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rity, in the eye of his ruling passion. But he was little loved, and he died unregretted. The reason was:–His for.ign engageincnis detained him much on the continent, during which, in the adıniniltration of his justiciaries, the laws were pegleit. ed; or many evils, from the state of things, neceffarily disturbo «d the public harmony. The very circumitance of his abience, to a nation jealous of their honour, and conscious of their fuperior weight in the scale of the empire, was a subject of complaint; and when their king returned to them, it was often with a levt re brow, to correct abuses, and to enforce the exe. cution of the laws. The English, therefore, did not love him, They admired him as a warrior, who extended his dominions, and They seemed to share in bis triumphs.-Nor was he well wil his Frinch subječts, the Normans only excep'ed. The monarch of France was to than a more natural sovereign; he was always at hand to protect them; and belides, it was ever bis aim, as the most obvious policy direcied, to foment a spirit of oppofi:inn, to hold out favour to the roíractory, and to thew limieli to thein, with thc benign afect of their sovereign lord.
· Henry is generally acknowledged to hate been the greatest of our English kings, I will not say that it was otherwise : buc when, in cool reflection, we take a view of England, as he left it, and of each particular province which conitituted the wide empire o! his command, we are compelled to ow), that he had done little to improve their luws, to correct their manneis, to extend Their commerce, to diffuse the light of science, to spread the bleilings of peace, in a word, to make them a better or å happ'er people. Added to the nominal empire be had, Scot: land had done homage to him, and Ireland, ii may be faid, bad submitied to his coniroul. But never was a conquest more im. perfectly settled. His reign, in a word, was more brillia. I, than atiended by any real benefits; more fortunate than profperous in uteful and permanent fucceis ; and had providence added a few more years to its duration, we should have seen it terminate, molt probably, in the melaucholy reverse of all its acquired glory, He died uplamcnted; but the experience of t'e next reign, says the most philosophical of ihe monkish writCri, taught them, in sorrow of mind, to look back to Henry, as to a great and good princco? rio be continued.)
Britannia ; or, a Choregrapbical Description of the flourishing
Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and ihe Islands adjacent ; from the earliest Antiquity. By William Camden, Translatra from the Edition published by the Author in MDCVII. Enlarged by the latest Discoveries, by R. Gough, F. A. and R. SS. Iufrated with Maps and other Copper-Plates, 3
Pels. Folio. vol. Boards. Payne and Son." THE ftudy of topography has always been interesting. In
• the clasical ages, the wcrks of Pausanias, Dicæarchus, and others, and in the barbarous middle period, those of
Adam of Bremen, Giraldus Cambrenfis, &c. thew that this branch of science has always invited attention in the various revolutions of the human mind; has attracted the fagacity of science, and the curiosity of ignorance.
But since the revival of letters, topography and local antiquities boast of such numerous followers, as to cviace, that there must exift in these times fome (pring of curiosity, soms centre of attraction, unknown in the claffical and in the middle ages. In the former period, no irruption of barbarians, AC innovations of religion, had buried or obliterated ancient remains. The monuments of art, though antique, were too familiarly known to excite much curiosity. In the latter, few men exised who could could look upon such remains with a scientific eye ; or had minds enlarged enough to regard any object of topography, but the superior riches or sanctity of any particular abbey or monastery. In modern times, on the contrary, curiosity has awaked as from a long sleep; and has found perpetual food in the discovery of places and of monuments, endeared to the mind by their connection with the classic writers, to whom we are indebted for our earliest, warmcit, and most vivid ideas; it has delighted in the pleasing lo. calities of our native country; and in the progrellive increase of towns, of industry, of civilization. Topography is generally attractive by its minute and copious display of the state of a country; but to the natives it is particularly interesting, for it is a source of real utility, as well as of elegant and scientific pleasures,
So rapid was the progress of this study w pon the revival of literature, that most countries had good topographers before Camden published his Britannia in the year 1586. But such were his advantages, by the perusal of fo many models; and fich were the intrinfic merits of his work, that so far as we can recollea, he is the only early topographer of any country whose book has been constantly reprinted to the present times, and supplied with additions ; while in other countries the lateft topographers have eclipsed the former ; and it has been found better to compofe entirely new works, than to auginent and correct the old ones.
The present editor is so well known in this department, that it is needless to point out the proofs which he has formerly given of being well qualified for his office. It has been tarted as an objection to this large edition, that the former editions of Camden were sufficiently fall for a general topography of Great Britain ; and that the reader who wished for more par. cicular information, on any local objects, must, at any rate, have recourse to the large histories of the several counties: Mr,
Gough, if he affumned the office of choosing the extracts, might select from these county-hidories what was interesting to one reader and not to another. This ovjection secms to remain in full force, and we must add that the euitor has pushed the lio cence of extracting and of compilation as far as it can weli go. The accounts of Wales and of Scotland, for instance, are chiefly extracted from Mr. Pennant's Tours, which are works in every topographical library; probably in the hands of every reader who will look into Mr. Gough's Camden.'
Before proceeding to a more minute examination of this vait compilation, let us attend to some parts of our editor's Preface.
· Four editions of Camden's Britannia in English presenting themselves to ihe public regard in the short space of 65 ycan, and at the differeni distances of 30, 20, and 17 years from each other, may sccm an extraordinary appearance in the literary world that requires to be a counted for.
The claiirs of the first of these three editions are founded on the presumptive righi ot bockiellers to oillribute a new edi. tion when the preced ng is fold off, efi:ecially when the book has to much mcrit as this in iis rudeit flate.
Those of the second and third rest on the reputation of the right reverend translator, and the additions he might have intended for any future edition.'
