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A.D. 350, S. Ambrose may have seen it; S. Basil may have seen it: if it was written a few years earlier, Eusebius himself may have had it transcribed, and Constantine may have presented it to some Church.

But the question must really be decided by a critical examination of the document itself, made by expert palæographists. The sooner Professor Tischendorf can have this done, the better will it be for his own credit as a palæographist, and, we will add, the more will it forward the sale of those copies, the disposal of which has been left in his hands. Whether the examination is made in Germany, France, or England, matters but little, so long as competent persons conduct it. Only let it be done at


NOTE.—We subjoin a few particulars likely to be of interest :

The Codex has Luke xxii. 43, 44, woon-ynu. 1 m. Corrector A omits the passage, Corrector C restores it. John v. 1. The Codex reads n eoptn.

3, 4. εκδεχομενων-νοσηματι is omitted. John vii. 53. Kal entopevon to viii. 11, quaprave is omitted. Acts viii. 37.

ειπε--χριστον is omitted. .
Acts XX. 28. The Codex reads την εκκλησιαν του θυ.
The passage in 1 John v. 6—8, stands thus :-

θεια ότι οι τρεις ει
σιν οι μαρτυρού
τεσ το πνα και του
δωρ και το αιμα
και οι τρεισ εισ το
εν εισιν ει την μαρ.

In 1 Tim. iii. 16, 1 m. wrote or, which was altered to beoo by a very late corrector.

Mt. xxiii. 35. The words vlov Bapaxlov are omitted a 1. m.; but were added by corrector Cb.

Mt. Χxviii. 9, ωσδε επορευοντο απαγγείλαι τοσ μαθηταισ αυτου; omitted. No correction,


ART. VII.-Salem Chapel. Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.

PERHAPS the Voluntary System has arrived, in our day, at the point where it may fitly be treated by a female pen: that is, Dissent has come out long enough and far enough from that acknowledged period of early enthusiasm, when an idea overmastered the individual bent and temperament of its professors, imparting a common likeness to them all, and has settled into a fact, but no longer the most prominent fact, about the dissentient. The Nonconformist of our time is subject to no strong exceptional stimulant: he is left, undisturbed from without, to the influence of ordinary human motives. It cannot be denied that Dissent is now an institution: thus Dissenters have lost both the sense of isolation and of being a mark for the observation of a peculiarly exacting public opinion. Anything like a distinct and formal religious profession makes the world look for something separate and unusual in the conduct; but when a man once treads in his father's and grandfather's steps, whatever direction these take him to, men do not look for anything very distinctive in the gait. It was no credit to the Church that Dissenters were expected, as such, to be stricter in their walk than Church-people; but no doubt such used to be the case, because each individual Dissenter was thought to be consciously separating himself from the practices of ordinary society. If we had a class of deaconesses in our Church, as is proposed, the world, and probably each one of us, would for some time expect them to be much more austerely separate from the habits of ordinary society than is now looked for from deacons; but the sisterhood being established long enough, the same law, in the course of years, would be seen to apply to both sexes. In the same way, when Nonconformity was young, everybody—meaning by everybody people who do not speculate and reason for themselves, but follow blindly the world's assumption of what is fittingrequired an ultra strictness of consistency to their profession from Dissenters; or why did they dissent?--an expectation the flattering austerity of which has relaxed under the inevitable effects of time and use: so that the world may be said now to hold Dissenters under no stricter ties than Churchmen. It is no longer scandalized or amazed to hear of young Congregationalists dancing, and would scarcely think twice of a family party of them being seen at Lord Dundreary's. No one will dispute that the three denominations, except for a few formulas of separation,



have thrown aside the manners and pretensions of a severe exclusiveness. Now, instead of withdrawing themselves from general society, their complaint and grievance — generally nourished, if not always expressed—is, that they are excluded from it, that society is repellant to them; a charge which, so far as there is truth in it, has very little concern with the religious aspect of the question.

When sectarian aspirations blend with social, and the religious element is more than coloured by the political, when Dissent is recognised as an institution and is subject to the influences of all large mixed communities, it shares the tendencies which Dissenters have hitherto ascribed to a state religion ; Dissent is in fact established so far as the world's recognition can make it

People are born into it, and have been for generations enough to lose the original sense of being separatists. With the majority, their first ideas have been of belonging to a recognised body, with its own rights and position. In most cases they are without that sense of isolation, active antagonism, and estrangement from the Church, which embittered their forefathers.

