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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

THOMAS S. KLEPPE, SECRETARY

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
V. E. MCKELVEY, DIRECTOR

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-Price $5.20 Stock No. 024-001-02758–5 Catalog No. I 19.16:909

Library of Congress catalog-card No. 75-37452

PREFACE

The first Geological Survey record setting forth the history of the boundaries of the United States and the several States and Territories was prepared by Henry Gannett, assisted by Franklin G. Butterfield, and was published as Bulletin 13 of the Geological Survey in 1885. The second edition, revised and enlarged by Henry Gannett, was published as Bulletin 171 in 1900. The third edition, also revised by Gannett, was published as Bulletin 226 in 1904. A revision and enlargement of Bulletin 226, which included additional matter incidentally connected with boundaries, was prepared by Edward M. Douglas and issued in 1923 as Bulletin 689. It was again revised by Douglas in 1930 as Bulletin 817. Bulletin 1212, prepared in 1964 by Franklin K. Van Zandt, is a revision of Bulletin 817.

This professional paper, prepared in 197475, is a revision of Bulletin 1212. The revisions include clarification and modification of descriptions of certain boundaries. Some of these changes are a result of resurveys and remonumentation by competent authority, which make it easier to trace the boundary on the ground. Some follow agreements between neighboring States, which have then been approved by Congress. Interest in the sovereignty of off-shore areas has called for' definition of the lateral maritime boundaries between neighboring States that border the oceans or the Gulf of Mexico.

Disputes over land boundaries have been resolved by actions brought before the U.S. Supreme Court.

Changes in the national boundaries are brought about by treaties. Some islands where the United States no longer retains sovereignty are omitted from this publication.

Statistical data, mainly in the back of this paper have been brought up-todate, and there are numerous minor additions and deletions as appropriate.

Many Government agencies and officials, particularly the following, supplied useful information: Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior; Office of Territories, Department of the Interior; Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce; Coast Guard, Department of Transportation; National Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce; The Geographer, Department of State; and Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.

State agencies have contributed information which has aided to bring this paper up to date.

To aid in the maintenance of current data for this publication, readers are requested to report any errors or obsolete information that comes to their attention.

CONTENTS

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Preface

Expansion and growth of the United States ----

Boundary problems -------

How boundaries are established and changed

Boundaries of the United States ------

Provisional treaty with Great Britain, 1782

Treaty with Great Britain, 1783

Treaty of London, 1794 ----

Treaty of Ghent, 1814 -

Convention with Great Britain, 1818 -

Arbitration by King of the Netherlands -----

Webster-Ashburton treaty with Great Britain, 1842

Treaty with Great Britain, 1846 --

Treaty with Great Britain, 1908 -----

Treaty with Great Britain, 1910 --

Survey and marking of the northern boundary --

Treaty with Great Britain, 1925 --

Treaty with Spain, 1795

Distances along the boundaries of the United States --

Additions to the territory of the United States

Louisiana Purchase ----

Florida Purchase

Texas accession

First Mexican cession

Gadsden Purchase

Alaska Purchase

Hawaiian Islands ---

Palmyra Island

Puerto Rico

Guam -------------

American Samoa ----

Wake, Midway, and Johnston Islands

Canal Zone ----

Virgin Islands of the United States

Guano Islands

Interests of the United States beyond its borders

Antarctica -

Military and naval base leases

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands ---

Territorial waters and the Continental Shelf ----

The public domain and the changes made therein ---

Cessions by the States -----------

Territory northwest of the Ohio River

Territory south of the Ohio River --------

Louisiana, the areas formerly belonging to Mexico, and the

Oregon region

Payments to the States

The boundary lines of the States --

Maine

New Hampshire ----

Vermont

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