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ing would be pleasanter and more effective. that seems to result. Practice makes perNewcomb tells us the psychological truth fect only when the results are those which that attention to anything makes the heart are desired. Desire and satisfaction make grow fonder of it. If my teachers had made drill effective. If you observe those prinme stick to arithmetic I would love it now.” ciples you'll be a real teacher of arithmetic,
Something in that,” interpolated Papa or woodwork, or music, or Latin, won't Rose. “The law required madam here to you? I think so. This is motivation, isn't cleave to me and often I think I discover it? Certainly. evidences of real affection for that reason." “You mustn't have arithmetic lessons
“Like arithmetic, you are a naturally at- too long. Boredom and fatigue are very tractive subject," was the rejoinder of our bad for it. When you see that the children Lady Alice.
are really getting satiated, stop and sing a “Arithmetic is a habit-forming pursuit," bit. Then go into geography, resumed the doctor. “Accordingly, if it is “Mr. Newcomb makes the reasoning to reach the effect for which it is put into which is developed by arithmetic very real. the course, the teacher of it should know He shows in interesting detail how to train the rules of habit formation. There are reasoning. The exercise of telling how to hundreds of habits possible of attention in work problems is interesting and valuable. connection with it, but it is a waste and a Knowing whether the answer should be in confusion to spread over too many. Select
Select dollars or horses is good training. You can the best way of adding and proving and stick do lots of it without performing the computo that. Habits are fixed by practice. tations. Whether reasoning arithmetically
. Practice is drill. The recent flabby concept helps you to reason in other fields depends of teaching without drill is going into the largely upon the intent to make it extend discard. Arithmetic is a habit-former. Lit beyond the mathematical area. a
Dr. Johnerature is not. Drill belongs to one; it son carried a pocket arithmetic with him deadens the other.
to give him mental gymnastics. Any tea“In several places, Mr. Newcomb hits so cher who gets the children to generalize, who exactly my arithmetical weakness that I frequently tells them of conditions in which could guess he was a poor arithmetic worker what they are learning will apply; any teaat one time and has reformed himself. That cher who makes the arithmetic tie up to makes me like him. For instance, he speaks actual life, who correlates it with other subof the dreary experience of doing a lot of jects, will get the knowledge and skill of it work that comes out wrong. The lack of broken out of a confining envelope and disthe satisfaction of work well done makes tributed through the mental cosmos of the drill without insistence on correct results a children. But you must beware of babying. demoralizing process. Do you get that? Doing their work for them is one of the big There are thousands of well-meaning young wastes. Encourage, and praise, and coax girls, with real affection for children, doing them to work, but don't release them from them daily harm by letting them fuss with it. Train them to tackle. Let them spend figures instead of holding them to each sum considerable time on a problem before asking until the satisfaction of triumph comes for help. Quit that hectic effort to cover the to each child. Here we are coming to that lesson. Concentrate on giving them pracmastery theory which Mr. Signpost ex- tice in independent thinking. They're all pounded to us last month with Henry Mor- different. Let 'em be doing different things rison's book as a text. Our Mr. Newcomb at the same time; John curing his mindrelates mastery to what he calls the law of wandering; Annie conquering her laziness; effect. Practice doesn't make perfect. Prac- Louise, who is going to be a teacher, helping tice can make imperfect if it is mere mussing you do individual training. Psychology and with figures and setting down any answer common sense have established that some
children work more intensely and more to stir the imagination of their youth against surely than others. Quit trying to teach a ancient enemies. 'Napoleon III defended whole class as if it were composed of forty British interests; hundred thousand of that myth called 'the average child. Frenchmen perished at Sebastopol for AlThis fallacy is the cause of much school bion; England got all she could from the failure.
