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ART. VI.--1. Journal of the Bishops, Clergy, and Laity of

the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, assembled in General Convention in Richmond,

1859. 2. General Convention at New York, 1862, reported in the

Church Journal. New York. Published weekly. It is twelve months since we reviewed the two preceding years of Church progress, and had in the course of the inquiry to refer to the new organization of our Communion within, and consequent on the establishment of, the Confederate States of America. We could not well touch upon that topic without pronouncing some opinion on the political aspect of the revosution ; and we did not fear accordingly to give expression to an opinion, which it required more courage to express then than it would do at present, that the substantial justice in the quarrel lay with the Southerners. Now that the large majority of the respectable opinion of England inclines on their side by an overwhelming instinct, we may profitably recur to the contemplation of the great disruption, in a religious and ethical aspect, as it presents itself to us from our own particular standing-ground.

No better proof of the tendency of English public opinion on the question could be found than the fact that out of the ten daily papers which are published in London, in the morning or the evening, there are only two which are favourable to the Northern cause — the Daily News, the organ of philosophic radicalism both in its political and religious developements, and the Morning Star, the mouthpiece of Brightite policy and of the Liberation Society--both of them being strong Abolitionists. The remaining eight, ranging in their opinions from the strongest Toryism to the most decided Radicalism, reflect in various ways the prevalent sentiment of the country. It must be no common upheaving of feeling which unites in one line of argument the Times ; the Morning Post, the exponent of Conservative Whiggism, and moderate High Churchmanship; the Church and State Derbyite Standard; and the Daily Telegraph, with its

advanced' opinions on things in general. If we turn to the religious press the same growth of conviction presents itself, alike in the Guardian, in spite of the letters of its Philadelphian correspondent, about which we shall have something to say hereafter, and in the Record, which has for once had the courage to break out of the narrow ring of its traditionary


prejudices in sheer disgust at the hollowness and worthlessness of the Abolitionist religionism of New York and New England. Our business is, however, with America, not with England, and so we quit this topic, merely observing in passing that of all the indications of English opinion there is none more remarkable than the letter in which Sir Culling Eardley, as President of the British branch of the Evangelical Alliance, so ably rebuked the pro-Northern manifesto of his French confrères. This letter was the legitimate sequel of a remarkable debate upon the question at the annual meeting of the Alliance—where, of all places, the creme de la crême of A bolitionist sympathy would have most strongly mustered—which terminated in a resolution in which the expression of a just abhorrence of slavery was so worded as not to imply any approbation of Mr. Lincoln's aggressive war.

We were prepared to find the observations which we made last year upon the state of religion in the North and in the South misrepresented, and our expectations were not deceived. We were attacked upon the charge of having asserted that the Church was stronger in the Southern than in the Northern States; whereas, what we did say was very different, namely, that 'the Episcopal Church in the Northern States may have been numerically and theologically stronger than in the Southern, and yet it may not have leavened the mass of their corruption. • The air in one place may be so much thicker than in another, that a gaslight in the one may not show the traveller his pathi

half as well as a candle in the other.' These remarks are the key to all which we had then to say on the topic, and we adhere to them now, with the single difference that we should be more inclined at present, than we were twelve months back, to substitute the indicative for the potential tense. We now assert simply and roundly, first, that the Confederate States, as a political whole, indicate considerably more Christianity than the United States; and secondly, that the social tendency of the secession points towards a more flourishing condition of Churchmanship within the Confederacy, than could have been anticipated under the old condition of things.

Englishmen in general have by this time realized, that to find personal fault with the living generation of Southerners for the existence of slavery within their States, is to do what the Pharisees dared not undertake, in throwing the first stone. They are also pretty well awake by this time to the real tendency of that ultra Abolitionist' party in the North, which barely veils its profession of the Jacobin creed under a specious worship of the black skin, in all places, and under all conditions, not involving personal contact. They know that the

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votaries of the Abolition cry are, for the most part—and in spite of Mrs. Stowe-men and women whose exemplars are far less the fathers of the Puritan and Evangelical schools, than Voltaire, Paine, and Parker. They understand that political 'Abolitionism' is the euphemism for an unchecked and extreme democratic propagandism. They are fully convinced that the only steadfast hope for the millions of Africans who are at this moment existing—more or less civilized, more or less Christianised, over the Southern States—is to have the problem of their gradual elevation in social and municipal privileges worked out by those whose own interests are practically involved in the welfare of their hereditary dependents.

England is as much to blame for the decay of Churchmanship, as for the existence of slavery, within the borders of the South. The Pilgrim Fathers had founded New England, New York was a conquest from the Dutch, and Pennsylvania was the Icarie of that shrewd-minded Quaker, Penn. But the residuary colonies were peopled by families who went out

Cum patriâ, populoque, penatibus, et magnis dîs. The Atlantic seaboard of States, from Maryland to Georgia inclusive Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia-were emphatically the creation of the English Church and State, in a century and a half, which numbered Elizabeth at one end, and George II. at the other; the Old Dominion' being the last effort of the great Queen's reign, and Georgia, the only eighteenth-century settlement of the whole category, marking the close of the epoch. The Tudor and Stuart theory of the identity of Church and State prevailed within them all, with the exception of Maryland, which was set up by the Romanist Lord Baltimore, on broad principles of complete toleration.

