« ZurückWeiter »
QUINOY JOSIAH, an American statesman, Upon retiring from Congress Mr. Quincy, born in Boston, February 4, 1772, died in having at his command an ample fortune, hoped Quincy, Mass., July 1, 1864. He was the only to be able to devote much of his time to agrison of Josiah Quincy, jr., the noted patriot and cultural pursuits at his country seat in Quincy, orator of ante-revolutionary times, who dying near Boston. But he had assumed too cona few months before the outbreak of the war spicuous a position to be at once spared by his of independence, bequeathed to his infant off- party, and he was almost immediately elected spring the works of Sidney, Locke, and Bacon, to the Massachusetts State Senate, where he with the additional wish, "May the Spirit of continued to be a no less earnest opponent of of Liberty rest upon him!” Young Quincy the war than when in Congress. One of his received his preliminary education at Phillips' most conspicuous acts in the former body, was Academy, Andover, Mass., and was graduated the framing of a preamble and resolution on at Harvard College in 1790, with the highest the capture of the British corvette Peacock, honors of his class. In 1793 he commenced by the Hornet, under Captain Lawrence. the practice of the law in Boston, but amidst The preamble praised the conduct of the comthe political turmoil of the time he showed less mander, officers, and crew of the Hornet, but inclination for a professional than for a public the resolution which followed declared that the career, which seemed more suited to his pecu- “war was waged without justifiable cause," liar turn of mind, and to which the example of and that it did not become a moral and relighis father and the expectations of his friends ious people to express approbation of exploits incited him. Though courted by the anti-fed- not immediately connected with the defence of eralists, he early associated himself with the the seacoast and barbors of the country. He federal party, to which he remained faithful remained in the Senate until 1820, when, on while it had a name or organization, and from the ground that his course was compromising the principles of which he never swerved to the interests of his party, he failed to obtain a the day of his death. In 1797 he married renomination. He was immediately, however, Eliza, daughter of Col. John Morton, of New elected to the Massachusetts House of RepreYork, with whom he lived most happily for fifty- sentatives from Boston, and became speaker three years; and in 1800, being then twenty of that body. He filled the same office at the eight years of age, he was brought forward by next session of the Legislature in 1821, but rethe federalists as their candidate to represent signed before the expiration of his term, in the Boston district in Congress, but was de- order to accept the position of judge of the feated by William Eustis, afterwards Secretary Municipal Court of Boston. In this capacity of the Navy. At the next congressional elec- he laid down, for the first time, the doctrine, tion, John Quincy Adams was the federal can- now generally accepted, that the publication of didate, but met with even less success than the truth with good intentions and for a justifiMr. Quincy, who in 1804 finally prevailed over able motive, is not libellous. In 1823 he was his old antagonist by a handsome majority, and elected mayor of Boston, and held the office by in December, 1805, took his seat as a member successive reëlections until 1828, when he was of the Ninth Congress. By successive elections appointed President of Harvard University to he held this position until 1813, when he de- succeed Dr. Kirkland. He was inaugurated in clined a renomination and retired to private June, 1829, and discharged the duties of his life. His oratorical abilities, readiness in de- office with eminent ability and usefulness until bate, wit, sarcasm, and extensive political the summer of 1845, when, having reached the knowledge, made him the leader of the small ripe age of 73, he retired permanently to but resolute band of federalists, who maintained private life in the national legislature a hopeless opposition His remaining years were rendered agreeto the dominant republican party. He proved able by the pursuit of literature, and by the & constant thorn in the side of the administra society of his numerous friends and of his famtions of Jefferson and Madison, and in the acri- ily. A constitution of remarkable strength monious warfare then carried on in Congress, enabled him to undertake duties usually assumed no one showed himself a more consummate by men of early manhood or middle life, and he master of fence. He often indeed went beyond entered into them with an enthusiasm characthe limits of parliamentary decorum, seeming teristic of his early career. Even after he had rather to court than to shun opposition; and passed his 90th year, his hale and but slightly some of his speeches are remarkable for pas- bowed figure could frequently be seen about sionate declamation and invective. The em. the streets of Boston, where he was universally bargo, the purchase of Louisiana, and the war respected, and even venerated, as the sole surof 1812, were among the chief measures which vivor of an older race of statesmen. His manhe opposed, and he was one of the first to de- ners, frank, cordial, and conciliating, his unnounce the slaveholding interest as a rising and selfish kindness of heart, and his integrity of dangerous tyranny.
