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and generous in the extreme, yet wholly with- This document, it appears, was drawn up out ostentation. In a single year his books re- and discussed some time ago by a body of port contributions of $17,000 to the support of learned ecclesiastics, and subsequently debated the wives of soldiers enlisted in the district, be- at the Congregation of the Holy Office. The sides innumerable gifts in smaller amounts to condemned propositions were forwarded to the individuals. He also gave $12,000 toward the most erudite prelates of the Catholic Church equipment of a regiment.
for their opinions, and when returned again ROMAN CATÉOLIC CHURCH. It is esti- carefully gone over paragraph by paragraph mated by intelligent and judicious investigators by the Pope and the cardinals. The idea is that there are on an average two thousand believed to have originated with Monsignore Roman Catholics to each priest in the United Gerbet, the bishop of Perpignan, who forStates. On this calculation there were, in 1860, warded a letter to the Pope in 1860, contain4,400,000 Catholics in the United States. The ing the draught of the obnoxious propositions. increase has for many years been much more The bishop has not lived to see the completion rapid than the increase of the nation. It ap- of his task. pears that in 1808 there was only one Catholio The Encyclical letter produced a profound to sixty-eight Protestants; in 1830, one to sensation throughout the civilized world. On twenty-nine; in 1840, one to eighteen; in the part of the clergy it found a general adhe1850, one to eleven; in 1860, one to seven. sion, yet some of them expressly made the That is, the increase between 1840 and 1860 reservation that they did not consider themwas 125 upon each hundred, while the nation selves obliged by the encyclical to condemn only increased by thirty-six to a hundred; modern civilization. The Archbishop of Baltibetween 1850 and 1860 the increase was one more, in a pastoral letter to his clergy, exhundred and nine upon a hundred, while the pressed a belief that the encyclical letter was nation increased only thirty upon á hurdred. directed against the infidels of Europe, but did Should things go on only as they have hitherto not condemn the institutions of the United done, the Catholic will be one-fifth of the whole States. The Archbishop of Paris issued a paspopulation in 1870, and nearly one-third before toral letter, in which he called upon the Pope 1900. According to the Catholic Almanac for to give his blessing to modern civilization, after 1865" the United States had, in 1864, 7 arch. having pointed out its errors. bishops, 37 bishops, 5 vicars apostolic, and 3 The concurrence of the college of cardinals mitred abbots, and in those dioceses from with the sentiments of the papal encyclical was which reports were received, 2,330 priests. not quite so unanimous as that of the bishops.
The completion of the new St. Paul's and Cardinal d'Andrea secretly left Rome, and proSt. Peter's Cathedral in Philadelphia gives to ceeded to Naples, where he paid a visit to the the Roman Catholics the
largest church edifice crown-prince Humbert, and declared himself in in the United States. The consecration was favor of Italian unity. With regard to the celebrated, on Nov. 20, with the most imposing encyclical he openly admitted in a conversaeffect. More than seven hundred priests parti- tion with the correspondent of a daily paper of cipated, and the ceremonies were witnessed by Paris, “Le Temps," that he regretted its publiabout eight thousand people. Among those par- cation, and did not subscribe to all its sentiticipating were Archbishops Spaulding, of Bal- ments. It was stated (by Catholic as well as timore, Purcell, of Cincinnati, and McCloskey, Protestant papers) that six other members of of New York, the bishops of Boston, Buffalo, the sacred college agreed, in the main, with Brooklyn, Burlington, Vt., Newark, Canada, Cardinal d'Andrea. Fort Wayne, Ind., Hartford, Pittsburg, Toron The Catholic press of the world showed an to, Halifax, and the mitred abbot of St. Vincents entire unanimity in a respectful acceptance at Latrobe. The bishops proceeded from the of the encyclical. No avowedly Catholic paper Episcopal residence in full vestments, with of Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, mitre and surplice, through Logan Square, Austria, Bavaria, or any other Catholic or followed by the priests, to the cathedral, the Protestant country is known to have uttered choir chanting Te Deum. The usual ceremo- a word of dissent. Some papers, which had prenies were then proceeded with, Bishop Wood, viously advocated a reconciliation between the accompanied by the priests, sprinkling the Church and modern society, qualified their foundation and walls with holy water, etc. adhesion by the reservation, that they acceptAfter the customary forms on such occasions, ed the encyclical in the sense of those bishops including the Pontifical mass, had been con- who did not find in it a condemnation of modcluded, Archbishop Spaulding, of Baltimore, ern civilization. delivered an impressive sermon. The cathe- None of the great Protestant countries of the dral is the work of eighteen years' labor, and world—the United States, England, Prussia, cost nearly $500,000.
