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THE LIBRARY

CONGRESS

SERIAL RECON HEARINGS

JAN141
BEFORE THE
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABORAT. SOUM

UNITED STATES SENATE
SEVENTY-NINTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 181
A BILL TO AUTHORIZE THE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS TO
ASSIST THE STATES AND TERRITORIES IN MORE ADEQUATELY
FINANCING THEIR SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC EDUCATION DURING
EMERGENCY, AND IN REDUCING THE INEQUALITIES OF EDU-
CATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH PUBLIC ELEMENTARY

AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

A 45 1945

copy 2

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR

JAMES E. MURRAY, Montana, Chairman DAVID I. WALSH, Massachusetts

ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, JR., Wisco: ELBERT D. THOMAS, Utah

ROBERT A. TAFT, Ohio CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida

GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont ALLEN J. ELLENDER, Louisiana

JOSEPH H. BALL, Minnesota LISTER HILL, Alabama

H. ALEXANDER SMITH, New Jersey DENNIS CHAVEZ, New Mexico

WAYNE MORSE, Oregon
JAMES M. TUNNELL, Delaware

FORREST C. DONNELL, Missouri
JOSEPH F. GUFFEY, Pennsylvania
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina
J. W. FULBRIGHT, Arkansas

CHARLES A. MURRAY, Olerk

CONTENTS'

28

293

-------

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Statement of-

Page

Arnall, Ellis, Governor, Georgia....

220

Babbitt, Mrs. Elizabeth Clare, the Service Star Legion, Inc.------ 206

Bailey, Thomas L., Governor, Mississippi...

322

Bennion, Fred, executive secretary, Montana Taxpayers Association,
Helena, Mont-----

--- 426-428
Bethune, Mrs. Mary McLeod, president, National Council of Negro

Women.---

Bliss, W. B., executive secretary, Ohio Education Association ----- 140

Boushall, Thomas C., chairman, committee on education, United

States Chamber of Commerce

405

Britt, Mrs. Marion H., National Federation of Business and Pro-

fessional Women's Clubs..

196

Buford, J. L., representing the Illinois Education Association.

217

Christmas, Miss Florence, country school teacher, Copiah County,

Miss.--------

122

Cobb, B. B., secretary, Texas State Teachers Association...

142

Corey, Arthur, representing the California Teachers Association.--- 217

Cowles, John H., sovereign grand commander of the supreme council,

thirty-third degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free

Masonry, southern jurisdiction, U. S. A. Statement' by E. E.

Rogers.-----

262

Craft, R. W., assistant State superintendent of education in Missis-

146

Daniel, Mrs. Margaret, principal, Richmond School, Ashdown, Ark. 116

Dawson, Dr. Howard A., director, division of rural service, National

Education Association.

153

Dodge, Miss Grace L., president, Maine Teachers' Association ---- 142
Driscoll, W. A., county superintendent of schools, Montgomery
County, Dayton, Ohio-------

140

Eby, Kermit, Director of Research and Education, CIO

97

Fowler, Eleanor, secretary-treasurer, Congress of Women's Auxiliaries,

421

Fries, Maj. Gen. Amos A., United States Army, retired, director of the

Southern-Western region, Friends of the Public Schools of America. 357

Givens, Dr. Willard E., executive secretary, National Education

Association.---

386

Goza, Sam D., chairman, State Board of Equalization, Helena, Mont. 427

Graham, Dr. Frank, president, University of North Carolina ---- 309

Greene, Charles E., superintendent of schools, Denver, Colo..

430

Grove, Frank L., executive secretary, Alabama Education Association. 422,

423

Hart, Merwin K., president, National Economic Council, Inc ------ 418

Hendley, Chas. J., president, Teachers Union, local 555, State,

County and Municipal Workers, CIO------

-------- 297-307

Hochwalt, Very Reverend Monsignor Frederick G., director, depart-

ment of education, National Catholic Welfare Conference

302

Houdlette, Mrs. Harriet Ahlers, associate in childhood education,

American Association of University Women.

208

Hubbard, Dr. Frank W., director of research, National Education

Association.---------

126

Irwin, Mrs. James W., national board. YWCA.

195

Ivy, Dr. H. M., chairman, legislative commission, National Educa-

tion Association ----

6, 322

Jaggers, Dr. Richard E., chief of the bureau of instruction, State De-

partment of Education, State of Kentucky-----

Johnson, Mrs. Thomas Ina Walker, legislative representative, na-

tional nonpartisan council of public affairs, Alpha Kappa Alpha

Sorority-...--.

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225

LIO...-...-----------------------------

Statement of—Continued

Page

Joynes, Mrs. Edith B., Federal legislative chairman, Virginia Educa-

tion Association..

218

Kennan, Dr. Richard B., Maine Teachers' Association..

