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buildings, signs of art and industry, which strike the traveller's eye, when, leaving Cronstadt behind, he ascends the narrowing Neva. Yet, in some respects, this view of the St John recalled to my mind some of the points on the Russian river: though among European scenery, in its broad waters and forests of pines it most resembled the tamer portions of the sea-arms and fiords of Sweden and Norway.

I reached Fredericton about four in the afternoon, and there found my conductor, besides making me pay very high for his services, most anxious—like so many others of these provincial people — to persuade me that he had done me a great favour besides, in bringing me, and that I was obliged to him in a degree for which my money was no compensation. He could have made more at his ordinary occupation of serving writs and seizing debtors, and it was only to oblige my friends he had brought me at all. I could only regret that my friends should have induced him to do what was so much to his disadvantage, and assure him, that having paid his exorbitant demand, I considered I had discharged every sort of obligation I owed him. This sort of thing, in one form or other, the traveller will often meet with in all these new countries; and not least frequently among those who have still a trace of the Irish " never went to service at home, sir," remaining in their heads.


General remarks on the province of New Brunswick. Want of frank

ness in the people. — Official staff in the province. — Provincial salaries.—Ultra-liberal speech.— Tendency to discontent.- Responsible government.--Accepting inferior offices.—Society at the “ Little Court” of Fredericton.-Cathedral and College.--Relative numbers of the religious sects in the province. Position of the English Episcopal church.—Tractarian element.-State of the University.-Alleged grievances. — Merit of its founders. Necessity for positive and material instruction. Resources of the Province. - Quality and quantity of its several soils.—Quantity of food, estimated in oats and hay, which the several soils and the whole province is capable of producing. — Population it is able to sustain.-Relation of the supply of fossil fuel to the possible population of a country.-How it affects New Brunswick. — Importance of early determining the extent and position of available fossil fuel.-- Average produce of different crops in the whole province. Compared with Great Britain and Ireland.-Compared with New York, Ohio, Canada West and Michigan.—Climate does not lessen the productive capability of the Province.—Effect of the winter's frost.—Length of the agricultural year.-Average prices of grain in the province.-Compared with Canada West and Ohio.—Will it pay to farm in these provinces by the aid of hired labour ?–Opinions of the best practical men.Who ought to emigrate to this province. - People who may go out.Procedure of parties with different amounts of capital.— Not the country for large landholders. - Grants of land on condition of making the roads. — How bodies of emigrants might be located.Amount of immigration to New Brunswick. — How people are induced to emigrate. — Letters from relatives. — Transmission of moneys by Irish emigrants.-Proportional emigration to Canada, New Brunswick, and New York. — Indirect value of settlers to a new country.—Commercial depression.--Exports and Imports of the port of St John, compared with those of all Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire united.-Patriotic feelings of the members of the Provin



cial Legislature.—Bounty to agriculture. — Improvement of the St John River.—Construction of railways. Their desirableness.—Evil done by agitators.—European and North American Railway.—Emigration steamers.— Timber-duty grievance.—Mr Brown's address to the Legislature. --- Fiscal protection not required by New BrunswickCommon school education.-Improvement of the criminal code.

I REMAINED at Fredericton for upwards of six weeks, occupied in putting together my notes and impressions of the province, into the form of a report to be presented to the Provincial Legislature. I shall therefore devote the present chapter to a few observations regarding New Brunswick, which will not be unacceptable to those who desire to obtain an accurate general knowledge of its character and capabilities.

Among the early impressions made upon my mind, on mingling with the provincials, and which was not by any means dispelled when I came among the people of New England, was the want of English frankness and openness of speech, which marks their mutual intercourse, as much even as their conversation with foreigners. There was manifestly a species of reticence, as if

, in what he said, the speaker reserved an arrière pensée, in regard to which he did not wish to commit himself, or as if he thought some eaves-dropper were listening to catch his words.

Another thing which soon arrested my attention was the extensive state and departmental machinery established and sustained among a population of two hundred thousand souls—a Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council, Assembly, Higher and Lower courts of Justice, Bishop, Chief Justice, Master of the Rolls, Provincial Secretary, Attorney and Solicitor Generals, a Surveyor-General's Department, Colleges, Schools, Roads, Customs Department, &c., &c.—a whole host of men and departments, all sustained by this small community. Men with high names I saw – which, in England, command



deference and respect -- enjoying neither the social position nor the consideration which the name implies at home, and yet for these names opposing parties struggling as bitterly, or more bitterly, than with us.

The consequence of this disproportion between places and people has been, that the salaries of office--at first large, when the offices were filled with educated men brought up at home with English ideas—have from time to time been reduced, till now a Provincial Secretary and an Attorney-General, with £550 sterling a-year, and a Solicitor-General with £200, represent the kind of position to which the highest talent employed in the public service can now attain ; and the tendency is to still farther reductions. It illustrates very strikingly the simplicity of the provincial farmers, living remote from towns and rarely seeing money, that one of the shrewdest and now most influential of their body, in his place in the House of Assembly, once declared,

that, with the utmost stretch of his imagination, he could not comprehend how any man could possibly spend more than £300 a-year!”

It has often been remarked with how little talent the world is governed, and history has certainly shown that the cleverest men do not always make the best rulers; and, in republics, they are often the most dangerous men to rule. If, therefore, small emoluments will secure that moderate amount of talent which will keep the public wheels most regularly moving, the greater the economy introduced, the better for the people. I speak at present only of the impression which such a state of things produced upon my own mind. A great official designation did not carry with it the same meaning to the mind of a provincial as it had been accustomed to do to my own; and the actual position of official men in the provinces would probably to him appear no way anomalous.

The ultra-liberal and democratic tone of feeling and



conversation, among all persons and all classes generally in these provinces, also struck me. This appeared the more peculiar, as, after my visit to New England, I was sensible that in these respects the same classes in the provinces went greatly beyond the mass of their neighbours in the older States. Along with it there was also, in New Brunswick and elsewhere, especially in the towns, evidences of discontent-in fact, a tendency to it, and, as I thought, to unreasonable and unfounded complaints against the mother country. The reduction of salaries effected by the Provincial Legislature had created great dissatisfaction among the older officials, brought out or appointed from home, but paid out of the provincial purse. These gentlemen thought the Home Government should have protected them from such reduction, and at all risks. The opponents of responsible government, as it is called, which had lately been conceded to the colonies, were dissatisfied, maintaining that a large majority of the people did not wish or care for it, and therefore the Home Government ought not to have conceded it. But these men did not consider that it is the public voice of a colony only, expressed especially by its Legislature, which the Home Government can judge by, and that the silent and indifferent utter no voice. If ten thousand of the New Brunswickers demanded repeatedly and loudly a certain change, and the mass of the people make no effort, and express no opinion on the other side, the Home Government would feel called upon to do something to quiet these men-and the more especially if the thing demanded, as in the case of this responsible government, was in consonance withwas, in fact, only an extension to the colonies of—the principles of the British constitution enjoyed by us at home.

It is strange, though not unaccountable, how every party in these colonies makes the mother country the scape-goat in all their quarrels and mutual defeats, and

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