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16. The Revised Code. By James Fraser, M.A. Lon-

don, 1861

72

IV.-1. The Story of Burnt Njal. From the Icelandic. By

George Webbe Dasent. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, ,

1861.

2. Iceland. By Charles S. Forbes. London, 1860.

3. The Oxonian in Iceland. By the Rev. Frederick

Metcalfe. London, 1861.

4. Oxford Essays. London, 1858

115

V.-1. Anuario Estadístico de España correspondiente al

Año de 1859. Madrid, 1860.

2. Geschichte Spaniens zur Zeit Französischen Revolu-

tion. Von Herman Baumgarten. Berlin, 1861.

3. Spain, her Institutions, Politics, and Public Men.

By S. T. Wallis.

4. Espagne en 1860. Par M. Vidal. Paris, 1860.

5. Situation Economique et Industrielle de l'Espagne

en 1860. By M. Lestgarens. Paris, 1861.

6. L'Espagne et son Avenir Commercial. Par Ch. de

Hardy de Beaulieu. Paris, 1861.

7. Papers relating to the Annexation of Eastern Santo

Domingo to Spain. 1861.

8. Letters from Spain. By John Leycester Adolphus,

M.A. London, 1858.

9. The Handbook of Spain. London, 1855

147

VI.-1. Addresses delivered on different Public Occasions by

His Royal Highness the Prince Albert. 1857.

2. Prince Albert's Speeches. People's Edition - - 176

VII.-1. Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewart.

By Sir Archibald Alison. London, 1861.

2. Correspondence, Despatches, and other Papers of

Viscount Castlereagh. Edited by his Brother. Third

Series. London, 1856.

3. Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire. Par M. Thiers.

Vols. xviii., xix. Paris, 1861.

4. Supplementary Despatches, Correspondence, and

Memoranda of Arthur Duke of Wellington. Vol. viii.

London, 1861

- 201

VIII.--1. The American Union. By James Spence. London,

1861.

2. Two Lectures on the Present American War. By

1

Montague Bernard, B.C.L. Oxford and London,

1861.

3. The Constitution of the United States. By Hugh

Seymour Tremenheere. London, 1854.

4. L'Union Américaine et l'Europe. Par Sidney

Renouf. Paris, 1861

239

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1.-1. Hutchins's History of Dorset. New Edition. Parts I.,

II. Blandford.

2. Murray's Handbook for Travellers in Wilts, Dorset,

and Somerset. London, 1859.

3. The Bath and West of England Agricultural Journal.

Vols. VIII. and IX.

4. Poems in the Dorset Dialect. By William Barnes.

London, 1848.

5. Notes on Ancient Britain. By William Barnes. 1858.

6. Hwomely Rhymes. By William Barnes. London,

1859.

7. Celtic Tumuli of Dorset, with Map. (Printed for

Subscribers.) By Charles Warne, F.S.A. 281

II.-1. Hymns and Hymn-books : a Letter, &c. By William

John Blew. 1858.

2. The Voice of Christian Life in Song: or Hymns and

Hymn-Writers of many Lands and Ages. London,

1858.

3. Select Metrical Hymns and Homilies of Ephraem

Syrus : translated from the original Syriac. By the

Rev. Henry Burgess, Ph.D. London, 1858.

4. Thesaurus Hymnologicus, sive Hymnorum Cantico-

rum, Sequentiarum circa annum MD usitatarum col-

lectio amplissima. H. A. Daniel, Ph.D. Lipsiæ,

1850-1856.

5. Hymni Latini Medii Ævi. Franc. Jos. Mone. Fri-

burgi Brisgoviæ, 1853.

6. Hymni Ecclesiæ e Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus

Gallicanis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis desumpti.

J. M. Neale. Oxford, 1851.

7. Hymnale secundum usum insignis ac præclaræ Eccle-

siæ Sarisburiensis; accedunt Hy. Eccl. Eboracensis

et Hereford. Oxford, 1851.

8. Sacred Latin Poetry. By Richard Chenevix Trench,

M.A. 1849.

9. Mediæval Hymns and Sequences. Translated from

the Latin. By Rev. J. M. Neale. London, 1851.

10. Hymns of the Eastern Church. Translated from the

Greck. By the Rev. J. M. Neale, D.D. London,

1862.

11. Lyra Germanica: Hymns, &c. Translated from the

German by Catherine Winkworth. London, 1859.

12. Wesleyan Hymnology. By W. P. Burgess, Wes-

leyan Minister. London, 1846.

13. A Selection of Psalms and Hymns for the Public

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Service of the Church. By the Rev. Charles Kemble.

1855.

14. The Church Psalter and Hymn-book. By the Rev.

W. Mercer, and John Goss, Esq. 1858.

15. Hymns Ancient and Modern, for use in the Services

of the Church. London, 1860

318

III.-1. Papers relating to Administrative and Financial

Reforms in Turkey. 1858-61.

2. The Turkish Empire in its Relations with Christianity.

By R. R. Madden. 2 Vols. London, 1862 - 355

IV.-1. Addresses to the Candidates for Ordination on the

Questions in the Ordination Service. By Samuel

Lord Bishop of Oxford. Third Edition. Oxford

and London, 1861.

2. Duties of the Parish Priest. By J. J. Blunt, B.D.

London, 1861

400

V.-1. The Life of J. M. W. Turner, R.A., founded on

Letters and Papers furnished by his Friends and

Fellow Academicians. By Walter Thornbury. 2 vols.