character, against which not even his most inveterate political enemies had ever breathed a support of the Union. He looked upon the suspicion, all contributed to render his old age war as the most hopeful sign of the country's interesting and endearing. Few men, it may future that he had ever seen, and predicted be said, have ever so completely outlived the from the date of its termination the commenceanimosity which party rancor had associated ment of a new and grander epoch of national with their character. Though retired from po- greatness. litical life he continued to be in theory a fed- Besides a number of speeches in Congress and eralist of the early type, and an uncompromis- occasional orations, in which he evinced a coning opponent of a slaveholding power. He was siderable degree of florid eloquence, Mr. a warm advocate of the election of Col. Fre- Quincy published a memoir of his father;"His mont in 1856, in whose behalf he wrote and tory of Harvard University” (2 vols., Cameven spoke in public, though then in his 85th bridge, 1840), expanded from his oration at year; and the outbreak of the rebellion in 1861 the second Centennial of the University ; “Mufound him a staunch supporter of the Govern- nicipal History of Boston during two centuries; ment, notwithstanding the infirmities of age “Life of John Quincy Adams," and some mis prevented him from taking an active part in cellaneous works.
RANNEY, MOSES H., M.D., an American cers he was made major. After the expiration physician, born at Stockbridge, Vt., Aug. 16th, of the three months' service the regiment was 1814, died in New York, of typhus fever, Dec. reorganized and mastered in for three years, 7th, 1864. He graduated at the Berkshire Med- Ransom being elected lieutenant-colonel. On ical Institute, at Pittsfield, Mass., in 1838, and the night of the 19th of August, in a brilliant subsequently practised his profession in Sauls- dash upon Charleston, Mo., he was severely bury, Vt., for seven years. In 1845 he removed wounded, and in consequence was granted a to New York City, and was appointed assistant furlough of thirty days, but reported for duty physician of Bellevue Hospital. After a due upon the seventh day. He participated in the course of service he was appointed resident capture of Fort Henry, and led his regiment in physician of the lunatic asylum on Blackwell's the assault upon Fort Donelson, where he was Ísland, in 1847, which position he held until again severely wounded, his clothing being his decease. He occupied a high place in the pierced by six bullets, but he would not leave medical profession, and was thoroughly adapted the field until the battle was ended. For his for the important and responsible position to gallantry upon that occasion he was promoted which he was called, and from his experience to the colonelcy. 'At Shiloh Colonel Ransom and close application to the study of mental led his regiment through the hottest part of the diseases was accounted as an authority both in battle, and was mentioned by Major-General the profession and in the courts; his opinions McClernand in his official report as "performbeing frequently made the basis of judicial de ing prodigies of valor, though reeling in his cisions. Dr. Ranney was a member of the New saddle and streaming with blood from a serious York Pathological Society, and a frequent con- wound." He subsequently served upon the tributor to the medical and psychological jour- staff of Gen. McClernand, and also upon that nals of the United States.
