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ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.

DURING a long and eventful pe- viduals immediately connected with riod our Publication has been unre. the spot where antiept relicks may mittingly devoted to the pursuit of exist. No pains or expense shall be Antiquarian and Topographical know- spared in elucidating the curious reledge. On commencing our Ninety-first mains of “ the times of yore;" 80 Volume, it may not appear unseason- that they may prove gratifying to able to notice the successful result of the Aotiquary in particular, and inteour labours.

resting to the Publick in general. In takiog a retrospective view of We shall always adhere to facts and the numerous Volumes of the Gen- historical statements in preference to tleman's Magazine, we caonot but loog and laboured Essays “ signifyexperience the most pleasing satis- ing nothing, "-a fault too common faction, on perceiving the abundant with many contemporary Magazines, stores of valuable ipformation on whose contributors are remunerated this interesting subject. We may according to the extent of their Arconfidently assert that no periodical ticles! - Thus we ardently hope to Work extant can display so ample a render this Publication a valuable field of autiquarian lore; neither does store-house of useful knowledge, inany Miscellany of the day possess stead of allowing it to become a tedious resources sufficiently ample to com. melange of theoretical opinions. We pete with the persevering researches have superior means of ensuring our and useful discoveries of our pume- pre-eminence

every literary rous and learned Correspoudents; to Thersites of the day, by our ample whom we return our grateful acknow- resources. We have witnessed many ledgments, for many curious papers wbo, for a short time, bave “ fretted and important communications on their hour away," and then sunk into this abstruse, though curious depart. their primitive obscurity; whilst SILment of Literature. It shall be our VANUS URBAN has stood like tower. yaceasing study to merit a continu. ing Atlas, when conflicting elements ance of their favours; and whilst we tbunder over his head, and oceans enjoy the support and approbation break their billows at his feet. of the Publick, in so liberal a man- We observe some nascept Proner, our labours will receive the most ductions, the mere ephemerals of ample 'reward. We still solicit the a day, aspiring to a rivalship with contributions of our erudite Corre- our own, that have emerged from spondents in this particular Science; the ruins of their predecessors, as the as we feel conscious that accurate and fabled Phænix of old sprung from its minute information, respecting Anti- own ashes ; but they also are ready to quarian discoveries, can only be ob- "give up the ghost," and will soon tained through the medium of indi- “be gathered unto their fathers."

over

ARMS OF BOURCHIER, Earl op Essex. The annexed is a drawing made from 1539 (31 Hen. VIII.); having been elected the back pannel of a carved Armed-Chair, a Knight of the Garter in the preceding purchased lately of a broker in the county reign ; and whose only child (Anne) marof Nottingbam, who was unable to give ried William Lord Parr of Kendall, who any account of its former possessors, or was made Earl of Essex in her right, and even of its last owner, further than that died in 1571. he was a poor cottager of a neighbouring The Arms are quarterly ; first, Bourvillage.

chier ; second, Bohun; third, Woodville Our Correspondent thinks he has been (or Widdevile); and fourth, Louvaio : able to trace out with some exactness for they can belong only to the before-named whom the Chair was originally made. last Earl of Essex of the name of BourThe Arms can belong to no other person chier, in this obvious manner: than to Henry, the last Earl of Essex of William de Bargo-Caro, or Bourchier the name of Bourchier, who broke his (created Earl of Ewe at Maunt in Norneck by a fall from his horse in the year mandy, by Henry the Fifth), married one

of

1821.)
Antiquarian Researches.

65 of the daughters and co-heiresses of Tho- vile, the last Earl Rivers (executed at mas de Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Pontefract), and died in the life-time of by Eleanor his wife, one of the two daugh. his father, leaving a son Henry (who suc. ters and co.beiresses of Humphrey de ceeded his grandfather), and a daughter Bohun, the last Earl of Hereford and called Cecily, who married Sir Joho DeveEssex.

reux, whose great grandson Walter was Henry de Burgo-Caro, or Bourchier, made Earl of Essex by Queen Elizabeth, was the eldest son of the said William, in right of this marriage with Cecily Bourand was created Earl of Essex; and in cbier. the 19th of Edw. IV. was Keeper of the This Henry Bourchier (who succeeded Great Seal. He married Elizabeth, ibe his grandfather in the title) was the last sister of Richard Duke of York.

(of that name) Earl of Essex, and is the William Lord Viscount Bourchier, the person for whom the Chair was made, as eldest son of this marriage, matried Anne, is evident from the Coats of Arms shown the sister and co. beiress of Richard Wood- in this Drawing.

