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VERTICAL SECTION OF REVOLVING TOWER.
A, A. Exterior and interior walls of the Tower, with dome-shaped roof, K, revolving by the gearing F, upon the friction rollers G, G.
C, C. Artillery Platforms, with guns mounted upon their carriages, which radiate from the common centre.
B. The Central Turret, revolving, independently of the Tower, upon the shaft 6, , by means of the rod and gearing D; on the left of the sbaft is seen the circuit-closer, forming the
connection between the

galvanic battery and the conducting chains passing to each gun,
E, E, E. Ventilators.

1. H. Casemates, with guns, Independent of the Revolving Tower. II. Walls of subterraneous foundation for the Tower, forming chambers for stores and munitions.

there is no limit to the possible size and thick- Narrows, where the channel is about oneness. The illustration on page 722 represents fourth of a mile wide. A tower is built upon a cordon of three of these turrets arranged for each shore, and another is placed midway. An the protection of a harbor. They are supposed enemy approaching would be exposed, from the to be one hundred feet in diameter, with two moment he came within range, to the concentiers of guns. They rest upon a structure of tric fire of these three forts, each capable of iron-clad masonry, in which are contained the delivering sixty shot in a minute with an accumagazines and steam engine. The diagram on racy hitherto unknown in gunnery. To pass page 720 presents a sectional view of a turret, these forts he must come, with broadsides excut down vertically through the centre so as to posed, within one-sixteenth of a mile of the show the interior arrangements. Directly un- muzzles of one hundred and twenty guns, ber the dome-shaped roof is a platform resting aimed with the precision of a telescopic rifle. apon a central shaft, which revolves independ- Should he succeed in passing, his stern would ently of the turret, and not by means of the be exposed, so long as he continued within steam engine. This is the station of the com- range, to the fire of all the towers. The guns mander during action. In the roof is a narrow may be of the largest calibres, for it has been opening through which, by means of a fixed demonstrated that the heaviest ordnance can telescope, he keeps watch of the enemy. At be discharged within a turret with less inconhis hand is a wheel, connected by rods and venience than from the casemate of a fortress. gearing with the shaft so that he can turn the It would seem that nothing that can float could platform in any direction, and thus keep his sustain this fusillade for a quarter of the time telescope always pointed upon the object of in which the swiftest steamer would be exposed attack. If this moves, he follows it, precisely to it. A single hostile steamer once within as a sharpshooter with a telescopic rifle follows range of New

York, Boston, or San Francisco, the course of a moving object. By an arrange- could impose its own terms. To this system ment of signals he can also give any directions of turrets Mr. Timby therefore proposes to add for the management of the vessel or of the guns. a series of chains. These stretch from turret As the turret revolves each gun is for an instant to turret, and are attached to windlasses turned brought in the course of every revolution di- by the steam engine within. Buoys are fastrectly in a line with the commander's telescope. ened to the chains, leaving their specific gravity If the gun is discharged at that instant, the just sufficient to sink them. In time of peace ball must go straight to its mark. Provision is they lie quietly on the bottom, presenting no made for doing this with unerring certainty. obstruction to navigation. On the approach Each gun in the act of passing under the ver- of an enemy they are drawn up, not taut, but tical line of the telescope, is discharged by so as to hang swaying in the water at such a means of an electric current. This telescope depth as to prevent the passage of a vessel; being held pointing to the object of attack, the greater part of their weight being supported every gan in the battery is really aimed by thé by the buoys, almost their entire tensile strength commander. This automatic sighting and dis- is available as a barricade. These chains may charge are essential features of the invention; be of any required size and number. They they obviate the uncertainty of aim, which is possess the character of an immense iron raft, the main objection against the towers hereto-sufficiently submerged to be wholly out of the fore built. The commander aims and dis- reach of an enemy. The most powerful steamcharges every gun in his battery; the gunners er striking them would merely sway them back, have only to load, run the piece to the port- while its own momentum would be destroyed, hole, and place thé fuse in the vent. This can and it would be helpless under the guns of the be done in one minute. A turret of one hun- turrets. Outside of these chains it is proposed dred feet in diameter will give ample space for to stretch a line of torpedoes attached to a sixty guns in two tiers. If it revolves once a chain from tower to tower across the channel. minute, which is equal to about three and a These can be drawn directly under the vessel half miles an hour, its effective fire is sixty while detained, and exploded at the precise inguns in a minute directed with unerring aim stant desired by the discharge of an electric upon any point of the circle—an offensive carrent. This obviates the great practical depower greater than that of any fortress in the fect in all systems in which torpedoes have world. For defensive power, such a turret been employed, that the discharge is a matter can be made absolutely invulnerable. The of chance. The diagram on page 722 shows " monitor” turrets are trom nine to thirteen the details of the system of turrets, chains, inches thick; but in a land turret, if one foot buoys, and torpedoes, which combines in itself is not sufficient, there may be two or five. The all the elements of defensive warfare hitherto only limit is the crushing weight of the struc- employed. Its cost for construction and mainture upon the steel rollers on which it revolves. tenance must be less than that of stone for

