenty armed rived. The pressing emergency called men, descended the hill toward the pilfor immediate and extraordinary exertions. grims. Captain Standish marched with Accordingly the best preparations were his company to the brook at the foot of made to meet the supposed conflict. the hill to meet Massasoit, and gave him

Captain Miles Standish, a man of great a military salute, which was politely recourage, and ready for almost any emerg- sponded to. The distinguished visitor was ency, mustered his company—but alas, then conducted to an unfinished building, what a company! Six feeble and sickly | hastily prepared, with a green rug and musketeers composed the whole; but un three or four cushions.' Governor Cardaunted, he resolved to make the best of his ver then approached, followed by the band, condition. Orders were given as if they consisting of a drum and a trumpet, and were designed for an army of thousands, the military company. The governor and and the company showed off finely by the king saluted each other by kissing “ facings and wheelings,” and handling of hands, when Carver took a seat and called matchlocks.* What a display! Pity that for strong water' and 'fresh meat,' of

which they all partook, and then proceeded A matchlock was a musket lighted by & to talk of peace and mutual protection. match attached to a spring. To fire the piece, After signing the treaty, Governor Carver the "touch-pan was previously opened; and on springing the mateh, its lighted end would conducted his guest back to the brook, and be brought in contact with the pan.

took leave of him." Massasoit's brother,

us.

Quadequina, and others, came down the no time so fit as this to enter into more friendly hill, were received and treated in the terms with him and the rest of the sachems, and I same manner, and dismissed. Thus ended resolved to put it in practice; so we went

toward Mattapuyst. In the way, Hobbamock the novel ceremonies connected with the broke forth into these speeches: •My loving formation of one of the most important sachem! my loving sachem! Many have I treaties, one to which, under the divine known, but never any like thee!' And turnblessing, the pilgrims were indebted for ing to me, he said: "While I live, I shall never

see his like among the Indians: he was no liar; most invaluable privileges, and even life he was not bloody and cruel like other Indians; itself.

in anger and passion he was soon reclaimed ; From this time, friendly relations were easy to be reconciled toward such as had of maintained between Massasoit and the fended him; he governed his men better with

few strokes than others did with many, truly “ Plymouth Colony" for forty years. The loving where he loved,' continuing a long speech former resided within the limits of what with signs of unfeigned sorrow. is now the town of Warren,* Rhode Island, “We came to Mattapuyst, and went to the being about fifty miles from Plymouth. The sachem's wife gave us friendly entertain

sachem's place, but Conbatant was not at home. Deputations were frequently interchanged, ment. Here we inquired concerning Massasoit: and this had a most happy influence in they thought him dead, but knew not certainly. promoting peace and kindly feeling. Mas About half an hour before sunset we were told sasoit and some of his men were often that he was not yet dead, though there was no

hope we should find him living. Upon this entertained by the pilgrims with great

we were much revived, and set forward with pomp, and feasted on the best which the all speed. colony afforded. The pilgrims were also “When we came thither, we found the house received at Sowamset with the most ar

so full of men as we could scarce get in, though dent affection, and welcomed to the most they used their best diligence to make way for

Thus they were in the midst of their liberal hospitality of the sachem's humble charms for him, making such a hellish noise dwelling. Some of these visits were sea that it distempered us that were well, and sons of thrilling interest. The following

therefore unlikely to ease him that was sick. account of one of them is given by Mr.

When they had made an end of their charming,

one told him that his friends, the English, had Winslow, and will be interesting to the come to see him. Having understanding left, reader. Mr. John Hamden, and an Indian but his sight was wholly gone, he asked, "Who guide named Hobbamock, accompanied has come ” They told him. He desired to Mr. Winslow to Sowamset :

speak with me. When I came to him he put

forth his hand, which I took. Then he said " News came to Plymouth that Massasoit twice, 'Art thou Winslow ? I answered, Yes. was like to die. Now it being a commendable Then he added, 'O, Winslow, I shall never see manner of the Indians, when any, especially of

thee again !' note, are dangerously sick, for all that profess

" Then I called Hobbamock, and desired him friendship to them to visit them in their ex

to tell Massasoit that the governor sent me tremity; therefore it was thought meet, that with such things for him as he thought most as we had ever professed friendship, so we

likely to do him good, and whereof, if he pleased should now maintain the same by observing desired. Having a confection of many comfort

to take, I would presently give him, which he this laudable custom. To that end, myself having formerly been there, the governor again him some, which I could scarcely get through

