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SERIAL RECON HEARINGS
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABORAT. SOUM
UNITED STATES SENATE
A BILL TO AUTHORIZE THE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS TO
ASSIST THE STATES AND TERRITORIES IN MORE ADEQUATELY
FINANCING THEIR SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC EDUCATION DURING
EMERGENCY, AND IN REDUCING THE INEQUALITIES OF EDU-
CATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH PUBLIC ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR
JAMES E. MURRAY, Montana, Chairman DAVID I. WALSH, Massachusetts
ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, JR., Wisco: ELBERT D. THOMAS, Utah
ROBERT A. TAFT, Ohio CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida
GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont ALLEN J. ELLENDER, Louisiana
JOSEPH H. BALL, Minnesota LISTER HILL, Alabama
H. ALEXANDER SMITH, New Jersey DENNIS CHAVEZ, New Mexico
WAYNE MORSE, Oregon
JAMES M. TUNNELL, Delaware
FORREST C. DONNELL, Missouri
JOSEPH F. GUFFEY, Pennsylvania
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina
J. W. FULBRIGHT, Arkansas
CHARLES A. MURRAY, Olerk
Arnall, Ellis, Governor, Georgia....
Babbitt, Mrs. Elizabeth Clare, the Service Star Legion, Inc.------ 206
Bailey, Thomas L., Governor, Mississippi...
Bennion, Fred, executive secretary, Montana Taxpayers Association,
Bethune, Mrs. Mary McLeod, president, National Council of Negro
Bliss, W. B., executive secretary, Ohio Education Association ----- 140
Boushall, Thomas C., chairman, committee on education, United
States Chamber of Commerce
Britt, Mrs. Marion H., National Federation of Business and Pro-
fessional Women's Clubs..
Buford, J. L., representing the Illinois Education Association.
Christmas, Miss Florence, country school teacher, Copiah County,
Cobb, B. B., secretary, Texas State Teachers Association...
Corey, Arthur, representing the California Teachers Association.--- 217
Cowles, John H., sovereign grand commander of the supreme council,
thirty-third degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free
Masonry, southern jurisdiction, U. S. A. Statement' by E. E.
Craft, R. W., assistant State superintendent of education in Missis-
Daniel, Mrs. Margaret, principal, Richmond School, Ashdown, Ark. 116
Dawson, Dr. Howard A., director, division of rural service, National
Dodge, Miss Grace L., president, Maine Teachers' Association ---- 142
Driscoll, W. A., county superintendent of schools, Montgomery
County, Dayton, Ohio-------
Eby, Kermit, Director of Research and Education, CIO
Fowler, Eleanor, secretary-treasurer, Congress of Women's Auxiliaries,
Fries, Maj. Gen. Amos A., United States Army, retired, director of the
Southern-Western region, Friends of the Public Schools of America. 357
Givens, Dr. Willard E., executive secretary, National Education
Goza, Sam D., chairman, State Board of Equalization, Helena, Mont. 427
Graham, Dr. Frank, president, University of North Carolina ---- 309
Greene, Charles E., superintendent of schools, Denver, Colo..
Grove, Frank L., executive secretary, Alabama Education Association. 422,
Hart, Merwin K., president, National Economic Council, Inc ------ 418
Hendley, Chas. J., president, Teachers Union, local 555, State,
County and Municipal Workers, CIO------
Hochwalt, Very Reverend Monsignor Frederick G., director, depart-
ment of education, National Catholic Welfare Conference
Houdlette, Mrs. Harriet Ahlers, associate in childhood education,
American Association of University Women.
Hubbard, Dr. Frank W., director of research, National Education
Irwin, Mrs. James W., national board. YWCA.
Ivy, Dr. H. M., chairman, legislative commission, National Educa-
tion Association ----
Jaggers, Dr. Richard E., chief of the bureau of instruction, State De-
partment of Education, State of Kentucky-----
Johnson, Mrs. Thomas Ina Walker, legislative representative, na-
tional nonpartisan council of public affairs, Alpha Kappa Alpha
Joynes, Mrs. Edith B., Federal legislative chairman, Virginia Educa-
Kennan, Dr. Richard B., Maine Teachers' Association..