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The first quarter is Argent, a cross en- devile (which belonged to him exclusively grailed Gules between four water bou- as the son and heir of Anne the co-heiress gets Sable, for Bourchier (his paternal of the last Earl Rivers); the fourth Arms); the second Azure, a bend Argent checky, Argent aud Azure, a fesse Argent, between two cotises and in lions rampant for Louvain, but how derived to him it Or, for Bohun (which belonged to bim in cannot be discovered, nor which of his anright of his great great-grandmother, one cestors first bore it. It can only be found of the two co-heiresses of Humphrey de that in Wright's History of the County of Bohun above mentioned); the third Ar. Rutland, an engraving of the Arms of sent, a fesse and canton Gules, for Wid. Bourchier, quartering Louvain, is given GEST. Mag. January, 1821.

at

66
Antiquarian Researches.

[Jan. at page 101, as then remaining in the name of this Station at Harlow; it is diswindow of the chancel of Oakham Church tant from London 23 miles, from Ches. (together with the Arms of Thomas of hunt 12 miles, and from St. Alban's or Woodstock, impaling Bohun.)

Verulam 24 miles. The Chair (thus appropriated) is a cu. Among the antiquities found here (most riosity, and is doubtless upwards of three of which are in Mr. Barnard's possession), huodred years old; the owner being a are, a small bronze head of Silenus, of Knight of the Garter prior to the acces- very good workmanship; a large bronze siou of Henry VIII. in 1509. The pannel broach, and fragments of a cup of highly is too small for the carving to show the polished red ware, on the outsides of heraldic colours, and the bearings are all which are figures of a cock and a triton, strongly given, but lines are added distin. found in a grave eight or ten feet deep. guishing the colours, for greater accu- British Coins.-A helmetted head with racy. The corners of the square are CVNOBELINI; reverse, a hog t, and TASfilled by heads of cherubs and other oroa- CITOVANIT.-Another, with a head on one ments.

side; on the other, a man strikiog upon an anvil ;-one with a star, between the

rays of which are the letters VERLAMIO ; ROMAN AND BRITISH Coins,

reverse, an oxI;-auother similar, except that the head of the ox is turned the con.

trary way ;-and two or three others not TASGIO

intelligible. RIGON

Roman Coins.-Silver, of Sabina, Faustina the elder, and Coustantinus juo.

Brass, various sizes and various Emperors, Mr. John BARNARD, of Harlow, Essex,

from the first Claudius to Valentinian, in has favoured us with a British Coin' which all upwards of 200. is not in Mr. Ruding's Work; nor in Pegge's “Essay on the Coins of Cuno. beline." It was lately found near Ep

ROMAN Coins. ping; the metal is electrum ; its weight

The Rev. M. D. DUFFIELD, of Caston, 5 dwt. 10 gr.; on ove side is represented

near Watton, in Norfolk, (who has uodera man in armour on horseback, on the re.

taken the History and Antiquities of the verse, TASCIOVR ICON *.

county of Cambridge) has supplied us Near Harlow, Essex, are the remains of

with an account of the following discovery. a Roman station, not yet noticed by An.

On the 28th of Oct. 1820, as some latiquaries. The castellum, or place of

bourers were digging in a clay.pit in the strength, appears to have been in the

North-west part of this parish, they found, neighbouring parish of Latton, on an ele.

about five feet below the surface of the vated field which was formerly almost surrounded by the waters of the river ground, a silver ring, and nearly 200 RoStort. The works are not now visible,

man coios, chiefly silver. It is most pro

bable that they had been buried in a purse but a few feet below the surface are the foundations of very strong walls.

or box, as no vessel was found with them. It is not improbable that this was one

M. D. bas nioe of the silver coins in bis of the forts formed by the Romans, to de

possession, which have these inscriptions : fend the Tripobantes from the Cateuch

1. “ Imp. Otho Caesar Arg. Tr. P.Tani; as the Stort here, and, for some dis

Caput Othonis sine laureâ. taoce up its course, divides the counties

“ Securitas P. R.” Fig. mulieb. stans dext. of Essex and Herts. This conjecture is

laureolam, sin. hastam tenens. rendered more plausible by the appear

2. “ A. Vitellivs Germ. Imp. Avg. Tr. ance of four of these Stations on the Es

P.” Caput Vitellii laureatum.-Reverse, sex side of the river, in the short space of

“ XV. Vir. Sacr. Fac.(Quindecim vir nine miles ; viz. this at Harlow, or Latton;

sacris faciendis.) Tripos cum Delphino one at Hallingbury, called Wallbury, suprà & avicula infra seden. The tridistant four miles; one at Bishop's Stort

pos was a table in the temple of Apollo, ford, three miles; and another at Stan

to which Deity both the Dolphin and the sted Mont-Fitchet, two miles further.

