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dogmatism which in any form whatever seems so to have vexed and annoyed him. Of the real genius of some of the literati of Boston there can be no question. Their right to complain of the 'insular narrowness' of Englishmen is likewise indisputable, since continental nations make the same charge against us. Yet we cannot but fear that their admiration for Clough was fostered even more by sympathy with his scepticism, than by the recognition of his intellect and conscientiousness. For ourselves, greatly admiring the powers of such persons as Margaret Fuller Ossoli, and Mr. Holmes, we sincerely wish that the Boston school of thinkers could imbibe a little of our 'insular narrowness,' if only in that term could be included a belief in the Creed of Nicæa.
The injury which Clough’s example may possibly work will be among those who are disposed to doubt, but anxious to preserve a high tone of morality. Voltaire writes to Frederick II. of Prussia, complaining that his Majesty has afforded a handle to those who say that neither good faith nor humanity can be found among unbelievers. Those whose tendency to scepticism might recoil before the spectacle of unscrupulousness and coldhearted selfishness, exhibited by such a man as Frederick, may possibly hope that it shall be their lot, if they resign belief in the Gospel, to imitate the uprightness and philanthropy of such an one as Clough. Rarely indeed will they succeed, and even where they do imitate him, it must probably involve that same loss of joy and peace which is conspicuous throughout his poems, and be purchased at the price of all but throwing away the precious gifts of cultured intellect that had made their friends hope that they might one day achieve much.
For ourselves, rather than hear that any one for whose welfare we cared, had embarked on such a course, we should prefer that he had become a deacon, even to a popular dissenting preacher, such as, for instance, Mr. Spurgeon. We are not likely to feel undue sympathy with a teacher, who is so Calvinistic, so anti-sacramental as this popular pulpit orator.
But we can thoroughly sympathise with him, when he denounces the dangers of Universalism; we rejoice in the singular warmth and freshness with which he insists on the greatness of an Athanasius and an Augustine, and on the debt of gratitude which all Christians owe them : above all, amidst deep differences, we are at one with Mr. Spurgeon in the meaning and the value of the One great Name, which is never once openly proclaimed in the pages of the unhappy poet whose works we have been examining
That this very reticence is at the bottom of much of the sympathy and the praise lavished on Clough in our periodical
literature we do deeply fear; but we are not blind to other and better things in him, which are justly calculated to win the homage of men's spirits; and we have no wish to judge uncharitably. One word on the argument employed, or at least implied, by many who lean to scepticism, because they imagine that they thereby avoid committing themselves. Such a supposition is utterly hollow, and will not bear the slightest examination. It has well been said, “We must act, or abstain from ' action; and on many subjects abstaining from action is well nigh equivalent to acting in the opposite direction. If, when some person calls on us to obey him as a duty, our doubts lead us to refuse him obedience, we practically deny his authority. · If, when hungry, we abstain from food which is put before us, such abstinence implies a practical belief that the food is distasteful, or unwholesome, or that it is for some reason wrong ' to eat it. Hence arises the danger in all practical subjects,
of methods of investigation and habits of thought which imply ' a long suspense of judgment with regard to matters immediately before us. Doubts may hang over the distance; but
still we can make progress if they leave the foreground clear. · With a few firm points on which to place our feet, we can • make our way over a quagmire. But if we must advance at o once we cannot account him a benefactor who floods the ground which lies immediately before us while he gives us a promise that it shall be dry land next year. All information as to our course is a mockery which does not tell us in what direction we must turn our footsteps now.'1 Alas! for those who have no better guidance for immediate action than such as they can obtain from the pages of Arthur Hugh Clough.
It is some consolation to perceive in Clough's latest verses so many signs of his olden heart'; so far higher a tone than that of the Amours de Voyage.' The 'Clergyman’s Tale' is truly beautiful: the following lines involve a teaching most admirable for all of us :
• There are, I know of course, who lightly treat
And, God be thanked, this was not one of those.' | The Letter and the Spirit, by Rev. C. P. Chretien, Fellow of Oriel College, &c. (Macmillan.) 1861.
From what sources, besides internal self-communion, Clough derived the deep sense here manifested of the weight of sin, of the way to regain lost graces lying through the road of selfdenial in things lawful, we will not even pause to ask. Most happily, in thorough hatred of evil, the two schools of thought in which his spirit graduated are perfectly agreed. Nor does he make his penitent rest in anything that he himself can do. The wife is made to speak of
One who takes away Our sin and gives us righteousness instead.' It is, we believe, the sole allusion to that Name throughout this volume. But its author was deeply reserved. May it have been more often in his heart, if not upon his lips? His temptations in the direction of doubt were assuredly not light ones. In all sincerity and reverence do we utter over him the Apostolic aspiration - Δώη αυτώ ο Κύριος ευρεϊν έλεος παρά Κυρίου εν εκείνη τη ημέρα. Αμήν.
ART. IV.-1. Essay on Religious Philosophy. By M. ÉMILE
Saisser. Translated, with Critical Essay, Marginal Analysis, and Notes. Two Volumes. T. & T. Clarke, Edinburgh.