8vo. London, 1862.

2. The Turner Gallery: a Series of Sixty Engravings

from the principal Works of Joseph Mallord William

Turner; with a Memoir and Illustrative Text. By

Ralph Nicholson Wornum, Keeper and Secretary,

National Gallery. Folio. London, 1861

450

VI.-1. Dictionary of the Indian Islands. By John Crawfurd,

F.R.G.S. London, 1859.

2. Java; or, How to Manage a Colony. By J. W. B.

Money, Barrister-at-Law. London, 1861.

3. The Indian Archipelago : its History and Present

State. By Horace St. John.

4. Report of Her Majesty's Secretaries of Legation,

No.4. Presented to both Houses of Parliament, 1861.

5. A Visit to the Philippine Islands. By Sir John

Bowring, LL.D., F.R.S., late Governor of Hong

Kong, H. B. M. Plenipotentiary in China, &c. Lon-

don, 1859.

6. The Singapore Free Press

483

VII.-The Life of the Right Hon. William Pitt. By Earl

Stanhope. Vols. III. and IV. London, 1862 516

VIII.-1. Shot-proof Gun-Shields, as adapted to Iron-cased

Ships for National Defence. By Captain Cowper

Phipps Coles, R.N. London.

2. Second Report of the Royal Commissioners on the

National Defences. London.

3. What is good Iron, and how is it to be got? By

R. H. Cheney. London, 1862

562

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THE

QUARTERLY REVIEW.

Art. 1.The Official Reports and Returns of the Railway

Department of the Board of Trade. 1850-1861. THE British public naturally desires to travel at as little cost

, , : It has practically only one means of conveyance. The iron rail has superseded the road of other metal; the six-legged horse has, for long journeys, driven the quadruped out of, or into the field; and the single stage-coach has made way for the train of more convenient carriages. The United Kingdom is—to its infinite advantage — intersected by 10,500 miles of railway, of which two-thirds are constructed with a double line of rails; and the gaps over the country are being filled up at the rate of 400 miles a-year. The enormous sum of 400,000,0001. has been expended within the last thirty-five years upon these works; the total receipts derived from them during the year 1860 amounted to 27,766,6221.; and the net revenue for the same period was upwards of fourteen millions and a half.

It would no doubt have been better in many ways, for the shareholders as well as for the public, if the Government had exercised a judicious control over railway operations at an early stage, and had contrived, during the laying out of the different lines, to insure greater uniformity of system, better routes, and superior management. But it is useless to regret the past. We prefer to look forward, and, with a view to the public benefit, to scan the present position of affairs, and to cull only from the experience of former years the ideas that will best serve for future guidance.

There are now in the United Kingdom upwards of 300 railway companies, leasing and leased, working and worked, agreeing and combining, quarrelling and competing, entering into every conceivable complication with each other, and possessing in all directions ties of common ambition or objects of conflicting interest. They vary in the length of their lines from 2 miles to 1,000 miles, and in the amount of their capital from 20,0001. to 37,000,0001. They employ, altogether, 120,000 officers and servants; and they possess 6,000 locomotive engines, 15,000 passenger-carriages, and 180,000 trucks, waggons, and other Vol. 111.-No. 221.

vehicles.

B

vehicles. They carried, in the year 1860, besides 48,000 season and periodical ticket-holders, 163,000,000 passengers, of whom about an eighth were first-class, five-sixteenths were secondclass, and nine-sixteenths were third-class; and they received from them thirteen millions of money as the price of their conveyance.

These various companies command patronage, money, custom, -all that confers power,—to an extent previously unheard of in the history of associations. They have Noble Lords and Honourable Members for their active agents and astute rulers. They have opportunities of affording advantages, or of withdrawing them ; of granting or withholding favours; of indulging in civilities, and of acquiring popularity, which they often employ to great advantage. United, they form a strong party in Parliament. Separately, they have the issues of life and death, as we shall presently show, pretty much at their disposal. The press is too much at their service ; and one section of it is specially devoted to them. The neighbourhood is sometimes friendly, sometimes hostile to them. The Bench is often insufficiently informed in technical matters. The most eminent scientific witnesses are at their beck and call. They possess in all quarters an influence which may some day, unless proper precautions are observed, become alarming.

To the tender mercies of this heterogeneous society of companies are our 163 millions of travelling public handed over, a helpless mass. They are all, as a rule, equally ignorant of the condition of the engine and carriages, and of the line over which they are to pass ; of the strength of the bridges, the efficiency of the signals, or the regularity with which they are worked. They cannot, of course, know what train is before them, or what train will follow them ; nor can they be aware of any of the thousand and one risks to which they are exposed.

The public cannot, then, be expected to exercise, of itself, any efficient control over this vast, highly organised, powerful conveyance-machine ; but it has nevertheless great power if its influence be properly directed; for railway companies are extremely sensitive to well-instructed public opinion. The public knows very little of the dangers that it incurs, but is a good judge of the inconveniences which it encounters. It is patient under them to an extraordinary degree. Railways are worked for profit ; and whilst a company is in undisturbed possession of its territory and traffic, it naturally strives to get as much as it can out of the public, and to give as little as possible in return.

Nevertheless, when the public convenience is at stake in a particular locality, local boards, local authorities, and local news

papers

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