Holland, Sweden, Denmark-put any obstacles One of the most important events in the in the way of the publication of the encyclical. modern history of the Roman Catholic Church, Most of the Catholic Governments of Europe is the Encyclical Letter, addressed, on Dec. 8, were for a time seriously embarrassed with 1864, to all Catholic bishops. (See PUBLIÓ regard to it. The Government of France DOCUMENTS.)
concluded to allow only the official proc
lamation by the bishops of the last lines of lower house of the Italian Parliament contains the encyclical letter which proclaimed & gen- among its members less than half a dozen eral jubilee, but to prohibit the publication of members who in ecclesiastical questions supall the remainder. Austria, in accordance with port the views of the Pope. The overwhelmthe stipulations of the concordat, transmitted å ing majority have but recently repeated their copy of the encyclical to every bishop, but it desire to aid in the abolition of the temporal expressly declared in the official gazette of power of the Pope, and in the annexation of Vienna, that it did not wish this act of mere the papal territory to Italy. The sentiments mediation to be understood as an approval of of the majority of the press and the members the sentiments of the court of Rome. Italy of Parliament are expressed by the "Nazione," also concluded to allow the publication, but the leading paper of Florence, the present capmade the same reserve as the Government of ital of Italy, when it remarks: “The position Austria. In Spain, the bishops had promul- of the papacy and the Church is determined, gated the encyclical without previous author- therefore, by the circular: war without truce ization. The Government declared that this and without armistice between the papacy and was contrary to the laws of Spain, but that in nodern civilization." this particular case no action would be taken Spain, a country with about sixteen millions on the offence.
inhabitants, still proscribes the public exercise The reception of the Encyclical on the part of every non-Catholic Church. Public opinion of the political press and the legislatures in the in Spain is more influenced by the Roman Catholic countries, was decidedly unfavorable. Catholic Church than in any other country of In France, most of the imperialist papers, in Europe. Still the progressive party, which is cluding “La France," the only one among these very numerous, which last year carried a large papers considered friendly to the Church, de- number of municipal elections, and feels conplored the publication of the circular, as in fident that it would easily obtain a majority in their opinion likely to widen the breach be- the Cortes under a liberal electoral law, is unantween the Church and modern Society, which imous in demanding universal religious liberty, they all profess a desire to reconcile. Among and in rejecting the views of the Pope. The the liberal papers of France there is hardly a “Pueblo," one of the leading democratic papers single one which pretends to believe in the pos- of Madrid, regrets "the obstinacy and blindness sibility of a reconciliation between the Roman manifested by the court of Rome in branding Catholic Church and civilization. They say, and condemning modern civilization." "From without regret, that the circular will greatly Rome," it says, “nothing favorable to freedom hasten the emancipation of the people from the can ever be expected." Church, and that in particular it will tend to Portugal, which has about four millions of bring about a complete separation between inhabitants, is still as exclusive in its ecclesiasChurch and State, as in the United States. The tical legislation as Spain, but public opinion is combined strength of the imperialist and the much less under the control of Rome. In the liberal opposition parties, may be inferred from last Parliament about one-third of the House the fact that in the legislative body, which num- of Representatives supported the demands of bers two hundred and eighty-three members, the Pope in his controversy with the crown of and is elected by general suffrage, not more than Portugal. The majority of the Portuguese about twenty members are found on the side papers call upon the Government not to allow of the Church whenever the claims of the latter the bishops to promulgate the Encyclical. are opposed by the Government. Of the total In no country of Europe did the publication population of France, which on 31st December, of the Encyclical produce a more violent 1861, amounted to 37,472,732 souls, only about commotion than in Belgium. The constitution 1,700,000 were estimated as non-Catholics of this country, which is almost exclusively in
In Austria, according to the census of 1857, habited by Roman Catholics, expressly guaranthere were in a total population of 35,018,988 tees to every citizen personal freedom and libsouls, about 8,500,000 non-Catholics. Of the erty of conscience. Both the great political periodical press of the country, according to parties of that country, the “liberal" and the statements made by prominent Austrian Catho. “ Catholic," profess an equal loyalty to the conlics at the Catholic congresses of Germany, stitution. The "Monde” of Paris, has always more than five-sixths are decidedly anti- represented the fundamental principles of the Catholic. They have again shown themselves Belgian constitution' as irreconcilably opposed thus in discussing the Papal bull. In the Aus- to the spirit of the Catholic Church. The trian Reichsrath an overwhelming majority of “Catholic" party of Belgium have generally the lower house persists in demanding entire avoided the discussion of the principle of their religious liberty to be inserted among the fun. constitution, but insisted that for their country damental principles of the constitution.
