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• victorieux de vos ennemis. Pere de vos peuples !—mais vivez • toujours bon et juste ;' and so he wishes him a heavenly crown, “ Au nom du Pere, et du Fils, et du Saint Esprit !'

Between Massillon and Bossuet, and at a great distance certainly above the latter, stands Bourdaloue, whom some have deemed Massillon's superior, but of whom a truly illustrious critic has more justly said, that it was his greatest glory to have left the supremacy of Massillon still in dispute. * In the vigour and urgency of his reasonings, he was undeniably, after the ancients, Massillon's model; and if he is more harsh, and addresses himself less to the feelings and the passions, it is certain that he displays a fertility of resources, an exuberance of topics, whether for observation or argument, not equalled by almost any other orator, sacred or profane. It is this fertility, the true mark of genius, that makes us certain of finding, in

ery subject handled by him, something new, something which neither his predecessors had anticipated, nor even his followers have imitated, so far as to deprive, if not his substance, at least his manner, of the charm of originality. It is another mark of genius, and one akin to this exuberance, and generally seen in its company, that though his language be, for å French orator, somewhat rough, and his composition not always diligently elaborated, his style abounds in point, and in felicitous turns of expression.

• Quand je parle de l'hypocrisie, ne pensez pas que je la

borne à cette espece particuliere qui consiste dans l'abus de • la pieté, et qui fait les faux devots. Je la prends dans un

sens plus etendu, et d'autant plus utile à votre instruction, que,

peut-être, malgre vous-mêmes, serez-vous obligés d'avouer que ' c'est un vice qui ne vous est que trop commun.

Car j'appelle hypocrite, quiconque, sous de specieuses apparences, à le

secret de cacher les désordres d'une vie criminelle. Or, en ' ce sens, on ne peut douter que l'hypocrisie ne soit repandue

dans toutes les conditions; et que parmi les mondains, il ne se trouve encore bien plus d'imposteurs et d'hypocrites, que

parmi ceux que nous nommons devôts. En effet, combien • dans le monde de scelerats travestis en gens d'honneur ? • Combien d'hommes corrompus et pleins d'iniquité, qui se pro• duisent avec tout le faste et toute l'ostentation de la probité ? • Combien de fourbes, insolens à vanter leur sincerité ? Com• bien de traitres, habiles à sauver les dehors de la fidelité et 6 de l'amitié ? Combien de sensuels, esclaves des passions les • plus infames, en possession d'affecter la pureté des mæurs, et

* D'Alembert-Eloge de Massillon.

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• de la pousser jusqu'à la severité ? Combien de femmes li• bertines, fieres sur le chapitre de leur reputation, et quoique • engageés dans un commerce honteux, ayant le talent de • s'attirer toute l'estime d'une exacte et d'une parfaite regula6 rité? Au contraire, combien de justes, faussement accusés • et condamnés ? Combien de serviteurs de Dieu, par la ma

lignité du siecle, decriés et calomniés? Combien de devots . de bonne foi, traités d'hypocrites, d'intriguans, et d'interes• sés ? Combien de vraies vertus contestées ? Combien de • bonnes æuvres censurées ? Combien d'intentions droites ' mal expliquées, et combien de saintes actions empoisonées?' (Tom. I. p. 531. Ed. 8vo. 1818.)

Although the other passions are seldom addressed by this great orator, yet does he not unfrequently appeal to the terrors of his audience, and with the greatest effect, set before them some unexpected ground of alarm. Thus, in his Sermons upon the Universal Judgment, he pronounces that the Saviour is to be the Judge, for the purpose of rendering it more rigorous and dreadful. * Il paroit etrange, et il semble • d'abord que ce soit un paradoxe, de dire que nous devous • être jugés avec moins d'indulgence, parce que c'est un Dieu • Sauveur qui nous jugera. Nous comprenons sans peine la • parole de Saint Paul, “ Qu'il est terrible de tomber dans les mains

