« AnteriorContinuar »
invents gauge-pipes to indicate both the his vast designs, and for a period many a consumption of water and the production bright idea was secluded in his thoughtful, of steam, by which the chances of acci- scientific mind. At length, Boulton of dents are lessened and further control ob- Birmingham became the partner of Watt, tained over the giant which men had set placing a part of his foundry at the disto work. Additional command was ac- posal of his friend, upon which the progquired by the introduction of the safety- ress of Watt began. valve to Savery's engine by Dr. Desagu- The production of improved machinery liers, a clergyman and lecturer on science was absolutely requisite to produce that in London; until this improvement was smoothness of motion essential to the easy introduced the engine-worker felt in con- working of gigantic beams, rods, and pisstant dread of sudden explosions. The tons, which should combine the easiest draining of deep mines was the great ob- motion with the utmost tightness in the ject to which these steam-engines were cylinder, in order to confine the highly devoted; but they' were unable to raise expanded steam. Mechanists could not water more than ninety feet, a second or be found to execute such delicate works : a third engine being used in the case of workmen were therefore to be trained ere greater depths. Thus, if it were required Watt could exhibit his clear conceptions to raise water from the depth of two hun- in operation. Many pages would scarcely dred and seventy feet, the first engine suffice to describe fully the severe and raised the water to a reservoir ninety feet simple logic, the subtile contrivances, and from the bottom; from this reservoir the brilliant theorizing, by which he developed second engine raised it ninety feet more; many of his improvements; we must canmaking in all one hundred and eighty feet; tent ourselves, therefore, with a statement when the third engine began its operation of results only. Many of these consist of and raised the water to the surface. A vast former discoveries worked up to greater expenditure of force was therefore neces- precision : thus the steam under the pissary in these machines, and an immense ton was condensed before the time of outlay of fuel became requisite, all of Watt, but he detected much clumsiness in which were serious drawbacks to the effi- the method of effecting this, and much ciency of the engines.
incompleteness in the work, as all the Thus, much was yet required to bring steam was not condensed, and the descent the steam-engine to its present high point of the piston was therefore partly resisted as a moving force. Some improvements by the remaining vapors. A great loss of were effected by Newcomen, an iron- power was the inevitable result of this founder of Dartmouth, who took out a
The attempt to correct the defect patent, and introduced his engines into led Watt into some most abstruse calculaextensive use; but these details need not tions, which he was compelled to pursue detain us from the great inventions of the by theory alone, and reached, at last, by a far-famed James Watt, who may be called beautiful guess, the truth sought. He the creator of the modern steam-engine, also saw that the injection of water into so numerous were his inventions, and so the cylinder at all must cool the piston as beneficial their results. To give an out- it descended, whereas this should be kept line of his life is not our present object, as hot as the steam itself, which otherwise but rather to describe the steps by which would be turned to water and its power he perfected the machine and reduced its lost. To remedy this, another series of once irregular and dangerous movements thoughtful investigations, descending into to a beautiful precision and security. the deep mysteries of latent and sensible
Watt's attention was first called to the heat, became necessary before the diffidefects of the existing engines by the ex- culty was overcome. amination of one made by Newcomen, and One of the most beautiful conceptions he soon perceived the rich harvest of fame of Watt is shown in the arrangement calland profit in store for the man who should ed the “parallel motion," the object of develop the full powers of the steam- which was to secure the steady and upengine. He saw the mode in which this right working of the piston ; for in such might be effected, and beheld the path rapid movements the slightest twisting of leading to the temple of glory; but his the works would soon shatter the machine. instruments were too feeble to carry out The production of such a direct motion
may appear a simple matter, but it required made a study, and various improvements all the mechanical skill of Watt's well- in boilers, pistons, valves, wheels, furtrained intellect to solve the delicate prob- naces, and smoke-tubes, have rewarded the lem. The reader must remember that a perseverance of the engineer; and every day rod, suspended perpendicularly to one fresh discoveries may be expected to arise. end of a moving beam, will not rise and fall
all Since the opening of the Liverpool and in a straight line, but in a peculiar curve. Manchester railway, fresh facts have been
This divergency of motion must shake accumulating for the guidance of our landand loosen the works, so as to destroy their steamers, and from the time when Fulton air-tight character. The problem pro- cut the waters of the Hudson, divers exposed was to find a point in the rod, which, periments have been yearly advancing the notwithstanding its oscillatory movements, capabilities of steam navigation. should always remain in the same straight Whether this power of modern times line; could this be discovered, the whole shall continue its progress, or be laid aside of the action might be kept free from un for some combination of mightier forces, due vibrations. Such a point was found, we know not; but, while we revere the and Watt enabled to apply all those im- divines, moralists, and poets, who have provements which depended upon the formed our earliest thoughts, let us also movement just described.