able conserves, on the point of my knife I gave laid this service upon myself, having one master John Hamden for my consort, and Hobba- his teeth. When it was dissolved in his mouth mock for our guide. So we set forward, and he swallowed it, when those who were about lodged the first night at Namasket, (now Mid-him much rejoiced, saying he had not swaldleborough, Massachusetts.) The next day,

lowed anything in two days before. His mouth about one o'clock, we came to a ferry in Con

was exceedingly furred, and his tongue swelled batant's country.t There they told us that

in such a manner that it was impossible for Massasoit was dead, and had that day been

him to eat such meat as they had. I washed buried. This news struck us blank, but espe- I gave him more of the confection, which he

his mouth and scraped his tongue, after which cially Hobbamock, who desired we might return with all speed. Considering now that, he being siring to drink, I dissolved some of it in water,

swallowed with more readiness. Then he dedead, Conbatant was the most likely to succeed him, and that we were not above three miles

and gave him. Within half an hour this from Mattapuyst, his dwelling-place, I thought after his sight began to come to him, which

wrought a great alteration in him. Presently

gave him and us good encouragement. • Massasoit's residence was not Mount Hope, He requested me, that the day following, I as many have supposed, but Sowamset, now would take my piece and kill him some fowl, Warren, Rhode Island. King Philip,” his son, and make him some English pottage, such as resided at Mount Hope.

he had eaten at Plymouth, which I promised. † This ferry was across Taunton River. Con- In the meantime I must needs make him some batant was sachem of another tribe.

without fowl. I caused a woman to bruise

man,

man."

some rest.

BY JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER.

some corn, take the flour from it, and set over " He seems to have been a most estimable the broken corn in a pipkin, for they have He was just, humane, and beneficent ; earthen pots of all sizes. When the day broke true to his word, and in every respect an honest we went out, it being now March, to seek herbs, but could find none but strawberry leaves, of which I gathered a handful and put into the

His memory should be cherished and samo; and because I had nothing to relish it, loved by every American ; and though we I went forth again, and pulled up a sassafras : may not honor him as a Christian hero, rooi, and sliced a piece thereof, and boiled it

we may regard him as one of the best of till it had a good relish, and then took it out. The broth being boiled, 'I strained it through pagan chieftains, and especially as having my handkerchief, and gave him at least a pint, contributed much to the safety and happiwhich he drank, and liked it well. After this ness of our pilgrim forefathers. his sight mended more and more; he also took

Insomuch as we with admiration blessed God for giving his blessing to such raw

TAULER. and ignorant means, himself and all of them acknowledging us the instruments of his preservation.

TAULER, the preacher, walked, one autumn day, “Many, while we were there, came to see Without the walls of Strasburg, by the Rhine, him ; some, from a place not less than a hun. Pondering the solemn miracle of life, dred miles. To all that came, one of his chief

As one who, wandering in the starless night, men related the manner of his sickness; how Feels, momently, the jar of unseen waves, near he was spent ; how his friends, the En- And hears the thunder of an unknown sea, glish, came to see him ; and how suddenly they Breaking along an unimagined shore. recovered him to his present strength. He said, “Now I see the English are my friends, And as he walked he prayed—even the same and love me ; and while I live, I will never for Old prayer with which, for half a score of years, get this kindness they have showed me.'"

Morning, and noon, and evening, lip and heart

Had groaned : “Have pity upon me, O Lord ! After a few days, Winslow and his com- Thou seest, while teaching others, I am blind : panions returned, and related the scenes

Send me a man that can direct my steps !". they had witnessed, and the wonderful Then, as he mused, he heard along his path recovery of the sachem in the colony, The dry, dead linden leaves, and looking up

A sound of an old man's staff among where there was great rejoicing. Mas- He saw'a

stranger, weak, and poor, and old. sasoit lived thirty-eight years after this

“Peace unto thee, father!” Tauler said ; visit of the English, and died in 1661, at

God gives thee a good day!" The old man the advanced age of more than eighty raised years.