du Dieu vivant !Mais qu'il soit en quelque sorte, plus ter• rible de tomber dans les mains d'un Dieu Mediateur, d'un • Dieu qui nous a aimés, jusqu'à se faire la victime de notre • salut; voilà ce qui nous etonne, et ce qui renverse toutes • nos idées. Cette verite, neanmoins, est une des plus con (stantes et des plus solidement etabliés. Comment ? C'est 6 après avoir abusé des merites d'un Dieu Sauveur, et pro• fané son sang precieux, le pecheur en sera plus criminel ; et qu'une bonté negligée, offensée, outragée, devient le sujet • de l'indignation la plus vive, et de la plus ardente colere. • Job disait à Dieu, Ah! Seigneur, vous etes changé pour moi « dans un Dieu cruel. Funeste changement, qu'eprouveront • tant de libertins et de pecheurs, de la part de ce Dieu« Homme, qu'ils auront les uns meconnu en renonçant à la • foi, les autres meprisé et deshonoré par la transgression de • la loi ! Ce qui devait leur donner un accès plus facile au• pres de lui, et leur faire trouver grace, je veux dire les • abaissemens, et les travaux de son humanité, sa passion, sa

mort, c'est par un effet tout contraire, ce qui l'aigrira, ce qui • l'irritera, ce qui lui fera lancer sur eux les plus severes ar• rêts, et les anathemes les plus foudroyans.-Juge d'autant

plus inexorable, qu'il aura été Sauveur plus misericordieux, • Aussi est-il remarquable dans l'ecriture, qu'a ce dernier jour, • qui sera son jour, il nous est representé comme un agneau, ó mais un ageau en fureur, qui repand de tous cotés la desola• tion et l'effroi. Telle est l'affreuse peinture que nous en fait • le disciple bien aimé, Saint Jean, lorsqu'annonçant par avance • le dernier jugement de Dieu, dont il avait eu une vue anti• cipée, et le decrivant, il dit que les rois, les princes, les po' tentats de la terre, les conquerans, les riches, que tous les • hommes, soit libres, soit esclaves, saisis d'épouvante, et con6 sternés, allerent se cacher dans les cavernes et dans les rochers des montagnes, et qu'ils s'ecrierent - " Montagnes et

rochers, tombez sur nous et derobez-nous à la colere de l'Ag. neau ; car le grand jour de sa colere est arrivé, et qui peut • soutenir ses regards ? "-(Tom. xvii. p. 36.

We have seen above the extravagances into which Bossuet was betrayed in treating of the Mysteries; and the sins which he committed, against common sense and de.. licacy, as well as correct taste, in dwelling upon their details. Much of this fault was that of the age; but Bourdaloue his contemporary is nearly free from it-his moderation, his logical head, and his chastened taste, keep him above it. When, upon the appointed feast of the church, he must preach upon the Immaculate Conception, he sets forth the doctrine in a few words; supports it by a reference to St Augustin, who very peremptorily says, that upon this point he will not have any question raised (nullam prorsus haberi volo quæstionem), and to the Council of Trent, which, though less dogmatically, excepts the Blessed Virgin from its decree touching Original Sin; and then he hastens to draw from the position its practical inferences in favour of grace, and purity of life, as illustrated by the grace and life of Mary. (Tom. XII. p. 1. et seq.) His three sermons upon the Purification are almost equally free from extravagance and indelicacy; and nearly altogether devoted to the practical lesson of obedience, derived, by no strained process of reason, from the consideration of the Mystery. The third closes with a peculiar application to the Monarch in whose presence it was delivered, and whom the preacher will by no means exempt from the same duty, though he lavishly praises his Majesty for his piety, which he seems to represent as something gratuitous in so puissant a sovereign. However, as Louis was fortunately so very obedient to the Divine will, the preacher draws a somewhat novel inference from hence, and makes, it should seem, a practical application to a quarter, very unexpectedly addressed even in a sermon before the King. Il est,

si j'ose le dire, de l'interet et de l'honneur de Dieu, de main

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! tenir votre Majesté dans ce même lustre qui lui attire les re: gards du monde entier, puisque plus vous serez grand, plus • Dieu tirera de gloire des hommages que vous lui rendez! Il