it was an accomplished fact, and that they did Italy, with a population of about twenty-two not intend to abandon it. They adhere to this millions of people, was until a few years ago view in defining their position relative to the considered a purely Catholic country, tolerat. Pope's circular. Thus La Paix," of Brussels, ing with reluctance a few congregations of one of the leading Catholic papers of Belgium, Waldenses and a few thousand Jews. Now the argues that the Pope means to say that truth is only one, that error cannot claim the same of devotedness to the Pope, which was immeright as truth, nor vice the same right as virtue. diately forwarded to Cardinal Antonelli to be It expresses its full concurrence with these presented to his holiness. Among the subjects views, and maintains that dogmatically the discussed by the Congress were: religious Pope must be intolerant. It then continues: works; charitable works; Christian instruction “The question at issue is the eternal question and education; literature and fine arts from a to know to what extent the civil law must con- Christian point of view; religious music; reform to the religious law, to what extent the ligious liberty; publications and associations. precepts of the catechism must be sanctioned Count Montalembert, who, in 1863, made at by the codes. Rigorous theologians, like the the Catholic congress the celebrated address on Jesuits of Paraguay, have pretended that it religious toleration, was not present. “ His harwas allowed and useful to compel the citizens angue," an English Catholic paper says, “gave by penal laws to observe the catechism." Those serious offence at Rome; and though the illuswho thus thought and acted went too far, in the trious Bishop of Orleans spent several months opinion of “La Paix," and it therefore thinks in the Eternal City last winter, during which that, “logically and from a religious point of his great influence there was not spared in order view, the Catholic legislator is no more bound to remove the unfavorable impression against to repress by law the abuses of the liberty of his friend, I believe I may say that the effort the pen against God than the abuses of the was not altogether successful.” This year the liberty of speech against God." Other Cath. most impressive speech was made by Bishop olic papers of Belgium insist that at the time Dupanloup of Orleans, who stated that the of the adoption of the Belgian constitution, chief reason why he came to Belgium was his Belgium was not truly a “Catholic " country, wish to comfort his brethren for the defeat but that an anti-Catholic liberalism was so they had received at the late election. (See BELstrong that concessions had to be made to it. GIUM.) It was the general opinion of the Ca
The liberal papers of Belgium reply that, all olic papers of Europe, that the Congress of 1864 the arguments used by the Catholic organs could stand no comparison with that of 1863. class the liberal institutions with things not RUSSIA, an empire in Eastern Europe and desirable in themselves, and would endanger Northern Asia. Emperor: Alexander II., born their continuance in countries where the Gov- April 17 (new style, April 29), 1818, the eldest ernment and a large majority of the people son of Emperor Nicholas I., succeeded to the would view them in the light of the Papal throne at the death of his father, Feb. 18, circular. They, therefore, ask the question, (March 2), 1855. Heir apparent to the throne is What would the Catholic party of Belgium do Grand-duke Nicholas, born Sept. 8 (Sept. 20), if they knew that they represented an over- 1843. The Government of Russia is an absolute whelming majority of the voters? There seems hereditary monarchy. According to a decree to be with regard to this point, a slight differ- of the Emperor Paul, of the year 1797, the law ence of opinion among the Catholic party of of succession to the throne is to be that of reguBelgium. Only a few openly indicate that they lar descent, by the right of primogeniture, with would, if they had the power, conform to the preference of male over female heirs. Every teaching and the example of Rome. The "Bien sovereign of Russia, his wife and children, must Public" of Ghent compares the constitution of belong to the orthodox Greek Church. The Belgium with that of Rome, and does not con- administration of the empire is intrusted to ceal its preference for the latter. Other papers four great boards or councils, possessing sepaequally admit that if the Pope should demand rate functions, but centring in the private cabiany definite action on their part, though not net of the Emperor. These boards are: 1. The consistent with the constitution of Belgium, Council of Empire, established by Alexander it would be their duty to obey the head of the I., in 1810, and numbering, in 1863, sixty-three Church.