1862. 2. Observations on the Attempted Application of Pantheistic Prin
ciples to the Theory and Historic Criticism of the Gospel. W. H. Mill, D.D. Second Edition. Cambridge : Deighton,
Bell, & Co. London: Bell & Daldy. 1861. 3. Hegel et Schopenhauer. Études sur la Philosophie Allemande
Moderne. Par A. FOUCHE DE CAZEIL. Paris. 1862. Most educated men,' says the translator of M. Saisset's Essays, have for some time been aware of the presence in
our contemporary literature of a certain Pantheistic element, ' which perhaps they have felt rather than been able to
analyse. This element is very perceptible in such French works as are likely to be popular. It floats upon the air of poetry like those impalpable colouring matters in the atmosphere which the naked eye can only detect in the sickly hue cast over the landscape, but which in a short time stain deeply every substance which is exposed to them. A something from which the Christian shrinks drops at his feet, as the conclusion of scientific as well as of metaphysical reasonings, half hidden in those mots d'enflure which Pascal hated. In English it is not difficult to find similar instances. The Spinozist natura naturata and natura naturans, tricked out in the finery of the school of Schelling, reappear in Mr. Emerson's writings, not in geometrical formulæ, but in a rich and coloured prose. Two little words, and the mode of their typography, in
? We quote the first instances at hand :-'A poem, full of the one problem Being, under its triple aspect-Humanity, Evil, the Infinite, the Progressive, the Relative, the Absolute.'-— Victor Hugo. Preface to La Légende des Siècles, p. xvi.
Must we believe that different simple bodies, if there are such, are only found of one and the same matter in diverse states of condensation? We are thus led on to the idea of the unity of substance. Gas, liquid, solid, vacuum and plenum, heavenly bodies and spaces, satellites, planets, suns, &c. will, in that case, be only transitory forms of something eternal, ephemeral images of something which cannot change; and in the whirl of phenomena, in the eternal movement of all substances, the history of the world shows us everywhere Becoming in Being, Being in Becoming.'- Analyse du Soleil par la Chimie. Par M. Auguste Laugel.
2 'Let us not longer omit our homage to the efficient nature, natura naturans, the quick cause, before which all forms flee as the driven snow, itself secret, its works driven before it in flocks and multitudes. It publishes itself in creatures.
Mr. Carlyle's 'Life of Sterling'—'personal god'-reveal to us his appreciation of that truth which is the beginning of all religion, and, as Maine de Biran has told us, the end of all philosophy. In the laxity of the closing sentences of a notorious essay upon the National Church,' a Missionary Bishop, just returned from China, was reminded of the esoteric Pantheism which he had so lately left. Twenty years ago, a divine who, when the controversies of the day have died out, will be mentioned in the same breath with Pearson and Barrow, wrote these warning words :• We hear much of laudable efforts to bring the saving truths of Christianity within the reach of the votaries of Brahmanism ;
but few amongst us are aware that the very esoteric doctrine of Brahmanism, and of all pagan theology, is now in the course
of propagation to cultivated minds from the centre of Christian • Europe. The prophecy has been sadly fulfilled.
The selection of the subject of Mr. Mansel's Bampton Lectures may be taken as a proof that the ambitious constructions of German Pantheism are viewed with admiration by many thinkers. The profound interest excited, first by the delivery and subsequently by the publication of that remarkable volume, testifies that the subject which it discusses is one of the day. Men care but little for the refutation of theories which have been merely exhumed and resuscitated for the purpose of enabling some dialectical gladiator to exhibit the sharpness of the implement which he wields. Hegelianism is as difficult as, and perhaps not much more profound, than Gnosticism; and even Mr. Mansel would not be disparaged by a comparison with Dr. Burton ; but we never heard that the Lectures on the Heresies of the Apostolic Age by that eminent divine, delivered in 1829, excited much interest beyond a narrow circle of learned and orthodox clergymen. The conditioned and unconditioned, the finite and infinite, the relative and absolute, are not in themselves much more attractive than the emanating Æons, the life and light, of Gnosticism ; the triplicity of Hegel is perhaps not
. The knowledge that we traverse the whole scale of being, from the centre to the poles of nature, and have some stake in every possibility, lends that sublime lustre to death which philosophy and religion have too outwardly and literally striven to express in the popular doctrine of the immortality of the soul. ... The divine circulations never rest nor linger. Nature is the incarnation of a thought, and turns to a thought again, as ice becomes water and gas. The world is mind precipitated, and the volatile essence is for ever creeping again into the state of free thought. Hence the virtue of the influence on the mind of natural objects. Man imprisoned, crystallized, vegetative, speaks to man impersonated. . . . Wisdom is infused into every form. We did not guess its essence, after a long time'- We should think not !-Eight Essays. By Ralph Waldo Emerson. Essay VI. -Nature.
1 Dr. Mill on the Mythical Interpretation of the Gospel.--Page 6.