of Gen. Grant, who has on several occasions RANSOM, THOMAS EDWARD GREENFIELD, & borne testimony to his bravery as an officer. brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers, born in In January, 1863, Ransom was appointed brigaNorwich, Vt., November 29, 1834, died of dys- dier-general, his commission dating from No entery at Rome, Ga., October 29, 1864. In vember, 1862. He won honor to himself at 1846 he entered Norwich University, continuing Vicksburg and during the Red River campaign, there, with the exception of a short interval, commanded a division until Gen. McClernand until the age of seventeen. In 1851 he entered fell ill, when the command of the corps devolved upon the practise of his profession as an en- upon him. In the disastrous battle of Sabine gineer, in Lasalle County, Illinois. Three years Cross-Roads, April, 1864, while fighting with later he embarked in the real estate business at a courage and bravery unsurpassed, he was Peru in that State, and in 1855 removed to severely wounded in the knee. The limb was Chicago to become a member of a firm largely examined by four surgeons, two advising amengaged in land operations. At a later period putation, and the others deeming it unneces he removed to Fayette County, and while en- sary. Subsequently Gen. Ransom was assigned gaged in trade acted as an agent for the Illinois to the command of the Fourth division, Sir. Central Railroad Company. At the commence- teenth army corps, operating in the vicinity ment of the war he raised a company and pro- of Atlanta, from thence was promoted to the ceeded to Camp Yates, at Springfield, April 24, command of the left wing of the corps, and 1861, where it was organized into the 11th Il- finally to the command of the Seventeenth linois volunteers, and upon the election of offi- corps. From the date of the capitulation of Atlanta, Gen. Ransom had suffered from a the past year in this Church was the Convention severe attack of dysentery, but no considera held at Reading, Pa., in May, to close, with aption would induce him to leave the post of propriate services, the three hundreth anniduty. While his corps was in pursuit of versary of the adoption of the Heidelberg CateHood's army he directed its movements though chism. The tercentenary contributions were reobliged to ride in an ambulance, being too weak ported to amount to over $103,000. These con. to sit upon his horse, and soon after sank under tributions gave a new impulse to the theologithe power of his disease. His career, though cal and benevolent activities of the Reformed short, was brilliant. He was a man of fine Church in this country. Corresponding sergenius, great military capacity, and of un- vices were also held in the Reformed Churches ülemished personal character.
of Holland and Germany. REEDER, ANDREW H., ex-Governor of Kan- The General Synod of the Dutch Reformed sas, born near Trenton, N. J., about 1808, died Church met on June 1st, at Schenectady, and at Easton, Pa., July 5th, 1864. When a boy elected Rev. Philip Phelps, Jr., Moderator. he removed to Easton, where he spent the The Church consists of the three Particular greater portion of his life. He studied law, was Synods of Albany, New York, and Chicago, admitted early to the bar, and by his own merit the latter of which, being of recent origin, furrose to a position of distinction. He was a nished this year, for the first time, the Presiprominent and influential member of the Demo- dent of the General Synod. The Church has cratic party, but never would accept any office highly-flourishing missions at Arcot, in India, until 1854, when, without solicitation upon his and Amoy, in China. The missionaries at the part, or any knowledge that his name was pre- latter place have been for several years requestsented, he was appointed first governor of Kan- ed by the General Synod to establish themsas. He went out with the intention of execut- selves as a Classis of the Dutch Reformed ing the law in accordance with the squatter Church of the United States, while they themsovereignty doctrine of Senator Douglas, but the selves regard it as better for the interests of troubles arising from the election frauds made their mission to unite for the present with the him a Republican. In July, 1855, Gov. Reeder English Presbyterian missions at Amoy. The was removed from office. He, however, remain- General Synod, while adhering to their former ed in the State, and was unanimously elected by views, yet resolved to leave the decision as to the people their delegate to Congress, and after the proper time of forming & Olassis, to the wards, by the legislature convened under the judgment of the missionaries. The contribuTopeka constitution, the first United States tions of the Church for foreign missions were Senator from Kansas, but the constitution not reported to be $21,686, against $20,742 in 1863, having been ratified by Congress he did not still only 286 out of 422 churches have contake his seat. At the outbreak of the war the tributed. first military appointments made by the Presi- Resolutions were adopted sympathizing with dent were Nathaniel Lyon and Gov. Reeder to the Government, and thus speaking of slavery: be brigadier-generals of the regular army. The In time past the General Synod has not deemed it latter, upon mature deliberation, arrived at the necessary to give forth a judgment in regard to the patriotic conclusion that he was too far ad- system of American slavery, inasmuch as it existed vanced in life to learn a new profession upon in regions beyond the bounds of our Church; yet as