honor those who have disclosed a means
lege, was the oddity of his time. Of principle was, to secure some means of the puns belonging to Dr. Barton, we bemaking the increased velocity of the en- lieve that the following is little known. gine the means of checking the in-rush of As he was a man of remarkable insensithe steam, and so reducing the undue bility, people told him everything that rapidity of motion ; while a too slow move- happened. A gentleman, coming one day ment increased the supply of vapor and into his room, told him that Dr. Vowel accelerated the action. Thus the most
“ What!” said he, “ Vowel perfect regularity was secured by methods dead? well, it is neither u nor i.” Dr. which excite the admiration of all who are Eveleigh, who, with his family, was some able to appreciate the beauties of scientific years ago at Weymouth, gave occasion to mechanism.
old Lee, the last punster of the old school, These instances are sufficient to indi- and the master of Baliol College, Oxford, cate the nature of the numerous improve- for more than half a century, to make his ments introduced by Watt, whose efforts dying pun. Dr. Eveleigh had recovered excited the emulation of a host of follow- from some consumptive disorders by the ers, who have carried the powers of the use of egg-diet, and had soon after marsteam-engine to a degree beyond the most ried. Wetheral, the master of University sanguine expectations of Watt; so that, College, went to Dr. Lee, then sick in while he could only promise a force suffi- bed, resolved to discharge a pun which he cient to raise five hundred thousand pounds, had made. “Well, sir," said he, “Dr. others have furnished engines capable of Eveleigh has been egged on to matrilifting one hundred and twenty-five million mony." " Has he ?" said Lee; “ why, pounds ; thus giving an increase of power then, I hope the yoke will sit easy." In in the proportion of two hundred and fifty a few hours afterward Dr. Lee died. to one. To these subsequent steps Watt, The yoke did sit easy on Dr. Eveleigh, however, pointed the way; and since his for he had a most amiable, religious, and time every part of the engine has been charitable wife. — Chambers's Ed. Jour.
BY SIR ARTHUR CLARKE.
We do our nature wrong
The ramble up the slope
Of the bigh mountain cope
Tbe fresh luxurious BATU,
Far from the trodden path,
BATHING-ITS USE AND ABUSE.
the body is robbed of its natural heat ; reaction prevented ; the vessels collapse ; and transpiration by the natural channel of the pores is suspended ; obstructions are confirmed, and paralysis is frequently induced. It is common to observe the fingers of “ dabbling" bathers void of the vital stream ; and though habit enables some persons of robust constitutions to
remain a considerable time in the water, KHAT bathing is the most efficacious of it cannot fail ultimately to destroy the
remedies, as well as the most healthful vigor of the frame. Even the exercise of of luxuries, is so fully established by the swimming, when long continued, has in opinion of the highest authorities, founded numberless instances occasioned the loss on the universal practice and experience of the use of limbs, and not unfrequently of ages, that it is unnecessary to go over proved fatal. the beaten ground. I shall therefore pro- Some persons think it a laudable feat to ceed to observe, that the manner of bath- leap head-foremost from a height into the ing, though a point of the first importance, water; but this unnatural posture must be seems by most people to be thought of no injurious, except to those whose heads and consequence at all; but let the effect of heels are equally provided with brains. bathing be considered, and this indifference An easy and nearly horizontal position is will appear in a strong light.