Crow were sacred. Vitellius was one of Perhaps some of our Antiquarian Read

those whose office it was to keep the ers can assist in discovering the Roman

Sybill's books, and make certain sacri.

fices. * “ In consequence of the connexion 3. “Imp. Caes. Vesp. Avg. P. M. Cos. between the names of Cunobeline and JIU." Caput Vesp. laureatum. - ReTascio, those coins which bear the latter verse, “ Victoria Avgvsti.” Victoria stans name, without the former, are usually at. tributed to that Monarch."- Ruding on + Engraved in Ruding, PI, 5, big. 23. Coinage, vol. I. p. 200.

Ibid. hg. 3.

· Reserse,

1821.)
Antiquarian Researches.

67 sin. palman, dext. lauream sigao militari

Coin op TITUS. imponit.

A silver coin of Titus was found in the 4. " Trajano Avg. Ger. Dac. P. M. Tr. rubbish of an old house, which was lately P." Trajapi caput laureat. Reverse,

pulled dowo in Eastgate-street, in the city “Cos. V. PP. SPQR. Optimo Principi.” of Chester. lo digging the foundation for " Dac. cap.” (Dacia capta) Dacus ju- the new building, a pavement was discosidens spoliis, dextra manu caput sus- vered at about eight feet below the pretipeas. There were several other coins

sent level of the street. This gives strength of Trajan, and many of Hadrian and

to the prevalent opinion, that the level of Sabina.

the city was originally that of the foor of 5. “ Antoniovs Avg. Pivs. PP. TR. P. the Cathedral, to which persons have pow XV." Caput Anton. laur. - Reverse, to descend by several steps. " Cos. IIII." Femina stans dext. am. pullam, sip, statum. There were several of Antoninus with different inscriptions.

HUMAN SKELETONS. 6. " Avgvsta Favstina.” Caput Faus. The workmen of Mr. Stevens, surveyor, tinæ. - Reverse, Sæculi Felicit.” Duo of Bury St. Edmund's, wbilst raising grapueruli (Commodus & Antoninus, ge- vel in the hill, wear the Priory, have dismini) sedentes io lectulo.

covered at a small depth from the surface 7. "Favstina Avgvsta.” Cap. Faust. of the earth, the skeletons of 24 human - Reverse, “ Jvno." Juno stans dext. bodies, of rather gigantic size, but in every pateram, sin, hastam tenet.

respect perfect. Numerous pessons have 8. “ Diva Avg. Farstina." Caput. been to view them, and it is supposed Faust. - Reverse, “ Pietas Avg." Ad. they are a part of the bodies slain in the stat Pietas aræ.

bloody battle fought on that spot during 9. “ Diva Favstina.” Caput Faust. the reign of Henry II. and when the dir. Reverse, “ Augusta.” Fæmina stans in ferences existed between that Monarch sinist. bastam tenet.”

and his son, when, to aid the latter, the Of the Coins here found, the oldest Earl of Leicester was marching through which Mr. D. bas seen or heard of, is that Pornbam, from Framlingham, with an imof Otho; and the latest, those of Faustina. mense army of Flemings (principally artis -About seven years ago, a little to the ficers and wearers); but were atlacked South-west, ad urn and some coins were by the King's troops, who dispersed them found, among which was a gold one. in an instant, and put 10,000 of them to These discoveries seem to prove that here the sword, and took their Commander was a Roman station, from which the vil. prisoner. This engagement took place in lage took its name, Caston (Castrum). 1174, upwards of 600 years since.

PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES,

COL. MACDONALD, ON The North-West of 70°.-Should the ice oppose a Western MAGNETIC Pole.

progress along this in hospitable coast of I rejoice to see it announced, that the about 85 degrees of reduced longitude, no Discovery-Ships are to proceed again to resource will remain but to acbieve the explore the Polar Basin, to the West of object by land. As the Country is inhaBaffin's Bay.-From accounts, as far as bited by several tribes of Indians, whose they have been as yet published, it does dispositions are unknowo, a certain caunot appear to me that the vast accumu- tious mode of procedure is indispensable. lation of thick ice will admit of proceed. -Under these circumstances, European ing Westward on the parallel of latitude nations, interested in the object to be acof the newly-discovered Georgian Islands; complished, should join in the expense of which, however, ought to be completely establishing a chain of small posts of Explored, in order, if possible, to ascer- the block bouse description, as otherwise, tain the precise position of the North- progress, combined with safety, would be West Magnetic Pole ; and also to find quite impossible.—The Posts (as distant what advantages the Whale Fishery may as possible from each other) might be cooderive from these discoveries.

structed of such materials as the country It has not been made manifest that afforded. It is probable that the Fur there is no passage from Repulse Bay, trade might be materially benefited by into the Polar Basin, This would be the this measure, requiring time and resoshonest course to the Hyperborean Coast, lute enterprise.-Even if a North-west along which alone, there seems to me to Passage is effected by sea, through be the best chance of getting to Behring's Bhering's Straits, vavigation will derive Straits; and this on nearly the parallel little advantage from it, as far as regards

the

centres.

