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ever been directly made in the civilization of the Indians. The frontier tribes have always retained their original barbarism. The Cherokees, Choctaws, &c., who have continued within the bosom of the white settlements, have made some little progress in the arts of civilized life.

§ 626. 5. Bounty Land Office. This is an office in which claims for military bounty lands, originating, in the Revolutionary and late war are examined, and from which military bounty land warrants issue.

§ 627. 6. Office of the General Staff. This is the office of the Commander-in-chief. His duty is to command the army, to arrange the military force in the best manner, to superintend the recruiting service; to order courts-martial, and decide in all cases except those in which life is concert

erned, or the commission of an officer. § 628. 7. Adjutant-general's Office. In this office are deposited the records which refer to the personnel of the army from the earliest period of the government. In this office, military appointments and commissions are made out and registered; enlistments recorded; monthly returns of the troops received and preserved. All orders from Head Quarters, and all regulations and general orders of the War Office, are communicated through the Adjutant-general. In this office, the annual returns of the militia, arms, accoutrements, &c, are deposited, as likewise the appointments and commissions of the officers of the militia of the district of Columbia are registered and distributed.

$ 629. 8. Engineer Department. The chief of the Engineer Department is stationed at the seat of government, and directs and regulates the duties of the corps of engineers, and of such topographical engineers as may be attached to it; he is also inspector of the Military Academy, and charged with its correspondence.

§ 630. 9. Topographical Bureau. This Bureau has charge of all topographical operations and surveys for

1 Force's National Calendar. 2 Ibid.

military purposes, and for internal improvement, and of the maps, drawings and documents in relation to those duties.

§ 631. 10. Ordnance Department. The senior officer of ordnance is stationed at the seat of government, and charged with the general superintendence of his duties.

§ 632. 11. Quarter-master's Department. The object of this department is to insure the supplies and facilitate the movements of the army. The Quartermaster-general is stationed at Washington, and has, under the direction of the Secretary at War, the exclusive control of all the quartermasters, and assistant quartermasters, and of all the officers and agents acting for the department. It is the duty of the Quartermaster-general and his agents to provide quarters and transportation for the troops, and transportation for military stores, camp equipage, provisions, &c. &c.; provide for opening and repairing roads, bridges, &c. He purchases all forage, fuel, stationary, &c.; provides all horses, wagons, boats, and materials for building barracks, hospitals, stables, and bridges. Officers of the Quartermaster's department make all contracts for the supplies of the army, and have the right to make payment for all supplies, which by regulation they have the right to contract for. No officer is allowed to be concerned, directly or indirectly, for himself or others, in any contract with any department of the government, nor in the purchase of any claim on government. Whenever private grounds, building, or property are occupied by the troops of the United States, the Quartermaster must make reasonable compensation to the proprietor. Every officer in the Quartermaster's department gives bonds to the United States, conditioned for the faithful performance of his duty.

§ 633. 12. Purchasing Department. The Commissary-general of Purchases purchases on the orders and

1 Force's National Calendar.

estimate of the war department, all clothing, camp equipage, saddles, and all articles required for the public service of the army of the United States, except such as are ordered to be purchased by the Ordnance, Quartermaster's, Subsistence, and Medical Departments.

$ 634. 13. Pay Department. The Paymaster-general is stationed at the seat of government, and is charged with the military responsibilities of this department in all its details. The subordinate officers of the pay department are subject only to the orders of the Paymaster-general and Secretary at War. The troops are paid every two months, or as near it as is possible.

§ 635. 14. Subsistence Department. The Commissary-general of Subsistence makes estimates of expenditures for his department, purchases subsistence for the army, makes payment to contractors, arranges his assistants, &c.

$ 636. 15. The Surgeon-general—is stationed at Washington, and is the director and accounting officer of the Medical Department. He issues all orders and instructions relative to the professional duties of the medical staff, and receives such reports from them as is necessary to the proper performance of their duties. He receives quarterly reports of the sick from each officer, with such remarks as may explain the nature of the diseases of the troops and the practice adopted. He receives from every surgeon and assistant surgeon having charge of public property, semi-annual returns of the same, and also annual requisitions for the supplies required for each hospital. It is his duty to make all such returns to the Secretary at War as may be necessary to explain all the concerns of the department under his charge, with such remarks relative to the improvements in practice and police, clothing, &c., of the army, as may seem to be required for the preservation of health, and the good of the public service.

NAVY DEPARTMENT.

to the navy:

$ 637. The Navy Department was not created until some time after the departments of State, War, and Treasury were in efficient operation. The office of Secretary of the Navy was erected by the act of the 30th of April, 1798. He has a general superintendence of the naval establishment, and issues all orders

He is by usage a member of the cabinet, and holds his office at the will of the President. The secretary is assisted by eight clerks and two messengers.

§ 638. By the act of February 7th, 1815, a Board of Navy Commissioners was established. The board consists of three post-captains, who have power to adopt such rules and regulations for the government of their meetings as they may think expedient; and the board, so constituted, is attached to the office of the Secretary of the Navy, and under his superintendence discharges all the ministerial duties of said office relative to the procurement of naval stores and materials, and the construction, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war, as well as all other matters connected with the naval establishment of the United States. And the board appoint their own secretary, who keeps a record of their proceedings, subject at all times to the inspection of the President of the United States and the Secretary of the Navy.

$ 639. Six clerks, a draughtsman, messenger, and superintendent of building are employed by the Board of Navy Commissioners. In addition to the above officers, attached to the department and to the navy officers, there are twelve Navy Agents, seven Naval Storekeepers, and eight Naval Constructors.

POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. § 640. The Post-office Department has been in operation since the first organization of the government;

but the act which gave it the present form and constitution was passed April 30, 1810. By that act the General Post-office is placed under the direction of a Postmaster-general. He has two assistants, and such clerks as are necessary to perform the business of his office. He establishes post-offices, and appoints such postmasters, as he may deem expedient, on routes established by law. He gives all persons employed in his department instructions upon their duty. He provides for the carriage of the mail on all such post-routes as are established by law.

When he thinks proper, he may designate the route, where there are more than one, between places designated by law for a post-road. He requires the accounts, vouchers, and balances of the several postmasters quarterly. He pays all the expenses arising from the conveyance of the mail, the colloction of the revenue of the department, and other exponditures; he prosecutes offences against the department; he renders a quarterly account of the receipts and expenditures to the Secretary of the Treasury; he superintends all the business of the department, and in case of death, resignation, or removal, is succeeded by the senior assistant till a successor is appointed.

§ 641. The Postmaster-general, and all in the general post-office, as well as all who have the care, custody, or conveyance the mail, must take an oath to perform all the duties required of them, and abstain from every thing forbidden by them, in relation to the post-offices and post-roads within the United States.

8 642. To place the conveyance of the mail entirely under the supervision of the Postmaster-general, all private mails are forbidden, and all persons are prohibited, directly or indirectly, from conveying letters from place to place.

$ 643. The expenditures of the Post-office Department are paid from its receipts in postage. In this re

Act of April 30, 1810, Section 16.

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