in the overruling providence of that God who knows the field of battle. His contributions to his
how to make the wrath of man to praise him, there country have, nevertheless, been large, his three is a prospect opened for the ultimate and entire resons having immediately entered the army. moval of that system wbich embodies so much of
REFORMED CHURCHES.-The following moral and social evil, and as by such removal there is is a summary of the statistics of the German
opened a wide field of Christian labor, to employ the
whole Christian Church in this land, the Synod ex. Reformed Church in the United States in 1864:
presses its gratitude to God for this bright prospect, General Synod, 1; Synods, 2; Classes, 27; Min- and would join in the prayer that the day may bé isters, 460; Congregations, 1,134; Members, hastened when liberty shall be effectually and finally 107,394; Unconfirmed Members, 73,576; Bap- proclaimed throughout all the land to all the inhabittisms, 10,829; Confirmations, 4,903 ; Received ants thereof. on Certificate, 1,612; Communicants, 89,115; REID, David BoswELL, M.D., F. R. S. E., a Excommunicated, 160; Dismissed, 674; Deaths, Scottish physicist, and writer on chemistry, 4,675, Sabbath Schools, 852; Sabbath School ventilation, &c., born at Edinburgh in 1805, scholars (one Synod only reported), 20,551; died at Washington, D. O., April 5, 1863. Dr. Benevolent Contributions, $97,041.30. This, as Reid received his early education in the High compared with the report of the previous year, School of Edinburgh, from which he was transshows an increase of one Classis, 13 Ministers, ferred to the university of that city. His 35 Congregations, 8,619 Members, 7,275 Un medical course of study was pursued at the confirmed Members, 1,744 Communicants, and university, where his brilliant success as a $77,512.46 contributions for benevolent objects. student made him a great favorite, and he was There are 42 Sabbath Schools less reported, but elected senior President of the Royal Medical an increase of 3,147 Sabbath School scholars. Society before he received his medical degree. Baptisms were 910 less, the Confirmations 649, Soon after receiving his medical diploma he and Deaths 4. The most prominent feature of was elected a member of the Royal College of Physicians, and of the Royal Society of Edin- the audience, while the most scrupulous care burgh. Engaging, as most of the young physi- was observed in taking the air from the purest cians of Edinburgh were in the habit of doing, accessible source, and in reducing the amount in dispensary practice, he was painfully im- of impurities when present in such quantities pressed with the great need of better ventila- as to require attention. He made ventilation s tion in the houses of the poor, and the lessons primary instead of a secondary question. His taught him by his experience there were never difficulties in securing thorough ventilation and forgotten. While a student in the university he pure air in the old House of Comwons, which had been assistant to Sir John Leslie, then Pro- had the river Thames, with its noisome vapors fessor of Natural Philosophy in the university, on one side, a pestilential graveyard on the and after his graduation he had taught inde- other, and a hundred and fifty offensive factories pendent classes in chemistry, until he was called in the immediate vicinity, forced the question by Dr. Hope to assist him in his chemical of sanitary improvement upon his attention, course in 1827, and for five years had the entire and in 1842 he was appointed one of the “Comcharge of the classes of practical and analytical missioners to inquire into the state of large chemistry in the university. In 1832 he deter towns and populous districts in England and mined to resume his independent classes, and Wales," better known as the “Health of Towns' erected a class-room and laboratory larger than Commission.” In this capacity he gave, under any in Edinburgh, which he opened in 1833, the sanction of the Privy Council, a course of and for the next seven years had about threó lectures at Exeter Hall to one thousand teachers hundred pupils annually in his chemical classes. on the necessity and means of improving the In 1836 he was called to make such alterations sanitary condition of densely-populated districts. in the old House of Commons as should secure He also visited and superintended the introducits better ventilation, and in 1839 superintended tion of improved methods of ventilation and similar changes in the House of Peers. When sewerage in most of the cities of the United the Houses of Parliament were burned in 1840, Kingdom, especially in court-houses, churches, he was called from Edinburgh to direct the schools, ships of war, prisons, and tenementventilation of the new Houses. For five years houses. He also made a report to Government he continued in this work, though under serious concerning the better ventilation of mines. So difficulties and constant annoyance from the zealous a sanitary reformer could not fail to numerous changes to which his plans were sub arouse the dislike and hostility of those who had