The language of the two last paragraphs is so obscure, that we confefs we can hardly guess as their meaning. But to proceed:
If it be obje&ted that too large a portion of Leland is tran fcribed, let it be conídered that it is merely with a view to ibew where Mr. Camden borrowed from him. Shuuld the suppused plagiarilin hy this com; arison be thought to turn out g: eater ihan even Brooke allered, it is no reproach to Mr. Camden to have given tuch a form, arrangement, and dress, to the tugitive noies 'of his great preciec fior, whole noble delign a variety of accidents concurred to cut fhoit. Leland was the Camden of his age; and had the reign o: Hienry VIII. been as favourable to literature or amiquarian researches as that of his daughter, we night not have wanted Mr. Camden, or rather we fiould have had his genius under another name. How warmly Leland breathed the fame fpirit may be seen iu his letters to archbiiliop Cranmer, recommending his collections to his care. Not to repeat what I have c'iewhere laid in praise of Leland, suffice it to observe, that the rapidity of reformation, however favoura. ble to religion, gave a fa al wound to such kind of knowledge as Leland and Camden pursued. It is no mean praise for Mr. Camden that he filled up the outlines of Lelano. Mr. Gough then mentions that for twenty summers he
amafod amused himself with raking topographical notes in various parts of England, and at last of Scotland: but from the little original matter which we find in these volumes, we are afraid that his excursions were not extensive; and we are certain that bis attention has been partially bellowed, for in his description of many counties, particularly where no county-history was to be found, the additions to the former edition are very iriling and sometimes erroneous. From the many works in folio and quarto which our editor has peblished within these few years we do not hesitate to say that the present edition has not received the necessary attention ; and that we do not wonder to find, in some places, the sense obscure and the language inaccurale.
The editor then proceeds to mention the plan which he has followed, and which is certainly preferable to bishop Gibson's. It chiefly confifts in retaining Camden's text, and adding the labours of future editors and annotators, in a continued par. rative, which is subjoined to the description of each county.
• After all that has been or can be collected towards forning a complete edition of ihe Britannia, much must be left to be corrected and supplied by atteniive inspection of judicious tra. vellers, or natives in the several counties. Increase of wealth renders property fo fluctuating ihat it can hardly be ascertained for a succession of years. Increase of honours, a consequence of the foregoing cause, will add names to the peerage, and tiles to places now obtcure. Increase of cultivation makes rapid alterations in the face of the country. Old fiations are leveiled by the plough, old mansion houtes by modern refinement, and old litles revive in new families. Otiers may trace out many things barely hinted at here, and settle many points which are vnavoidably lelt dubious.
• The errors of foriner editors serve but to awaken a stronger apprehension in the present : and if the great author could not fatisfy himfelf in his last and completelt edition, what security is there for another editor's promite? If, in pointing out such errois, those of other antiquaries are also animadverred on, this it is hoped is done wish the candour due to respectable names.
Far froin presuming on an ability to correct the mistakes of preceding editors, it is not without the utmost diffidence I submit to the public eye the result of twenty years journeying, and a longer term of reading and enquiry; the labour of seven years in translating and eolarging Mr. Camden's valuable work; and of nine more in attending his cdition through the press. This laft term must apologise for the omillion of events that happened during the progress of the piess, and for appearances of anachronism.'
To the preface fucceeds a life of Mr. Camden, commencing with this paragraph:
O A life of Mr. Camdco to be prefixed to che Britannia, should contain only the most ibikin' traits. There is no occafion to wander into digressions, enlarge upon vindications, or dittract the reader's attention with epi'odes. The life writien by Dr. Smith, considertd by itself, is an elegant piece of Latin compo. fition. That by bishop Gibfon a bald translation of it, and that by Dr. Campbell in the Biographia Britannica, a meagre ill-digested compilation, whose principal aim is to flatter the reverend transator through his hero, and to vindicate Mr. Camden becaufe bishop Gibion franflated his work. Yet it flands unaltered in the new edition of that dictionary, and the notes added to it are trivial and uninteresting.'
Mr. Gough cenfures with such asperity, that he ought to have guarded himself againit censure with great caution. 11 moft, however, be confessed, that this life of Camden is meil drawn up, though the notes are too much in Mr. Gough's usual Asle of compilazion. Hardly a person is mentioned in ií, but a life is given in the Nores; and that furor of triffing an, ecdotes fo prevailing in the dotage of literature, is too apparent. In the notes are long accounts of many persons either known alieady to every one, or whom none wishes to know, Mr. Gough feenis determined to forget that other people have | books as well as himself.
In proceeding 10 the work itself, we are almoit at a loss wbat plan io follow, in order to specify such a heap of materials. But we think we cannot follow a better, than to produce a large extract from Mr. Gough's additions to Dorleifhise; because they not only form as good a specimen as any other, but allo theư how much Camden was a plagiary from Le. land, whom he never quotes*, a matter not generally known, The passages in Italic letter are taken by Camden from Leland's Itinerary without acknowledgment.
“ Brirport, of sum written Brutiport, is a fair large toun, and the chief ítreat of it !yith in length from west to eait. Ther crollith another fair ítreat in midle of it into thefouth, The town longith unto the king, and hath privilege for a mar. ket and two bailives. At Bridpor k be made good daggers.” A Bridport dagger is a proverb for a halter. “ At the west end of the coun runnith a river, and going a mile lower entereth in. to the occan. Nature bath so set ibis ryter mouth in valley between trvo billes sha: svithonfithe le migba be brought in, and iber an havin made." In consequence of an act of parliament an attempt was made, 1741, to clear this haven, but the current of the river
• Exeept the Cygula Cartie.