68 Philosophical Inquiries.- North West Magnetic Pole. (Jan. the comparative duration of Voyages to tion round its axis ; and by its motion distant quarters.

round its common centre of gravity with Any person may be convinced of this the Moon ? Newton in his chair, proved by applying a thread to a ship's sop- by science, what the French Philosophers posed course on the projection of the confirmed by actual measurement; viz. Sphere, called a Chart. By this simple the difference between the Equatorial and trial, a line to Bengal, passiog through Polar diameters of the Earth, arising from Baffin's Bay and Bhering's Straits, will the projection of the Globe at the Equa. be to a line from England to Bengal, by tor, by its rotatory motion. Were the the Cape of Good Hope, in the propor- Earth a solid to its centre, this motion on tion of 45 to 33. — Agaio, a line from au imaginary axis, would not give it the England to China, by a North-west Pas- ascertained form of an oblate spheroia ; sage, and the same by the Cape and as a bard solid moving in emply space, Straits of Sunda, will be in the proportion cannot be supposed to yield into that of the lengihs of 39 to 32, nearly.—Here shape, by any law of action as yet unwe have, independent of the great risk of folded by science. The planet Jupiter the navigation, a great addition of run.- is above thirteen hundred times the bulk The North-east Passage round Nova Zem- of the Earth ; and Saturn, independent bla and Cape Taimuriu, the most North of bis double ring, is about a thousand erly of Russia, has not yet been clearly times the buik of our globe. These diascertained; and there is reason to think meusions are made out by the clearest that there is land to the N.E. of this Cape, rules of science. If we apply to these towards Bhering's Straits. But even sup- prodigious bodies the reasoning of Newposing a North-east Passage practicable, tou relative to plastic forms moving vaa line from England by it, and through riously, there is no groupd fur concluding these Strails, to China, and the common that they are solid substances to their line through the Straits of Sunda, would

If they were, their vast weight be, in relative lengths, nearly in the pro- would require infinitely more attraction portion of 44 to 32.

Two persons in

than probably even the sun could fur. making this decisive experiment of com- nish. True, nothing is impossible with parative measurement, may not go over the Deity, whose laws of Nature are as precisely the same course : but any simple, as they are beautifully efficient, arising difference will not amount to i, but we honour his name by following such or 14, and consequently will not militate reasoning as Newton's, inferior as he was against the resulting conclusions.

to infinite beings : In addition to the celebrated Magnetic

Superior Beings, when of late they saw, Authors, mentioned in my former Com

A mortal man unfold all Nature's law; munication, I omitted the name of Dr.

Admir'd such wisdom in an earthly shape, Gilbert, who, in his “ Physiologia Nova

And shew'd a Newton as we shew an ape." de Magnete,” and in other publications, has displayed experimentally and theo. It is difficult to write on such a subject; retically, more knowledge of this occult but still we are certainly more warranted and obscure science, as far as it has in concluding that the earth is not a solid arrived, than all the other authors put throughout, than the reverse. together. He also adopted the notion of During the next voyage, I take it for different Magnetic Poles. In necessarily granted, that the requisite scientific preabandoning the supposition of a South- parations will be made for commencing east and South-west Magnetic Pole, on to discover whether or not the newlyaccount of finding no adequate variation ascertaiued Magnetic Cause has a movecontiguous to their imagined sites, the ment; and this can only be made out in existence of a moving Magnetic Cause due process of time. The Dippiog Neeround the South Pole also, will remain dle to be used should be of a very light dubious, till a continued trial of the va. construction, and might in its plane carry riation during a series of years, on the a very light card, marked as usual, with nearest Terra Firma to that Pole, shall the whole turning on a point. By means indicate such conclusion as may be sa- of a graduated circumference round the tisfactory to Philosophy. I throw out the exact meridian to be laid off, and a scale idea, because certain anomalies of vari. of minutes on one of the extremities of the ation in South latitudes, require some needle, this whole contrivance would shew such supposition.

the variation-dip and diurnal variation, I am aware, Mr. Urban, that the soli. while the observations of subsequent pedity of the earth may be urged against the riods would mark the alteration or stapossibility of a moving Magnetic cause : bility of the North-west Magnetic Pole. but what proof have we that the Sphere The whole compass of Science bardly orwe live on, is solid beyond the degree fers a subject of higher interest. of thickness requisite to preserve its form

John MACDONALD. from being materially altered by its rapid motion round the Sun; by its diurnal mo.

Summerland-place, Exeter, Jan. 9.

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