jected by the builders. He finally refused to a vested interest in the wrongs which he so fearbe responsible for the success of the ventilation lessly exposed; and it is no matter of wonder unless his plans could be adhered to strictly, that the *. London Times" always the organ and and he himself sustained in enforcing them. defender of hereditary and privileged abuse, As a result of this, the House of Commons, should have sought, by the most reckless falseafter a sharp contest, accorded to Dr. Reid all hoods and malignant misrepresentations, to that he asked, while the House of Peers with- crush him. In this effort it was unsuccessful; drew their House from his jurisdiction. He its falsehoods and slanders, though never renever acted subsequently at the Houses of Par- tracted, were nailed to the counter by the reliament, except under protest, gaining a pub- ports of the Committees of the House of Comlic hearing at the bar of the House of Oommons mons, the investigations of the Admiralty and in 1852, and carrying an award against the the civic authorities, and the testimony of the Government at an arbitration the following most eminent men of the nation, and in the end year. Dr. Reid was more fortunate in being Dr. Reid gained in reputation from the abuse freed from interference in the application of his of the “Times." Having occasion to visit St. plans of ventilation in the construction of St. Petersburg, on a mission connected with the George's Hall, Liverpool, the largest public ventilation of some of the Government build. building in that city, containing upwards of one ings there, Dr. Reid received letters from Lord hundred rooms, the ventilation of which was John Russell to the Russian authorities, and perfect even when most densely crowded. His was received with great attention by the Emplans were also introduced into numerous pub- peror Nicholas, and requested to direct the lic buildings, manufactories, and private habi- ventilation of the public buildings and vessels tations.
of war. The present Emperor subsequently His system was based upon a new estimate charged him with the application of his system of the quantity of air required for respiration, of ventilation to the war steamer General and of the varied circumstances that inodified Admiral, built in New York. this amount. Its leading features in public In 1856 Dr. Reid came to the United States, buildings consisted in his treating the whole bearing official letters to the President from structure as a piece of apparatus, and securing, Lord John Russell, and interested himself on whenever necessary, the power by engines, the subject of quarantine and on the improveshafts, or otherwise, of introducing an atmos- ment of the sanitary condition of our large phere with the most gentle possible impetus, cities. He subsequently removed to the West, with the greatest diffusion practicable, and of and after filling for a time a professorship of the quality in respect to temperature and mois applied chemistry in the University of Wisconture best adapted to the wants and numbers of sin, made his residence at St. Paul, Minn. His
admirable qualifications for such a service led of valuable inventions. The most important the U. S. Sanitary Commission to select him as of these is that of the Revolving Turret, as one of its medical inspectors. He entered with applied to naval and military purposes. The great zeal upon his duties, and was of eminent idea of this was conceived while he was a mere service to the army in urging and securing boy. The original model, constructed in 1841, larger camping grounds, better ventilation in and still in his possession, contains the germ the tents, and a more efficient sanitary police in of the whole invention. On the 18th of Jan. the camps and hospitals, as well as in the direc- cary, 1843, he filed his first caveat for the intion of the necessary supplies to supplement the vention in the United States Patent Office. Government provisions for the sick soldiers. The specifications were “for a Revolving MeWhile engaged in this benevolent work he was tallic Tower, and for a Revolving Tower for a seized with congestion of the lungs, and died at Floating Battery to be propelled by steam," Washington after a brief illness.