the best for the moment of immersion. By the compression of the whole exter- It is frequently objected, that cold bathnal surface of the body, which takes place ing is dangerous in internal and local on judicious immersion, the blood is carried weaknesses; but a close and attentive obon with acquired force to the heart, and servation, as well as personal experience, returned by the reaction with proportional lead me to think this objection at least equiv. impulse. By this increased action and ocal. May not these weaknesses be occavelocity, the capillaries are opened, the sioned by obstructions which the bath will sluggish and tenacious humors loosened, remove? and as to the humors being forced obstructions are removed, the vessels are on the peccant part, they are too briskly cleansed, and the whole system is invigor- driven to rest anywhere ; and it is at least ated ; but all this depends on total and as probable that the part affected, partaking instant immersion; and to suppose that of the power of this simple and natural stepping into a bath, or wetting the body tonic, may join in the general expulsion. by parts, will produce these effects, is an I have myself bathed under pleuritic affecabsurdity that one would scarcely think tion, which immediately abated, and by any person of the commonest powers of repetition was entirely removed. Similar comprehension could admit; yet the prac- consequences ensued on bathing with a face tice of many people seems to imply as much inflamed and swollen from a violent much, though even the most accustomed tooth-ache. The same effects were probathers have experienced, that when, by duced in a case of head-ache, which had bathing in shallow water, they have neces- continued for ten days, with excruciating sarily wetted the lower extremities first, torture, and was nearly subdued by the their breath has been taken away; whereas first immersion, and wholly in a very short by plunging wholly into water of the same time. In short, I have scarcely a doubt temperature, no such inconvenience has that when evil has resulted from bathing, arisen : a sufficient proof of the danger of it has been from the injudicious manner in partial bathing.
which it has been used. As by judicious bathing the vessels are In regard to the best time for bathing, freed, and the pores opened, so, by a con- it is when the natural indication is the trary mode, the very reverse of these ad- strongest, and this, generally speaking, vantages must be expected. Everything will be after considerable exercise (but beyond a single plunge and immediate im- short of producing sensible perspiration or mersion is preventive of the incalculable fatigue). The body is then in that adust benefit which judicious bathing never fails state which renders bathing so highly luxto produce. By continuing in the bath, urious ; and a vigorous circulation will insure the full effect of reaction. Nothing sures a perfect privacy, it were to be then can be more operative of ill, or at wished the imagination would not conjure least of diminished good, than lingering on up a phantasmagoria of merely ideal obthe margin of the flood till the stagnating servers. fluids refuse to obey even the spur of im- A part of my subject now presents itself, mersion. Hunger is the first sensation in upon which I can never sufficiently expaa healthy body on rising from the repose tiate while anything remains unsaid which of the night; and as digestion takes place may tend to enforce its interest ; I mean, in the most perfect manner during sleep, the bathing of children. The little innoand many hours have passed without sup- cents are entirely at the mercy of those ply, the stomach should then be recruited. into whose hands they may happen to fall; This, therefore, is not the most proper and the brutal or senseless indifference to time for bathing. I consider the best time, their feelings, their fears, their almost generally, to be between breakfast and convulsive apprehensions, is sometimes dinner; but every one will be able to de productive of the most afflicting consetermine this point, who is capable of a quences, and too often prevents any benesmall degree of reflection, and will give it ficial effect from bathing. as much consideration as he often bestows Children should never be dipped more on matters of less importance. Perhaps, than once; and that with the greatest care, where there is great rigidity of fibre, the that the immersion may be deep, but quickmorning may not be objectionable, and the ly done. The practice of dipping them warm bath may be a good preparative. three times, (folly's magic number,) and
I cannot too often repeat, that every generally without allowing them sufficient subsequent dip lessens the effect of the time to recover their breath, is so preposfirst immersion ; and that the bath should terously absurd, so evidently injurious, that be used once, and once only, every day ; one would almost wonder it could ever and were it so used every day in the year, obtain. The child is made to look with it would insure a life of health, barring increased dread to the hour of bathing, the effects of intemperance, and all other through the pain it has experienced from ill habits; though even these enemies to the distress which the lungs have underhealth and life will labor against such an gone; by which the chance of benefit is antagonist. I cannot here help smiling reduced to almost nothing. Let parents, at the idea, that three or four dips, twice then, and all who have the care of chilor thrice a week, are better than one every dren, weigh well these suggestions, and day. I really should be provoked to call rescue the little sufferers from the hands this notion absolutely idiotic, had I not of ignorance and inattention ; that they met with persons of good sense who had may partake of the benefit of this invalufallen into this egregious error; and I able remedy, preservative as well as curaknew a lady who actually took ten dips on tive. When a child knows that it is only the last day of her stay at a watering to be dipped once, it will soon be reconplace, and would have gloried in her eco- ciled ; for it will be put to no pain ; on the nomical exploit, had not the chattering of contrary, the sensation will be highly her teeth, instead of her tongue, prevented agreeable. her recounting it to her friends for at least The proper depth for bathing is about ten hours after.