Versailles treaty and is trying to invalidate “There, now, I've given you the spirit of those clauses of it which might help France.' Newcomb's book. It contains the history M. Brossolette's article for the guidance of of arithmetic, the psychology, the correla- his fellow teachers quotes Roosevelt: 'When tions, the recitation, chapters on addition, you deal with England, take a big stick.' proof, all the fundamental processes, de- The French school is allowed to develop vices, percentage, geometry, algebra, mea- abiding prejudice against England. Rivalry surements, everything. This is a practical, with Germany is stimulated by school, by solid, interesting, encouraging book for the press, by pulpit, by the government. The everyday teacher. It intends the rescue of masses of people in no country would risk an inevitable subject from the damage of war for mining concessions but the choice poor handling. It intends its restoration to is never presented to them in its true light. its natural place among the favorite pursuits Their sporting blood, their fighting spirit, is of the human mind. I'll say it accom- appealed to. I well remember the exciteplishes its purpose admirably."
ment in an American school when the
newspapers ran scare heads announcing Then came the turn of our dignified up- President Cleveland's statement regarding standing Homer Allen, head of the large Venezuela. The children were like a pack high school. He goes by the name of “The of barking dogs. 'Hurrah,' they shouted, General.”
'we're going to have a war with England! “The other day I heard a bright Chicago The public is worked up in oil disputes into woman win the enthusiastic approval of a regarding war as a kind of sporting event large assembly of Chicago teachers by illus- with loaded weapons. It is amazing how trating how geography should be taught to easy it is to turn a quarrel of speculators create neighborly interest and affection for into a matter of national honor. Each other peoples. Then I read the report of nation wants its team to win. Strong men William Owen's committee which shows will weep when the second baseman in a that we are teaching history with the pur- crisis fumbles the ball. A whole nation will pose of cultivating contempt, suspicion, and go into tantrums of rage because its corporahatred of other peoples. I have a book' tions are thwarted in foreign lands. The whose author has made an extended study latest world calamity was a case of contaof French, English, American, and German gious insanity, abandonment of reason. school books, for the purpose of telling us No nation wanted war; all risked it in a how much they are doing to promote peace gambling spirit. There is no evidence to and friendship in the world. It is little prove that Germany deliberately unchained enough. ‘Education,' truly says Doctor her army to dominate the world on even a Scott, the author, ‘has been acclaimed part of Europe. As more disclosures are as one of our greatest blessings. It operates made the responsibility cannot be placed as one of the most persistent menaces to the on Germany alone, or on her and her allies. peace of the world.' The bulk of the It belongs on all the Great Powers. In the volume consists of remarkably readable ex- French reading books the unauthenticated tracts from foreign schoolbooks. The reports of German atrocities are played up French schools are marked by a tendency like the news of yellow journals: 'What
had they done, these poor little children The Menace of Nationalism in Education.- JONATHAN French Scott. The Macmillan Co., New York, 223 pages. $1.60
with their ears and hands cut off? Ah!
Wicked Germans, the children of France will esty-imagine him going into a class in long curse you in their hearts!' However history to be inoculated with boastful conthey may try to rationalize it, the authors ceit, disparagement of other nations, and of these textbooks are teaching hate. They hostility toward them.' foster the hope of another war. The authors "Seventy thousand elementary school of school histories are avoiding the princi- teachers in France vigorously oppose the ples of historical criticism which demand hatred and revenge propaganda. 'Hate search for truth, weighing of evidence, and war' is their slogan. They ask the Minister caution in judgment. On the contrary, they of Public Instruction to eliminate every text
rumor, conjecture, unsubstantiated book inciting to hatred among the nations. statement, the propaganda stuff used during They ask that the Great War be taught imthe war itself to arouse the nation to fury. partially. They ask that the League of For all this teaching there is no justification. Nations demand of each of the countries The animus of it is to develop the morale composing it a copy of every textbook in thought necessary to win the next war. Not history, geography, and literature published. that France wants another war, but that They ask that the League's Committee for she fears it. Fear is the cause of militar. Intellectual Coöperation aid in preparing ism. Teaching hostility is supposed to make international school programs. They call a nation stronger. 'Vain and useless,' ex- for international congresses of education to claims M. Prudhommeaux, 'to sustain this propose