members, exclusive of the ministers who have Catholic congresses were again held in 1864, a seat ex-officio. It is subdivided into five deas in the preceding year, in Belgium, Germany, partments of Legislation, of Military Affairs, of and Switzerland. That of Belgium again at- Civil Administration, of Finance and Political tracted the greatest attention. It met, as in Economy, and of the Administration of the 1863, in Malines, on Monday, August 29th, kingdom of Poland. II. The Directing Senate, when about 4,000 persons were present, in- established in 1711. This is the high Court of cluding the notabilities of the Belgian Catholic Justice for the Empire; controlling all the infeparty, with distinguished persons from various rior tribunals. It is divided into eight commitcountries in Europe. The proceedings com- tees or sections, of which tive sit at Petersburg menced by a speech from the Archbishop of and three at Moscow. III. The Holy Synod, comMalines, after which the bureau was formed, posed of the principal dignitaries of the Church. Baron de Gerlach being appointed president, IV. The Council of Ministers. It is divided into as on the former occasion. The president then twelve departments: 1. Imperial House ; 2. delivered a long address on the subject of the Foreign Affairs; 3. War; 4. Navy; 5. Interior; general situation of Catholicism in Europe, and 6. Public Instruction; . Finance; 8. Justice; particularly in Belgium; and the first day's 9. Imperial Domains; 10. Public Works; 11. sitting was brought to a conclusion by a vote Post-Office; 12. General Control.
The Nobility of the Empire have been, since penditures was for the first time published in 1785, in possession of the right of holding rep- 1863. The receipts and expenditures were resentative assemblies every third year. Ac. estimated in it as follows: cording to the Imperial Patent issued in that
Receipts. year by Catherine II., the nobles in every prov- 1 ORDINARY: ince form a corporation under an elective presi- 1. Imposts
Direct taxes..... dent or marshal, to whom is joined a govern
104,15,1 ment commissioner. The governor of the Prov- 2. Royalties ... ince is not allowed to be present at the meetings.
8. Revenue from public domains.
4. Miscellaneous.. These representative assemblies have their own & Revenge from Trans-Caucasia.. seals, archives, secretaries, treasurers, and per
$185,4 manent committee, the latter of which will
15.702,77 unite with deputies of the towns to examine lil Receipts for special purposes..
II. Extraordinary receipts..
1882 the estimates and allotment of contributions to
841,65 be made by the country. These assemblies have recently become of greater importance
Erpenditures. than they were formerly. Those in the western I. ORDINARY: provinces of Russia, where nearly all the nobles 1. Public debt..., are of Polish descent, took an active part in the
2. Supreme State bodies..
8. Orthodox clergy national movements of the kingdom of Poland. 4. Imperial household.. More recently, several assemblies of Russia
6. Foreign Affairs. proper petitioned the Emperor for the intro
7. Navy.. duction of a representative form of Government into Russia.
9. Imperial domains..
10. Southern Colonies.. The Russian Empire comprises one-seventh 11. Interior Department. of the territorial part of the globe, and about
12. Public Instruction.
13. Roads, public works, &c. one twenty-sixth part of its entire surface. The 14. Post Department area of the empire, according to an estimate
16. Imperial Register.
18. Costs of collection..
II. Delinquent receipts.
III. Expenditures covered by special receipts... ISU Russia in Europe...
59,880,752 Northern Asiatic Russia..