four feet and a half; a less depth were I am now to tread on slippery ground; disadvantageous, and a greater would be but I cannot conscientiously avoid it, though too deep for general use. Persons attendI know I shall risk the displeasure of the ing bathing-machines should be very attentreal, but mistaken, delicacy of some, and ive to this circumstance, as it will greatly the affected delicacy of more, when I urge contribute to the satisfaction as well as the ill effects of using dresses in bathing ; benefit of the bathers, who are seldom but I must submit to sensible and reason- aware of its importance. ing semales, that an encumbering dress Volumes of cases might be adduced, not only injures the primary influence, but incontestably proving the efficiency of the by clinging to the person, checks the glow bath, and showing the absurdity of those which should be felt on coming out of the apprehensions which some people have bath, and in weak constitutions often totally entertained respecting its application in prerents it. As the usual inclosure in- particular complaints. There is much
VOL. III, No. 2.-M
more danger of deranging the frame, and priestly insolence and hauteur ; the same occasioning local injury, by medicines un- fierce and rancorous partyism abound, as congenial with the natural economy, and they did in the past. Nay, some there are powerful in their sensible or less percep- who would deliberately stereotype the mode tible ravages, than can possibly be expe- of preaching, and insist that we in this day rienced in any case from judicious bathing. must reproduce the exact style and manner
In a word, when the bath is used with of the Covenanters or the Puritans, and due consideration and judgment, its advan- that every minister to be successful must tages are certain and universal.
become a second Baxter, or a Rutherford
Redivivus. This is not possible, and it DEFECTS OF MODERN PREACHING.
were not desirable if it were possible. As
well regret the loss of the grimaces which THERE are many shams and worships, their preachers made and the strange
frauds and wrongs, which our modern gamut which they sung. Even Paul himpulpit almost entirely ignores, and by self, were he returning to the church, ignoring serves to perpetuate. It attacks would in all probability change his mode licentiousness and gross vice ; but it says of address. “Righteousness, temperance, little about the worship of money, about and judgment to come," would still be his the cant of respectability, about the undue themes; the result would be again that honor paid to “Right Honorable," and Felixes would tremble at his oratory, his other great names-about the mean tricks way to the heart or conscience would still of trade and frauds of commerce, and the be a terribilis via; but there would be iminnumerable white lies which abound in all portant diversities in his tone, his language, the departments of society. It shuns, too, the line of his argument, and the course of in general, all allusions to the political and his appeal. Paul was inspired as a writer; social movements of the age-although, but there is no evidence that as a preacher surely, the pulpit should be an eminence he was perfect, or meant as a complete commanding a view of both worlds, and or final model for us. Chrysostom did intermeddling on fit occasion with every not preach like Paul, but like Chrysostom, subject connected with the welfare and even as Paul had not preached like Jesus, the advancement of mankind. The con- but like Paul ; Luther did not preach like sequence is, that people stepping out of the any of the three, but like Luther ; Knox every-day atmosphere of life into the copied not Calvin in his preaching, nor ehurch, find themselves in a strange and | Melville Knox, nor Chalmers or Hall any perplexing atmosphere; they are less of them all. The beauty, power, and glory elevated than startled and tantalized ; of preaching have always lain, if not in they hear little that comes home to their absolute originality, yet in new adaptation business and bosoms; they seem to have of old truth to new circumstances. And, passed by a single stride into the sepulchral on the other hand, the weakness, contempt, glooin of the middle ages, and when they and degradation of preaching have lain, leave the sanctuary, it is like coming out and do lie still, in slavish conformity to of the world of dreams. Ah! the church models in the form of sermon, abounding does not now overlook and lord it over the with the heads, and particulars, and inferStrand--the congregated throng of men- ences, the “ohs" and “ahs” of old serthey go on their own way, and it stands mons, imitating, too, their tone of sanctity, apart, uttering unregarded thunders, and and accompanied by the whining, voice shooting out flashes which too often are and the starched aspect which belonged to powerless as painted lightning.
a by-gone day. How many the preachers The truth is, that while the age has who seem to imagine that man's religion, progressed the pulpit has stood still. The like his life, lies in his nostrils, or who style of modern preaching is not materially deem that length of visage is a measure changed from what it was two centuries for piety and power, or who mistake a comago. The same explanation of the same pound of clamour and cant for eloquence, texts ; the same ever-recurring platitudes or who confound the mere phraseology and and commonplaces; the same boltless technical theological language of our anthunders of threatening and warning; the cestors with their living fire and solemn same sheet-lightnings of copious and earnestness? These are the men who ineffectual declamation ; the same tone of disgust and weary the young intelligence