Leeper, Miss Mary E., executive secretary, Association for Childhood
Long, Dr. Howard H., legislative committee, American Teachers
McClellan, Mrs. Malcolm, chairman, legislation, National Congress
of Parents and Teachers
McDonald, Dr. Ralph, president, North Carolina Education Associa-
Manning, C. G., superintendent of schools, Lewiston, Mont-------- 141
Marston, R. B., director, legislative and Federal relations division,
National Education Association...
Statements presented by 25 people----
Minear, Craig P., executive secretary, Colorado Education Associa-
Moe, M. P., executive secretary, Montana Education Association.- 141
Norton, E. B., State superintendent of schools of Alabama, represent-
ing the National Council of Chief State School Officers.--
Norton, Dr. John K., professor of education, Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, New York.--
Nissen, S. B., secretary, South Dakota Education Association ----
Ogg, W. R., director of Washington office, American Farm Bureau
Owens, Lt. Col. Robert H., educational consultant, national head-
quarters, Selective Service System.-
Parratt, J. Easton, member of the board of trustees of the Utah Edu-
Perry, Leslie S., administrative assistant, Washington Bureau, Na-
tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People ------- 270
Rackliffe, John, representing the National Teachers Division of the
State, County and Municipal Workers of America, CIO.------- 215, 283
Rawlins, R. E., superintendent of schools, Pierre, S. Dak..
Robnett, George W., representing the Church League of America,
Rogers, Charles M., superintendent of schools, Amarillo, Tex------ 142
Rogers, Elmer E., assistant to Col. John H. Cowles, supreme council,
thirty-third degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, southern
Saxon, J. Harold, executive secretary, Georgia Education Association,
Sharpe, M. Q., Governor, South Dakota
Slonecker, Lyle N., superintendent of schools, Leadville, Colo.------
Sterne, Mrs. Mervyn H., chairman, federal aid to education com-
mittee of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee.-------- 194-209
Smart, Miss Elizabeth A., legislative director, National Woman's
Christian Temperance Union, Washington, D. C....
Stone, Mrs. James A., national legislative chairman, National Women's
Trade Union League of America -----
Upchurch, Miss Wilma, Pershing Rural School, Douglas County,
Weagly, Mrs. Roy C. F., president, Associated Women of American
Farm Bureau Federation...
Wells, Jere A., superintendent of Fulton County Schools, Atlanta, Ga 247,
Wiley, Mrs. Harvey W., chairman, legislation, General Federation of
Women's Clubs -----
Worrell, Mrs. Margaret Hopkins, president general, the Wheel of
Wyckoff, Miss Gladys, field secretary, American Home Economics
Association, Washington, D. C.---
Zimand, Mrs. Gertrude Folks, general secretary, National Child
FEDERAL AID FOR EDUCATION
UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR,
Washington, D.O. The committee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 357, Senate Office Building, Senator James E. Murray (chairman) presiding.
Present: Senators Murray (chairman), Walsh, Thomas, Ellender, Hill, Tunnell, Guffey, Johnston, Aiken, Fulbright, Smith, Donnell, and Morse.
The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order.
This hearing this morning is on S. 181, a bill to authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools. (S. 181 is as follows:)
(S. 181, 79th Cong., 1st sess.) A BILL To authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Educational Finance Act of 1945."
No department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States shall exercise any direction, supervision, or control over, or prescribe any requirements with respect to, any school, or any State educational institution or agency, with respect to which any funds have been or may be made available or expended pursuant to this Act, nor shall any term or condition of any agreement or any other action taken under this Act, whether by agreement or otherwise, relating to any contribution made under this Act to or on behalf of any school, or any State educational institution or agency, or any limitation or provision in any appropriation made pursuant to this Act, seek to control in any manner, or prescribe requirements with respect to, or authorize any department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States to direct, supervise, or control in any manner, or prescribe any requirements with respect to, the administration, the personnel, the curriculum, the instruction, the methods of instruction, or the materials of instruction.
Sec. 2. (a) For the purpose of enabling States and their local public-school jurisdiction to meet emergencies in financing their public elementary and public secondary schools by providing funds for the payment of the salaries of teachers and other school employees to keep schools open, to employ additional teachers to relieve overcrowded classes, to raise substandard salaries of teachers and other school employees, and to adjust the salaries of teachers and other school employees to meet the increased cost of living, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year in which the Congress shall find a need therefor, beginning