Slowly his calm blue eyes. “I thank thee, son; But little is known of this distinguished But all my days are good, and none are ill.” sachem ; but from the items of history Wondering thereat, the preacher spake again : respecting him, we learn that he governed

“God give thee a happy life.” The old man

smiled : the tribe called the Wampanoags, who "I never am unhappy." occupied a large tract of country extend

Tauler laid ing over nearly the whole south-eastern His hand upon the stranger's coarse gray sleeve: part of Massachusetts, from Narragansett “Tell me, o father, what thy strange words Bay to Cape Cod. He “possessed the elements of a great mind and a noble Surely man's days are evil, and his life

Sad as the grave it leads to." Nay, my son, heart." He was kind and affectionate, Our times are in God's hands, and all our days and was always ready to sympathize with Are as our needs: for shadow as for sun, and relieve the afflicted. His attachments For cold as heat, for want as wealth, alike were strong, and his friendships enduring. And that which is not, sharing not his life,

Our thanks are due, since that is best which is, His treaties, as we have seen, were sacred; Is evil only as devoid of good. and though he lived forty years after his And for the happiness of which I spake, first visit to Plymouth, yet the treaty sign- I find it in submission to his will, ed on that occasion he maintained inviolate And calm trust in the holy Trinity

Its knowledge, goodness, and almighty power." to the day of his death. He protected the pilgrims in their weak and defenseless Silently wondering for a little space state, informed them of threatening dan- Who, suddenly grappling with

Stood the great preacher; then he spake as one

a haunting gers, and, in several instances, prevented thought, other Indian tribes from attacking Which long has followed, whispering through them.

the dark Trumbull, in his work on In

Strange terrors, drags it, shrieking, into light: dian Wars, pays him the following just

“What if God's will consign thee hence to tribute :

hell ?"

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* Then,” said the stranger, cheerily, “ be it so. of philosophy and theology were quite What hell may be I know not; this I know

grown up, and carried nothing in their I cannot lose the presence of the Lord. One arm, Humility, takes hold upon

pockets save fragments of tobacco. They His dear Humanity; the other, Love,

never had

any

store of eatables about Clasps his Divinity. So, where I go

them, for it was their custom to devour on He goes; and better fire-walled hell with him

the spot whatever in that way they could Than golden-gated paradise without.”

lay their hands on. They smelt so strongly Tears sprang in Tauler's eyes. A sudden light, of pipes and votki, that the odor often Like the first ray that fell on chaos, clove attracted the wistful noses of the peasants Apart the shadow wherein he had walked Darkly at noon. And, as the strange old man passing by. The square in front of the Went his slow way until his silver hair convent was usually filled with itinerant Set like the white moon, where the hills of dealers in bread, cakes, water-melons,

vines Slope to the Rhine, he bowed his head and patties seasoned with honey and poppy

seeds, and various other dainties peculiar said: " My prayer is answered. God hath sent the to the cuisine of Lower Russia. These

merchants were in general women, and Long sought, to teach me, by his simple trust, vied with each other in the loudness of Wisdom the weary schoolmen never knew."

their commendations of their respective So, entering with a changed and cheerful step

wares. Barely, however, did they address The city gates, he saw, far down the street,

themselves to either the philosophers or A mighty shadow break the light of noon, Which tracing backward till its airy lines the theologians, for these gentlemen usually Hardened to stony plinths, he raised his eyes contented themselves with taking gratuiO'er broad façade and lofty pediment,

tous samples of the good things, and that O'er architrave and frieze and sainted niche,

by handfuls. Up the stone lace-work, chiseled by the wise Erwin of Steinbach, dizzily up to where

On reaching the seminary, the crowd In the noon brightness the great minster's divided into classes, which assembled in tower,

large low rooms, with small windows, Jewelled with sunbeams on its mural crown, Rose like a visible prayer.

“ Behold!" he said,

large doors, and old blackened benches. " The stranger's faith made plain before mine | These were soon filled with divers and eyes !

confused buzzings. The monitors made As yonder tower outstretches to the carth

the pupils recite their lessons; while the The dark triangle of its shade alone When the clear day is shining on its top,

sharp and piercing voice of a grammarian So darkness in the pathway of man's life

was answered in precisely the same key Is but the shadow of God's providence, by the vibration of a cracked pane in one By the great sun of wisdom cast thereon ; of the windows. In another corner reAnd what is dark below is light in heaven!"

sounded the deep bass voice of a thick

lipped rhetorician, reciting his morning's STUDENTS IN LOWER RUSSIA.