294

Leeper, Miss Mary E., executive secretary, Association for Childhood

Education.---------------------------------------------

Long, Dr. Howard H., legislative committee, American Teachers

Association.--

290

McClellan, Mrs. Malcolm, chairman, legislation, National Congress

of Parents and Teachers

198

McDonald, Dr. Ralph, president, North Carolina Education Associa-

tion......

384

Manning, C. G., superintendent of schools, Lewiston, Mont-------- 141

Marston, R. B., director, legislative and Federal relations division,

National Education Association...

175

Statements presented by 25 people----

Minear, Craig P., executive secretary, Colorado Education Associa-

tion.

145

Moe, M. P., executive secretary, Montana Education Association.- 141

Norton, E. B., State superintendent of schools of Alabama, represent-

ing the National Council of Chief State School Officers.--

187

Norton, Dr. John K., professor of education, Teachers College, Colum-

bia University, New York.--

Nissen, S. B., secretary, South Dakota Education Association ----

Ogg, W. R., director of Washington office, American Farm Bureau

Federation.

148

Owens, Lt. Col. Robert H., educational consultant, national head-

quarters, Selective Service System.-

179

Parratt, J. Easton, member of the board of trustees of the Utah Edu-

cation Association.-----

147

Perry, Leslie S., administrative assistant, Washington Bureau, Na-

tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People ------- 270

Rackliffe, John, representing the National Teachers Division of the

State, County and Municipal Workers of America, CIO.------- 215, 283

Rawlins, R. E., superintendent of schools, Pierre, S. Dak..

Robnett, George W., representing the Church League of America,

Chicago, Ill....

Rogers, Charles M., superintendent of schools, Amarillo, Tex------ 142

Rogers, Elmer E., assistant to Col. John H. Cowles, supreme council,

thirty-third degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, southern

jurisdistion.---

262

Saxon, J. Harold, executive secretary, Georgia Education Association,

Atlanta, Ga.----

220

--------------------
Sharpe, M. Q., Governor, South Dakota

144
Slonecker, Lyle N., superintendent of schools, Leadville, Colo.------
Sterne, Mrs. Mervyn H., chairman, federal aid to education com-

mittee of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee.-------- 194-209

Smart, Miss Elizabeth A., legislative director, National Woman's

Christian Temperance Union, Washington, D. C....

301

Stone, Mrs. James A., national legislative chairman, National Women's
Trade Union League of America -----

197

Upchurch, Miss Wilma, Pershing Rural School, Douglas County,

118

Weagly, Mrs. Roy C. F., president, Associated Women of American

Farm Bureau Federation...

Wells, Jere A., superintendent of Fulton County Schools, Atlanta, Ga 247,

Wiley, Mrs. Harvey W., chairman, legislation, General Federation of

Women's Clubs -----

202

Worrell, Mrs. Margaret Hopkins, president general, the Wheel of

Progress

306

Wyckoff, Miss Gladys, field secretary, American Home Economics

Association, Washington, D. C.---

Zimand, Mrs. Gertrude Folks, general secretary, National Child

Labor Committee...

248

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FEDERAL AID FOR EDUCATION

MONDAY, JANUARY 29, 1945

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR,

Washington, D.O. The committee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 357, Senate Office Building, Senator James E. Murray (chairman) presiding.

Present: Senators Murray (chairman), Walsh, Thomas, Ellender, Hill, Tunnell, Guffey, Johnston, Aiken, Fulbright, Smith, Donnell, and Morse.

The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order.

This hearing this morning is on S. 181, a bill to authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools. (S. 181 is as follows:)

(S. 181, 79th Cong., 1st sess.) A BILL To authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Educational Finance Act of 1945."

No department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States shall exercise any direction, supervision, or control over, or prescribe any requirements with respect to, any school, or any State educational institution or agency, with respect to which any funds have been or may be made available or expended pursuant to this Act, nor shall any term or condition of any agreement or any other action taken under this Act, whether by agreement or otherwise, relating to any contribution made under this Act to or on behalf of any school, or any State educational institution or agency, or any limitation or provision in any appropriation made pursuant to this Act, seek to control in any manner, or prescribe requirements with respect to, or authorize any department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States to direct, supervise, or control in any manner, or prescribe any requirements with respect to, the administration, the personnel, the curriculum, the instruction, the methods of instruction, or the materials of instruction.

APPROPRIATION AUTHORIZED

Sec. 2. (a) For the purpose of enabling States and their local public-school jurisdiction to meet emergencies in financing their public elementary and public secondary schools by providing funds for the payment of the salaries of teachers and other school employees to keep schools open, to employ additional teachers to relieve overcrowded classes, to raise substandard salaries of teachers and other school employees, and to adjust the salaries of teachers and other school employees to meet the increased cost of living, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year in which the Congress shall find a need therefor, beginning

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