propose how to teach peace. remembrance of the past instead of working “In Germany it is the primary teachers to construct the future!' But in other who oppose the teaching of international French texts, Doctor Scott finds an intelli- enmity. In their numbers are the oppongent effort to inspire the youth to better ents of the doctrines of the Hohenzollerns. views. He sees an effort in some Gallic In the high schools and universities the maschool books to inculcate a reasonable, jority of the instructors are monarchists. modest, balanced patriotism with neigh- Herr Heinish, Minister of Education in borly consideration, 'Patriotism,' says one 1918, instructed the teachers in no wise to French author, Barni, 'to be a virtue must preach hatred and revenge. “There must be be regulated by justice and a love of hu- no playing with the idea even when our enemanity. Patriotism easily becomes nar- mies fail to do us justice.' A decree of 1920 row, jealous, selfish, unjust, exclusive, hos- cuts out the teaching of wars and dynasties tile, barbarous. As such, patriotism is a
and substitutes civics. Martial poems were vice. The true patriot wishes to make his ordered treated from a pacifist standpoint. country worthy of respect. This is better Teachers were guarded against giving the than boasting. This is better than criti- children an exaggerated opinion of the vircizing other nations.' True patriotism con- tues of the German people. Other nations siders the fault and weakness of one's own were to be treated with greater fairness. country and countrymen. Dheilly, in his
Haenisch ordered the removal of certain Civic Construction and Morale for higher evidences of past national greatness. Porelementary schools, has a chapter on the traits of Bismarck, Moltke, Hindenburg, League of Nations. It aims,' he says, 'to '
were taken from the walls. This edict create a new conscience in a new world, to caused criticism. The minister wrote: ‘Only proclaim a common humanity. The League the Kaiser and the Crown Prince need come will live if the people maintain a loyal human out.' But you can't, over night, wean a spirit. We must educate and fortify the nation from its historic pap. The German human conscience.' 'Imagine,' says Doctor Republic was too weak to carry out its Scott, 'the effect on a pupil going from a decrees. The old exaltation of Germany, civics class where he is taught the impor- the old criticism of other nations, the old tance of national friendliness, national mod- hatred of France and of England, is taught
in the German schools. Doctor Scott gives as national traits unmitigated, and are a pages of highly interesting extracts from the mark of countries the majority of whose school books showing Germany as the poor citizens are personally free of such defects.” shorn lamb among wolves and deliberately "I'll venture," said Papa Rose, "that working up an appetite for another catas- they do not persist unmitigated. They trophe. She is like the child Winship says really are less than they were. Blood lust he found crying.
is generally less. Gladiatorial combats have “What is the matter, Lena?'
gone. Bear baiting has gone. Bull fight“Ellen broke my dolly.'
ing is less. Cockfighting is no longer “How did she do that?'
respectable. The best thought of the best “I hit her on the head with it.'
people was put into laws forbidding these “Doctor Scott treats engagingly of Bri- engagements. Consideration for the life, tish patriotism as taught in the schools. liberty, and happiness of the other fellow, Rule Britannia is as jingoistic as the boasts devotion to a more perfect union, to justice, of 'big injuns.' The bombardment of tranquillity, and general welfare, are more Copenhagen is a national disgrace. So is generally recognized today as common ends the opium war, and the war of 1812. Eng- of mankind than in any preceding age, lish textbooks boast; they criticize. Others aren't they? But there were thousands of
? aim to tell the truth, to encourage fairness, years during which one man's surrender of tolerance, and peace. World War topics are his own desires so as to benefit the whole garbled and falsified. Anti-German feelings tribe made the tribe more able to wrest are stimulated. But there is less vitupera- benefits from other tribes and give him more. tion than in the French and in the German That is, individual unselfishness made namanuals. So he says.
tional selfishness stronger and national sel"Scott has compiled a decidedly valuable fishness did feed individual selfishness in a book. He traveled in search of material roundabout way.' in France, Germany, and England. He "I see that,” said Carolina. studied the collections of the pedagogical “A generous, modest nation has always libraries in Paris, Leipzig, and London. run a great risk of extinction," continued Then he repaired to his home in Little- Papa Rose. “Accordingly, nations have, hampton, Sussex, and composed this very for common defence, developed a warlike readable book. It is not done for teachers, spirit. Our Fathers put common 'defence,' but I feel sure that every school man and meaning war, among all its opposites, welwoman would be immensely profited by it; fare, liberty, life, and so forth, into our for it is all upon the large purpose of teach- galaxy of national aims.” ing, namely a better world. It is a calm “I don't that
any hope," said and searching study of the Great Error, the Henry the Humanist. most formidable present threat against “Just as savage man came to see," replied such civilization we have already Papa Rose, "that the advantage he thought evolved."
was gained in killing his personal foe was The Bibliologoi were more than com- less than the advantage he would get from monly attentive during the “General's" law and order, so the savagery of nations review. The usual badinage following their will give way to the intelligent outlawry of book talks was absent.