lesson. The monitors, while they listened to the repetitions, kept one eye peering under the bench, to try

they could disS soon as the seminary bell, which hung cover in the pupils' pockets any delicacy

before the door of the convent at Kiev, that might be turned to their own account. began to ring, pupils were seen arriving When all this learned, although rabble from all parts of the town. Those be- rout, arrived somewhat early, or when longing to the grammar-class were still the professors came later than usual, then, children, most of them having soiled and by general consent, commenced a mêlée, torn clothes, and their pockets filled with in which every one took part, even the marbles, whistles, fragments of pastry, and, censors, whose duty it was to maintain in the season, with young sparrows, whose order. Generally, two of the elder thevshrill cry not seldom brought on their logians were the arbiters of the combat, captors blows of the ferule, or even a and decided whether each class should fight flogging with a leathern strap. The on its own account, or whether all the rhetoricians were older, walked more students should divide themselves into two steadily, and had decidedly fewer rents in great parties—the bursars and the paying their garments; but they frequently bore students. The grammarians were usually on their countenances ornaments in the the first to commence; then came philosshape of figures of rhetoric, imprinted by ophy, with long black mustaches; and each other's energetic fists. The students theology, in enormous Cossack pantaloons.

FROM THE RUSSIAX.

A

The battle almost always ended in favor stick over their shoulder; and when the of the latter branch of study; and philos- roads were muddy, they tucked their wide ophy went back to its class rubbing its trowsers up to the knees, and boldly paddled sides, and sat down panting on the bench. through the puddles. Whenever they Enter the professor, who, having in his descried a village in the distance, they left youth taken a constant and active part in the high-road, and placing themselves io such pastimes, had now no difficulty in single-file before the best-looking house in discovering on the flushed faces of his the place, chanted in chorus, and with auditors abundant indications of the heat deafening loudness, a religious carol of the conflict. And while he administered The master of the house, an old Cossack strokes of the rod to the fingers of rhetoric, laborer, would perhaps listen to them with another professor, in another division, his head leaning on his hand, and then say slapped the hands of philosophy with a to his wife : “Wife, what the students are flat wooden ruler. As to the theologians, chanting must be very edifying. Give they each received what their head-pro- them a good lump of hog's lard, and what fessor called a measure of dried peas ever eatables besides you have to spare.” that is to say, a good dose of blows applied Then very likely a basket of cakes, some with a leathern strap.

loaves of rye-bread, a piece of lard, and On holidays, the bursars and the scholars perhaps a fowl with its claws tied together, were in the habit of going about the town would be poured into the singers' evercarrying little theaters of puppets. Some-open bag. Then they would gayly go on times, in their own persons, they acted a their way, until by degrees the numbers comedy, and received as a recompense a diminished, and all were finally dispersed, piece of cloth, a bag of maize, half of to meet again at the reopening of the a roasted goose, or something of that classes. nature. In whatever other particulars the students might differ among themselves,

THE ELOQUENCE OF FLOWERS. in one point there was an astonishing uniformity among them—and that was in HE all-bountiful hand of Providence the voracious extent of their appetite. It would be impossible to calculate how with innumerable pleasant things, if we many kalatches* each of them could manage would but enjoy them. Among all these, to swallow for his supper. Sometimes a there are few more so than a walk in the party of them would make a foray on the flower-garden before breakfast on a lovely kitchen-gardens in the neighborhood, and morning. To see those mute and still, then a rich tureen of vegetable soup would though not motionless creatures—we mean smoke beneath their hungry noses. All the blossoms-opening their painted bosoms the students wore long black gowns, which to the beneficent rays which give them came down to their heels.

their color and their loveliness, welcoming The vacation was the great event of the the calm blessing of the light, as if with year. It commenced in June, when the gratitude, and seeking, in their tranquil pupils were all sent back to their parents. state of being, for nothing but the good Then every high-road was covered with gifts of God-might well afford a monigrammarians, rhetoricians, theologians, tory lesson. Everything in nature has its and philosophers. Some went on a visit homily to the eager hunters after fictitious to their companions; but the elder students enjoyment. How calm do the blossoms generally sought for places—that is to say, stand in their loveliness! how placid in they went to give lessons to the sons of their limited fruition of the elements that the rich country farmers, and received in nourish them! How, in their splendid return a pair of new boots, or perhaps a raiment, do they sparkle in the sun! how half-worn coat. Until they obtained a do they drink up the cup of dew, and place, they lived, ate, and slept in the fields, gratefully give back honey and perfume each one carrying a bag containing a shirt in return! I would say, avoid that man, and a pair of stockings. Some of the more or that woman, who can see nothing economical carried their boots slung on a beautiful in buds, blossoms, flowers, and

children. His, indeed, must be a most • Little flour-cakes, eaten steeped in milk, depraved taste, or a very base heart.butter, or honey.

| Kidd's Journal.

The

of

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