228,780 4,070,988 Southern Asiatic Russia..
According to an official statement, the coGrand Duchy of Finland.
6,400 1,724,193 solidated public debt amounted on January 1, Kingdom of Poland..
2,820 4,790,879 American Colonies..
1862, to 556,141, 949 roubles, and the foating 72,875
debt, on Jan. 1, 1861, to 1,062,648,719 roubles 843,240* 73,992,878
The exportations amounted, in 1861, to
177,179,000 roubles, and the importations to As to religious denominations, the population 167,111,000. The number of arrivals in the of European Russia and of Siberia is divided as Russian ports was, in 1861, 10,634 vessels, with follows:
a tonnage of 1,024,103, and the number of der
ances, 10,739 vessels, with a tonnage of 1,025,European Russia Siberis (Asiatic)
972. Of the arrivals, 1,956 were British Fessek; Orthodox Greek,....
49,809,891 2,626,704 1,834 Russian, 1,468 Turkish, 763 Netherland Schismatics (Rascoalniki).. 759,880 62,588 Armenian Catholics..
ish, 752 Italian, 558 Norwegian, 483 Danish Roman Catholics...
5,740 440 Hanoverian, 2,379 of different nations. The 1,982,117
2,154 merchant marine numbered, in 1859, 1,416 ves 1,425,784
sels, with an aggregate tonnage of 172,605 tons, Pagans..
197,878 280,950 and manned by from 10,000 to 11,000 seamen.
The Russian army consists, in general: 1, of The religious statistics of Caucasian Russia the Active Troops; 2, of the Reserve Troops: have not yet been ascertained. In Finland, the 3, of the Irregular Troops. The total strength orthodox Greek Church had, in 1860, 40,161 according to the reports of the War Ministry, souls; nearly all the others were Lutherans. was in 1859 as follows: Russia proper has three cities with a population of more than 100,000: St. Petersburg, with 520,131; Moscow, with 336,370; Odessa, with Active Army.
8,054 104,169. It has eight cities with a population Reserve Troops.
4,665 from 50,000 to 100,000; forty-three cities with a population from 20,000 to 50,000; and 101
887 84,716 cities with a population from 10,000 to 20,000. A budget containing all the receipts and ex- There were, besides, in the provinces, 508,885
veterans on indefinite furlough, of whom 239.945 * Equal to 7,612,874 English square miles,
had to join, in time of war, the active srms;
also, 183,785 Cossacks on furlough, who, in case The most successful among the Polish leaders of war, would serve as reserves. Also, 144,814 during the first months of the year 1864, was men, mostly Bashkirs, who in times of peace Gen. Bossack, who, on February 22, captured are exempt from service on paying a war tax. the town of Opatow, and successfully harassed Altogether, the Government, in time of war, the Russians in the months of March and could dispose of about 1,600,000.
April, but then he also had to yield to the The Russian navy, on the 13th June (1st June overwhelming forces of the enemy. Since 0. S.), 1862, was composed as follows:
May, little has been heard of guerrillas and Steam Vessels.
engagements. The secret National GovernShips of the line...... 1 Gunboats ..
ment continued issuing proclamations as late Screw frigates .......... 12 Yachts ..
2 as July, but they failed to have any marked Sidewheel frigates....... Schooners ........
effect. At length the chiefs of the National Corvettag ............
Transports ............. Clippers........... ..... 12 Small sidewheel steamers. 68
Government were discovered, and on August Floating Battery (iron
- 5th, M. Traugott, the head of the Government, clad)...