“I'd like to have some one who has given “But the greatest influence, the press, is thought to it,” said Carolina, “say why it not promoting such a move,” said Martin is that the traits that make a man con- the Draughtsman. temptible-boasting, conceit, meddlesome- "Newspapers did not promote the banishness, criticizing others, quarrelsomeness, ment of gladiators, bear-baiting, bull rings, blood-lust, covetousness, rapacity-continue cockpits, duelling, or slavery, until the de
fenders of these barbarisms were in the were hung two generous pots, one single, minority,” said Papa Rose. “Newspapers for coffee, and one double, for chocolate.
, by and large, are enemies of morality and The man of manual training produced a peace. They are stirrers up of strife. sheet-metal contrivance for the toasting of International quarrels are breath in the nos- bread. There was an array of folding saucetrils of Bennetts and Harmsworths. The pans soon furnished with sapling handles pinnacle of desire of a newspaper reporter more than an ell in length whereby one is the post of war correspondent. Peace might, without undue warmth to himself, among nations will not come through the get heat into a savory abundance of potaexhortations of editors but from the persua- toes hashed in cream, to be beautifully sion of thinking men.'
flecked with pepper. There were slices of “And women,” piped Carolina, “who will mutton made sizzling hot and speared with show that even Moltke, a war lord, is mathe- a fork to be ensconced upon crisp buttered matically, physically, and morally correct toast, along with soft lettuce leaves and when he says: 'Every nation is more a suf- strips of thin bacon. There were flat, ferer than a gainer by every war.
round cakes with shiny sugar dressing atop, “Doctor Scott,” concluded the General, like the North Michigan ponds after the "closes with something in that vein: 'The first snow. On each our Lady Alice had state, in taking control of education, has painted with red sugar a beautiful "B." often been congratulated on freeing the Then came a shining canister packed in salt school from religious dogma. Yet under and ice, and containing a dazzling white the protecting aegis of government there soft solid, said to be milk sherbet. Maybe has developed in school the dogma of na
But so delicate a harmony of sweet tionalism, more baneful, more narrow, more and sour, such gleaming Alps of snowy subversive of truth, more cruel, more ignor- purity, deserved some poetic name as “La ant, than any restrictions of religion. In dame blanche,” or “Fleur de Neige," or normal times it may seem to threaten little. “Alba deliciosa.” And there the BiblioBut when the purveyors of war excitement logoi sat them down upon their little strips grow active, and militarists begin to parade, of white and yellow tapestries by the azure an examination of the causes of war clearly water which is Michigan, far from the smoke reveals the school-fostered dogma of inter- and the clang. Then did Carolina entune national distrust and hate a tinder to the that descendant of the ancient lute, the spark of theretofore sleeping savagery.
solace once of black men and a memory of The world must be taught foresight, to weigh her home by the waters of Yadkin, even the gains and losses of past wars, to practise the banjo. Oh, say, the charm of woods self-control. The place of teaching this is and water, friendly voices, and gentle folk, the school. The school needs a new course is doping the recorder into sentimentality of study, understanding of the truth re- and making him sigh for the long vacation garding the right enjoyment of the world four weeks ahead of time. and the fullness thereof.'
“I wish,” said the Lady Alice, "you had
argued for the reign of peace, not for the The Bibliologoi had now come to the end selfish world-wide advantage of it, but for of their bookishness for the day. Under the the right, and the truth, and the holiness of direction of Old Locality they were di- it-peace, not as an advantage but as an rected to the yellow sands for the collection ideal.” of driftwood. The stevedore set up an “That's the woman of it,” said Papa Rose, unfolding crane of strips of steel on which not without chivalric approval.
The teacher is not paid the price of education but his labor.-SENECA