The main purpose of a land turret is for tresses. The defensive works of Charleston harbor defence. The illustration on page 722 cost more than would be required to render shows the adaptation of a cordon of turrets for New York impregnable to the combined navies the protection of the harbor of New York. of the world. Masonry having been shown to The point of defence is supposed to be the be useless against modern artillery, the sole

VOL. IV.-46 A

reliance must be upon earthworks and iron. The plan for

revolving turrets for vessels proEarthworks being liable to be captured by es- posed by Mr. Timby is essentially the same calade, must be defended by a force nearly as for those built upon land, modified only by the great as the attacking one; and iron, it is be- fact that there is a limit to the size and weight lieved, can in no way be as advantageously of a turret which can be borne by a vessel

. used as in the system of turrets and its ad- The essential features of the automatic sighting juncts.

and discharge are equally applicable to both

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CORDON OF REVOLVING TOWERS AND CHAINS FOR HARBOR DEFENOE.

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The annexed diagram presents the section about one-third of its height below the deck. of a naval tower designed by Mr. Timby. It It must have an interior height of about nine is supposed to be forty feet in diameter, giving feet to give space for the working of the guns. space for six guns. Revolving once a minute, But as there never can be any occasion to deits capacity would be one shot in ten seconds— press the piece below a horizontal line, the more than can be delivered continuously from guns may be on a level with the deck. The any vessel afloat. Another important feature carriage may as well be below as above. There is shown in this diagram. The turret is sunk need be only enough above deck to give the

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1865.

128

418

500

66

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4 800,000.

port-holes height for the requisite vertical rango; In the year 1963.

2,005

1,892 six feet is abundant for this. The chance of a tarret being hit would thus be diminished onethird, and the seaworthiness of the vessel would

8,520 be increased by bringing the weight so much

During this period there were also enlisted : nearer to the line of Aotation. Moreover, as in the regular army, one-third of the turret would be protected' by Veterans reēnlisted in the field and credited to Rhodo

1,118 the side armor of the vessel, this portion could For the Navy, estimated. be made much lighter. The weight of the tur

5,551 ret could be diminished fully a quarter. What; Average, 64 men enlisted a week. however, is of still greater importance, the one During this period the United States Governvulnerable point in the monitors as originally ment has called upon Rhode Island to furnish built is thoroughly protected. This vulnerable as her quota 12,393 men, as follows: point is the plane upon which the turret re

June 80, 1863, the call for 300,000..

2,880 volves, which has been placed on the deck. The Feb. 1, 1864, 4 500,000.

8,469

200,000. The elaborate “Report upon Armored Vessels,” March 14, 1864,

1,888 4 500,000

8,197 made by the Secretary of the Navy in April, Dec. 19,

1,459 1864, is conclusive as to the superiority of tur- By a draft in July, 1863, credits in men and reted vessels. The valuable qualities of these commutations, amounting to 1,296, were realvessels was further demonstrated in the capture ized. For naval enlistments, extending back to of Fort Fisher.

1861, about 1,500 were allowed, and in credits RHODE ISLAND. Although one of the 1,806 for men enlisted prior to 1863, making least of the States of the Union, Rhode Island the State deficient at the close of the year 1,459 has engaged in the war as heartily for her power men. as the largest. Her contributions to the Fed- An amendment to the State Constitution, so eral army, from the commencement of hostili

as to permit soldiers to vote, was submitted to ties to Dec. 31, 1864, were about 22,707; as the people early in the year, and a vote exceedfollows:

ing the requisite three-tifths was given for it. Three years' men (volunteers)....... .18,200 This secured its adoption. At the same time

(drafted)..
(substitutes for drafted men)..

there was submitted to the people an amendOne year's men (volunteers)

ment of the Constitution to permit unnaturalNine months' men (volunteers)

2,227

ized citizens to vote who had served in the war. Three months' men (volunteers)

8,144 U. S. and regiments in other States. (about) 900 This lacked sixty-four votes of the requisite United States Navy......

. (about) 2,000 three-fifths majority. It was therefore rejectThe number of men furnished from May 26, ed, as was also an amendment to abolish the 1863, to Jan. 27 1865, was as follows:

registry tax,

66

46

168
677
891

House.