It would be difficult, in so few words, more The following list comprises Dr. Reid's prin- clearly to describe our “monitors" and the cipal works: “An Introduction to the Study whole class of turreted vessels which has sucof Chemistry," Edinburgh, 1825; “Rudiments ceeded them. Meanwhile he had been engaged of the Chemistry of Daily Life," Edinburgh, in constructing a large iron model. This was London, and New York, many éditions, 1836- completed in the spring of 1843, and was pub1854; “ Text-Book for Students of Chemistry,” licly exhibited in New York and elsewhere. three editions, Edinburgh, 1834-1839; “Ele. This is on record in the New York “Herald" ments of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical,” and “Evening Post” of June 7th, 1843, and three editions, Edinburgh, 1832–1839; “The in many other newspapers of the time. For Study of Chemistry as a General Branch of some years he continued to develop his invenEducation,” two editions, London, 1842; “Illus- tion still further, and filed additional specitrations of Ventilation,” London, 1844; “Ven- fications in the Patent Office. He made sevtilation of the House of Commons," printed for eral models, one of which was presented to the Government, 1837; " Ventilation of the the emperor of China by our minister, Mr. Niger Steamships," printed for the African Cushing. Colonization Society, 1841; “A Reply to the Mr. Timby, from 1843 onwards, pressed his Times and Atheneum," London, 1846 ; “Venti- invention upon the attention of the American lation of St. George's Hall, Liverpool, printed Government. Its practicability was admitted, for the corporation of Liverpool," 1856; Ven- but it was assumed to be wholly superfluous. tilation in American Dwellings," New York, The existing fortifications, it was, said, were 1858 and 1863; “A Short Plea for the Revision far more than were necessary. Once indeed, of Education in Science," St. Paul, 1861. In in July, 1848, a favorable report was made to addition to these he had contributed the article Mr. Marcy, then Secretary of War, by Jefferson • Ventilation " to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Davis, D. L. Yulee, F. H. Elmore, and Dixon and numerous papers to scientific journals in H. Lewis, endorsed by Col. Bumford, Chief of Great Britain and the United States, and to the the Ordnance Bureau. This official recognition publications of the Smithsonian Institution, the is some years anterior to the time when Capt. U. S. Sanitary Conventions, and to Parliament- Coles claims to have invented the turret. When ary and Legislative documents.
the rebellion broke out, Mr. Timby sprung to REVOLVING TURRETS constitute the es- the development and practical application of sential feature of American armored vessels. his favorite invention; he constructed a fifth The principle seems equally applicable to land model, embodying all the improvements to fortifications. The inventor of this system is which he had devoted the energies of eighteen Theodore R. Timby, who was born in Dutchess years. The patents which he had secured County, N. Y., April 5th, 1822. He received covered the broad claim "for a Revolving the school and academical education usual for Tower for Offensive and Defensive Warfare, the sons of substantial farmers. The natural whether used on land or water.” When therebent of his mind was toward mechanical inven- fore the “monitors” were to be built, the contions. When only sixteen years old he con- structors at once recognized the validity of his structed a model, substantially like those now claim, and paid him a liberal sum for the right in use, of a floating dry dock; this was submit- to use his invention. These facts prove inconted to persons whom he sapposed capable of testably that he is the inventor of the revolving deciding upon its practical value. They admit- turret. ted the idea to be ingenious, but said that its T he general advantages of the revolving turexecution was impracticable. The invention ret, even as already constructed, are apparent. was dropped. Years after it was reinvented It not only affords perfect protection to the by others; but the floating docks now in use guns and gunners, but enables each gun to be contain nothing essential which was not in- brought to bear upon every point of the circle volved in the invention of the young resident within its range. But the turrets hitherto built of a country village. Another invention, an embody only a small part of their offensive improvement upon the turbine water-wheel, power as developed by the inventor. To exproved useful and profitable. In all, Mr. Tim- plain this it will be more convenient to conby has obtained patents for more than a score sider a turret for a land fortification, where