Total steamers......248 [ron-clad frigate.........il
together with Krajewski, Foeyski, Zulinski, Having an aggregate horse-power of 87,007, and 2,887 guns,
and Tezioranski, the chiefs of the different de
partments, were banged on the glacis of the Sailing Vessels.
citadel of Warsaw. The sentences of death Ships of the line......... 9 | Tenders ..
passed upon eleven officials of the National Frigates....
.. 5 | Transports..... Corvettes..... .. 8 Yachts..
Government were commuted in some cases to Brigs .......
hard labor, and in others to imprisonment in a Schooners ....
Official statements of the Russian Govern
ment give the following statistics, relating to the Total of steamers and sailing vessels, 310, insurrection in Poland : “During the sixteen carrying 3,691 guns. Besides the above, there months of the struggle (January 1863 to April were three floating batteries and about 300 1864), 30,000 insurgents were killed or severely coasting vessels. The personnel of the fleet on wounded; 361 were condemned to death by Jan. 1, 1862, was admirals and generals, 95; military tribunals, and 85,000 persons less comstaff and subaltern officers, 3,245; civil func- promised were transported to Siberia. The tionaries, 966; soldiers and sailors, 55,216; war contributions levied were six millions of marine guards and conductors, 169. During roubles in the kingdom of Poland, three milthe year there was a reduction of 400 in the lions in Lithuania, two millions in Volhynia, number of officers, and of 10,000 in the number Podolia, and Kiew. The National Governof soldiers and sailors.
ment, on its side, raised the following sums :The Polish revolution, which had been the Six millions in Poland, three millions in Lithmost prominent event in the history of Russia, uania, two millions in Volhynia, Podolia, and in 1863, was rapidly drawing to a close after Kiew, two and a half millions in Galicia, and the beginning of the new year. The Vienna one million in Posnania. The number of Poles “ Lloyd” gave the following review of the state who found an asylum abroad is estimated at of insurrection at the close of 1863:
10,000. Never were there so many bodies of insurgents in
On March 6th, an imperial manifesto an
battle nouncing the emancipation of the peasants of Chelm, in the middle of November, the corps of
throughout Poland, was promulgated. Another Waligovski, Wierzbicki, Krysinski, Cwiek, Marecki,
decree of the same date treats of the organizaSzydlowski, Leniewski, Krysinski, Ejtmanowicz, and
ution of the communal administrations on the many others, numbering 5,000 men in all, have been won os me commun placed under the chief command of Gen. Kruk, who principle of self-government in Poland, by himself is at the head of a body of horse. These which all connection between the nobility and numerous little bands do much damage to the Rus- peasantry is entirely severed. sian garrisons, which, including those of Zamosc and
On September 20th, an imperial rescript was Iwangrod, number upwards of 18,000 men. In the neigbboring palatinate of Sandomir, in which issued, accompanied by five decrees, containing Gen. Bossack is the chief commandant, 'the insur. & series of liberal measures relative to public gent corps under Rembojle, Rudowski, and Emin- instruction in Poland, the creation of a univerowicz, number 3,000 men. The brilliant assault on sity at Warsaw, and the establishment of nuthe town of Opatow, and Kruk's victories at Oco. sienko and Dzialoszyce, prove that the insurgents
• merous superior middle and primary schools, are in this palatinate more than a match for the Rus- and a free school for women. The Poles presians, although the latter are upwards of 8,000 strong serve the use of their national language. For In the other palatinates the military forces of the in the other nationalities of the kingdom special surrection have to a great extent been absorbed by schools are established, in which their respecthe civil organization. There are, however, still the little bands of Okuniewski, Nowicki, Pongowski,
tive idioms will be used. A sixth decree modKorytkowski, Putt Kammer, Szumlanski, Syrewiczifies the penal code by mitigating the penalties Zychlynski, Gleba, and many others, which harass hitherto inflicted, and abolishes corporeal pun. the Russians by constant skirmishings. In Sam. ishment. ogitia the insurgents are again increasing in num.
Another great war which had engaged the bers. They are led by Kolysko, Wyslouch, and Kuszleyko.' These litthe bands amounted in 'all to Russian Government for about thirty years, that about 10,000 men.
against the Circassians, was brought to a close
the Government o