Accordingly these colonies carried the Established Church with them, but they only carried it in the form of glebes and incumbencies. No care was taken to select the best men to fill the livings, no provision was made to set up the Church in its integrity under a colonial episcopate. Anybody was good enough to put into the parishes, and the nominal supervision of the Bishop of London across the ocean was held sufficient. Of course, from the first, confirmation could nowhere be had, and the custom of consecration was extinct. At one moment Clarendon seemed to have carried the nomination of a bishop, but he fell and the scheme with him. More than a generation later a plan for a Colonial episcopate was again settled, but Queen Anne died and the notion was shelved, in spite of the exertions of the then young Propagation Society. Two Non


jurors, Talbot and Welton, obtained clandestine consecration, and worked in America, but of course their enterprise had no permanence. Bishop Berkeley's Bermuda College was nipped in the bud by Sir Robert Walpole. Time ran on, and the AngloAmerican Church became more and more dead, till the period of the American Revolution ; so no one can much wonder that Jefferson was able to use his bad influence to procure an act in the Virginian legislature not merely to deprive the Church of its State privileges, which might have been expected, but also to confiscate the endowments. It is not much to be regretted that a proposition, which was at a later date contemplated in Virginia, to endow, not clergymen, or ‘ministers of the Gospel, but "teachers of religion'-i.e. of any—should have been rejected. The fact that after so many years of neglect the Church should be as strong as she is in these particular States is a matter of congratulation. Very little immigration has flowed into them from Europe, and not much from the North ; their inhabitants are usually the descendants of the old colonists and of their slaves, and so the Church is a hereditary institution in them, with all the dead weight of its colonial inefficiency on its back. The towns are scarce, and the ways of the planters old-fashioned. We are convinced that there is implicitly a great deal more, in habits of life and habits of thought, of the country gentleman of George II. and George Ill.'s reigns, among the planters of these States than either we or they very well realize. In their eyes Churchmanship, we should imagine, often wears somewhat of eighteenth century aspect. In explanation of what that aspect is, we refer our readers to the series of standard novelists. The clergymen have large parishes to look after, and fortnightly services are not so uncommon. The personal influence of Bishop Meade, a devoted man, Low Church in doctrine, but like other leaders of that party, autocratic in practice, and belonging to the old planter aristocracy of the State, has done much to revive Churchmanship in Virginia, while of course the revival was tinged with his opinions ; Maryland on the other hand is decidedly High Church, although at this moment, owing to his strong political bias towards the North, there is unfortunately a far from cordial feeling between the good Bishop Whittingham and his diocese. Among the blacks, Methodism is the prevalent form of Christianity. The more Western zone of States, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi, are colonies sent out since the Declaration of Independence, from the Atlantic series, whose habits of life they reproduce in a newer form. In the States that line the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas, purchases or conquests from France, Spain, and Mexico, a new element comes in, in the Roman Churchi

, which was in each case

antecedently established there, and which in Louisiana still retains its social and numerical pre-eminence. The consequent disadvantage to the Anglican communion is obvious, as the Romanists claim to be the local Church. In Arkansas and in Missouri, new States, the Church is struggling through the difficulties of a missionary existence.

The Northern States have not had to contend with the incubus of a corrupt and selfish system, identified in the vulgar mind with the unpopular monarchy which they had thrown off. The Pilgrim Fathers made the Church interesting in New England by persecuting it, and in the city of New York, by rare good fortune, Trinity Church possessed an estate of such great and increasing value, as virtually to establish' Churchmanship over the city, and partially in the State, and to secure the services of a series of eminent incumbents. Several Northern Bishops were in different ways men of mark and weight, such as White of Pennsylvania, Seabury of Connecticut, Hobart of New York, and at a later date, Chase of Ohio and Illinois. The tide of English emigration has flowed Northwards, and thus many thousands of Churchmen have annually been thrown into the country, of which the Church has succeeded in keeping a certain per-centage. The Western States, which are so rapidly filling up, have been supplied from the North-Eastern States, or from European immigrants. The consequence is, that up to this time the Church is stronger North than South, though she is not at all so strong as what she ought to have been, when we consider how freely England has been feeding the population. But by her side in vigorous rivalry stand every form of antagonistic religion, infidelity, or grovelling superstition. The city in which the Church is proverbially the religion of the upper ten thousand, New York, is at the same time the great seat of American dissipation and of commercial unscrupulousness. In one word, the Church is a powerful sect in the North, and she is a powerful sect in the South, but in either community her numbers are few beside those of the general population.

The report of the triennial General Convention which was held at Richmond in 1859 gives some interesting statistics, by which we may compare the growth of the Church in the two portions of the land between that date and 1856, when the preceding convention was held. The figures of the decennial censuses of 1850 and 1860 afford material for a rough comparative estimate of the growth of population within the same limits. In 1860 the population of the United States was— North

18,973,363 South

12,417,506 31,390,869

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