18

An election for Governor was held in March. erary department of one of the local newspapers. The candidates were James Y. Smith, Repub- He also pursued the study of law, and was admitlican; Geo. H. Brown, Democrat; and Amos ted to the bar in that State. Returning to the O. Barstow, Conservative. The vote was as North he continued his legal studies in New follows: Smith, 8,840; Brown, 7,302; Bar. York, and in 1856 entered upon the practise of stow, 1,839; majority for Smith over Brown, his profession, in which he was rapidly rising to 1,538; ditto over Brown and Barstow 199. distinction. At the outbreak of the war he

The legislature elected was divided as fol entered the ranks as a private soldier in the lows:

New York Garibaldi Guard, and subsequently, Senate.

by distinguished merit, attained the colonelcy Republicans............ Democrats............

of the 44th New York volunteers, or Ells

worth's regiment. He led this regiment through Republican majority ........

the battles of Yorktown, Hanover Court House, The vote at the Presidential election was as Gaines's Mill, Malvern Hill, and Manassas, and follows: Lincoln, 13,692; McClellan, 8,470. was only absent from Antietam because on a Majority for Mr. Lincoln, 5,222.

sick-bed with typhoid fever. He was also at The finances of the State are represented by Fredericksburg under Gen. Burnside, at Chanthe Governor as“ in a satisfactory condition." cellorsville under Gen. Hooker, where he was All the loans authorized by the legislature, temporarily in command of a brigade, and at amounting to $4,000,000, had been negotiated Gettysburg, where he greatly distinguished on favorable terms. The State had ample himself by his skill and gallantry. It was his means to meet all immediate claims upon her, brigade which, on the second day of the battle, through the considerable sums due from the held the extreme left of the line successfully Federal Government, which it was expected under the repeated and desperate onsets of the soon to realize. The expenses attending the enemy. For three hours Col. Rice fought incall for troops in December were not included cessantly, receiving no orders from any superior in this estimate.

officer, arranging and disposing of his men with The Governor recommended to the legislature such skill and judgment that at the close of the to enact some measures which should secure to day's fight he had extended his line so as to the banks of the State additional privileges in cover Round-Top Mountain, thus securing it their exchanges, as under the new burdens im- against any flanking movement. For this and posed by taxes upon circulation and deposits the other gallant deeds he was warmly commended business of banking was scarcely remunerative. by Gen. Meade, and earnestly recommended by He recommended the privilege should be granted him and Generals Hooker and Butterfield, for to such as became National banks, to resume the appointment of brigadier-general of voluntheir chartered rights under their old organiza teers. The President acquiesced in the wishes tion at any period they might elect.

of these officers, the Senate confirming the apOn Dec. 8th some wealthy citizens were ar- pointment, and dating his commission from rested by order of the Federal commander of Aug. 17, 1863. In this position he took part in the Military Department, under charges of hav- the operations of Mine Run, passed through the ing furnished supplies to the enemy. The pro- terrible battles of the Wilderness, and met his ceedings of the Governor relative thereto ho death, at the head of his command, on the banks thus states:

of the Po. He died shortly after amputation On the 8th of December, 1864, by order of Major. had been performed, his last words being, Gen. Dix, commanding the Department of the East, "Turn me over that I may die with my face to several of our citizens were arrested and removed the enemy." Gen. Rice was a man of deep rebeyond the limits of the State. It became the duty of the Executive to inquire into the authority and ligious principle, a brave and skilful officer, and reasons justifying such a procedure; this was done thoroughly devoted to his country. personally. As the result of the inquiry, it appeared RIVES, JOHN O., an American editor, born that the offence charged was within the exclusive in Kentucky about the year 1796. died near cognizance of the officers of the General Govern

Georgetown, D.O., April 10, 1864.' His early ment, and nothing further could be effected than to secure the assurance of an early investigation, which opportunities for an education were very limitit is to be hoped will result in establishing the inno- ed, and he was thoroughly a self-made man. cence of the parties charged.

In 1824 he removed to Washington from Ed. The apparent commercial prosperity of the wardsville, Illinois, where he was a bank cashState continues as favorable as during any pre- ier, and entered upon a clerkship in the Fourth vious period of her history.

Auditor's office. During the early part of Gen. RICE, JAMES CLAY, a brigadier-general of Jackson's administration, Mr. Rives, in connecUnited States volunteers, born at Worthington, tion with Frank Blair, sen., founded “The Con. Mass., Dec. 27, 1829, died from wounds received gressional Globe," of which he had been sole at the battle near Spottsylvania Court House, proprietor for three years previous to his death. May 11th, 1864. His early life was spent in á He was never a partisan, and although on imstruggle to obtain an education, and in 1854 he portant national questions agreeing in the main graduated at Yale College, with high honors. with Jackson's policy, he recognized the merit Shortly afterwards he went to Natchez, Miss., of that urged by the opposite party. In his where he engaged in teaching, and edited the lit public and private benefactions he was noble

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