aura, Sire, dans votre personne royale, aussi bien que dans la personne de David, un roi selon son cæur, fidele à sa loi, • zelé pour sa loi, protecteur et vengeur de sa loi.' (Tom. XII. p. 244.). It is only fair to mention, that however Bourdaloue may have been occasionally seduced into such absurd time-serving conduct, by the influence of the courtly atmosphere he moved in, his independence, generally speaking, was exemplary. Not only did he, in the most plain and unwelcome language, denounce the vices of the age to those who chiefly practised them— frap. pant' (as Mad. de Sevigné said) .comme un sourd, disant des verités à bride abattue-parlant à tort et à travers, contre l'adultere-sauve qui peut-allant toujours son chemin.' Not only did he openly, and in the King's presence, rebuke men for the yery conduct notoriously pursued by the King himself; but, in private, he risked the Monarch's displeasure, by being instant with him, in season and out of season, upon the most delicate points of his life and conversation. Bossuet, it is true, when transported with the heat of controversy, which in him raged uncontrolled, had attacked too loudly the mild and amiable Fenelon in the King's presence, and was asked by Louis, what he would have said, if he had taken Fenelon's part ?- was carried on by the same hot fit to give his Majesty an admirable answer-' I should have roared ten times as loud.' But this was inferior to Bourdaloue's calm and witty rebuke, when the King, bragging that he had sent Mad. de Montespan to Clagny, said, Mon Pere, vous devez être content de moi- Elle ' est à Clagny.'-' Oui, Sire; mais Dieu serait plus satisfait, • si Clagny etait à soixante-dix lieues de Versailles.'

It must not be forgotten, in comparing together these two great preachers, that Bourdaloue was the first in point of time, and therefore had effected the reformation of the eloquence of the French pulpit, before Massillon began his career. Bossuet, indeed, had begun a few years before him; but his discourses are confessedly inferior, and are besides extremely imperfect, and, except his panegyrics, rather the heads from which he spoke, than complete sermons. Hence, Voltaire calls Bourdaloue the first model of good preachers in Europe, by which he plainly means the first in point of time, and not of excellence; for it is certain, that he greatly preferred Massillon to all others.

We should now proceed to the great English models; but the subject is too extensive, and too interesting, to be handled

in the close of this paper, and demands á separate discussion. The importance of Pulpit Eloquence is great; and the improvements of which it is susceptible may be pointed out, without the slightest disposition to undervalue either the eminent examples of its excellences which the present day affords, or the just and lofty reputation which the orators of former times have left behind them ;-unless, indeed, any one should hold, that, in this line of exertion alone, men ought to stand still, and make no advances to keep pace with the progress of the age.

ART. VI. Remarks upon the Wine and Brandy Trade. Pp. 24.

London, 1826.

F the various measures adopted by the present administra

tion for improving the fiscal policy of the country, there is none that deserves more unqualified praise than the reduce tion of the duties on spirits distilled in Scotland and Ireland, from 5s. 6d. to 25. a gallon. The effects of this measure are, of themselves, sufficient to put to rest all doubts about the superior productiveness of moderate duties. It appears from the accounts laid before the House of Commons, that the total number of gallons of spirits, of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, that paid the duties of Excise in Ireland in the year ending 10th of October 1823, being the last year of the high duties, amounted to 2,118,651. In 1824, the first year of the low duties, the consumption had increased in a nearly quadruple proportion, or to 8,158,046 gallons; and in 1825, it had increased to 9,208,618, producing at the low rate of duty, nearly 400,0001. a year more revenue than had been produced by the high duty! The effects in Scotland have been equally beneficial.

But the diminution, or rather suppression of illicit distillation, was, no doubt, the principal advantage that was expected, and has resulted from this wise and salutary mea

The extent to which smuggling had been carried in Ireland, the crimes and atrocities to which it had led, and its influence in generating a contempt for the enactments of the Legislature, and in diffusing predatory and ferocious habits among the peasantry, were distinctly and fully pointed out in the Reports of the Revenue Commissioners. And as everything that force, and the multiplication of oaths, penalties, and confiscations could do to suppress this illegal

sure.

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