People's formal belief, their religious education, the nature of the services in which they join, the language of prayer and of preaching, affects, beyond most influences, their tone of thought, and through that the manner, even where the inner feelings are not deeply impressed, nor the life regulated by them. And born and bred thus, passive Dissenters cannot escape the tone of thought and the manner of their party being evident in their social manifestation of themselves, though their common citizenship may be most prominent to themselves, and, what they would wish, the one thing acknowledged by the world. A large, compact, influential body has a language and a way of seeing things of its own, and is, in fact, its own world, though there may be another outer one, the object of vague desire. It is at this stage that Dissent, as we have said, becomes a theme for the female pen. So long as a man's profession is powerful enough to bend the feelings and will to strict external accordance with its dictates--so long as he is an impersonation of his creed-he is an especial subject for masculine sympathy, or, at least, comprehension. A man enters most easily into the fervour of polemics and the absorbing interest of controversy, not to say that his intellect best fits him for nice distinctions, for the subtleties of argument, and for theology as a science; but a woman, if she be quick-witted and observant, at least equals him in detecting private motives under the veil of public ones, in unmasking the real homely influences at work under a lofty assumption, in reducing a pompous show to its frippery component parts. No woman could have delineated David Deans, who had not only




every knotty question of Presbyterianism at his fingers' ends, but let them control every private interest; who at once comprehended and acted up to his principles; but it seems to us that a man could not have surpassed the authoress of the present work in her picture of a deacon under the Voluntary System of our own time. Tozer is as correct a portrait of Dissent, as it is, as the old Scotchman was of the Covenanters in their sternest consistency. We want no more graphic pencil than that which brings before us Salem Chapel, its minister, 'office-bearers,' and congregation: all the sharply-defined distinctness of sect worn off with time, and mere common homely human nature cropping out instead. It may not be, and we dare say is not, the whole truth, but it is truth as far as it goes, and as much of it as most delineators of human character can take in for their own share. We know what exposures of all kinds are worth: anything can be proved, any system convicted, by a novelist who, with temper embittered, avenges himself on a system for wrongs or fancied wrongs. We have read autobiographies which, if they expose a party or denomination, expose the character and disposition of the writer much more. But this is not an exposure, nor, we believe, undertaken with that view; it is simply, as we suppose, a reproduction, for the interest and amusement of the reader, of certain scenes and characters, which, modified and disguised, perhaps, but essentially the same, once occupied a great deal of the writer's thoughts and interests. We suspect literary ladies are beginning to find that a good deal of that particular sort of experience through which their own minds have been trained—but which they had hitherto treated as too familiar, common, and unromantic, to be available as literary stock—is a vein of purer metal than any they have yet sought into. By renouncing deliberate invention, and digging into memory and association, something fresher, more attractive, and in a sense original—that is, newer and more real to the reader, and characteristic of the writer-may be brought to light than anything fancy and effort at novelty can achieve. The discovery has its dangers, but it is through it that we have such characters as George Eliot's Mrs. Poyser, the M. Paul of Villette, the ladies of Crawford, and, let us add, from another school altogether, Miss Yonge's late most spirited and charming delineation, Countess Kate. It is, in fact, evidence of that rarest of all faculties--quick, comprehensive,correct, retentive, seeing-without which all other faculties are imperfect, and make mistakes.

An intentional exposure is always done in bitterness of spirit, whether rightly induced or not; but there is no bitterness in

We do not guess the writer to have suffered in her own person, nor very keenly for others, from the state

these pages.

of things she so ably sets before us, and shows to belong almost necessarily to a system of Church government which makes the flock master of the shepherd. Through whatever means she has acquired her knowledge and opinions, she has learnt as a keen observer, not as an actor; her personal feelings engaged, not for herself, but for her friends. A name has been popularly attached to this work, a name which has been given on apparently good authority to books so various in tone and style, and differing so entirely in literary merit, as fairly to puzzle the reader: but to us it is a mere name, and tells nothing. We are left to guess, as much as though it were anonymous, under what circumstances a writer so very free from sectarian tone should have acquired her intimate knowledge of Dissenting life—how this pure, expressive, and graceful style should have formed itself under auspices not usually friendly to such an accomplishment. Anything is probable rather than that the delineator of our connexion’ at Carlingford, should have come at her knowledge second hand, and not upon an intimate personal stand of observation.

People who live, and have always lived, outside Dissent do not make heroes of Dissenting ministers, though the pride of Homerton; and though they be 'white-browed and white-handed' into the bargain. It is not fair perhaps. There is no inexorable reason why a hero of romance should not come out of a Congregational college; why, after duly supplying, during his novitiate, the Shilohs and Bethesdas of the neighbourhood, he should not possess an air of the fine gentleman, which shall make him pass muster with fine ladies; but the notion would scarcely come into any person's mind who had not at one time taken a poetical view of the Dissenting pastorate, and had not actually believed in the lofty eloquence—fervid, yet chastened by a correct taste —of some star of Nonconformity. The story shows a sympathy too keen and real for the difficulties and irritations of a clever mind, over-educated and too refined for the work expected from it, to come from anything but an actual knowledge of the position of Congregational pastors. It is no lukewarm partisanship such as any one might feel in realizing the situation: the picture is drawn throughout from the minister's point of view. We have to make allowances, and, while convinced of the correctness of the representation, to remember that Mrs. Tozer's or Mrs. Pigeon's advocate, equally gifted, might make out a counter case, and show up the minister and the minister's wife.

But no true delineation of human nature can be a harsh one. It is a work that softens the temper even in the doing; and this writer is by nature amiable. She just shadows out a villain, to bring about the melodramatic situations of her tale, but there

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