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1821.). St. Donat's Church-Education of the Poor defended. 49.1 sel, Argo a chevron between three


April 22. maoches, Sable.

THE Educalion of the Poor is a The Registers commence in 1570;

subject on which a great many jn which are the following notices : opinions subsist. Many are the obOn the first page of the Register : jections raised against il, and great "1652. Thomas Carne married to Jane is the odium thrown op'ils avowed

advocates. of all the objections Stradling, 27 April. — Edw. Turberville, esg. to Elizabeth Stradling, Sept. 1653. urged against it, there are only two,

* Mem. The above ladies were daugh- which appear to possess any sbare of fers of Sir John Stradling, bart, and his plausibility; and, consequcolls, only wife Elizabeth Gage. He being nephew two whicb inerit serious confulation.. of Sir Edward Stradling, bart*, and she a The first is, that the Education of piece of Lady Stradling, whosę vame was the Lower Orders increases their na. Agnes, daughter of Sir Edward Gage. lural a version lo subordination ; the They, dying without issue, adopted their other, ibat it lass tbem open to the relations, Sir John and Elizabeth, above jofluence of ihat mass of profanenew mentioned, who were married and had

and disloyalty, which daily issues from ten children, whose posterity continued to Sir Thomas Stradling, the last of the fa

the press

. I now propose to consider mily of the Stradlings. (Vide Monument.) the first objection; viz. that the Edu.

“N, B. The marriages of this family cation of the Lower Orders ipcreases commence in 1574; baptisms in 1660; their natural aversion to subordinaburials in 1573; agreeable to Register.

tion. To the church-yard is a very fine

There are two weapons with, which

we combal opinion argument and Cross; on the top of which are the

experience. remaios of a figure of tbe Virgin and

sball begin wilh a few words, by Child on one side; and of our Saviour on the Cross, with two females koeel- way of argument ;-Is it not a uni.

versally received axiom, in the sysing, on the other.

tem of Modern Education, with reThere is a tomb in the church-yard gard to the Upper Classes, that the which, although of po antiquity, is

more the miod is opened, the more worthy of notice, as it records a me

it becomes sensible of its own defi. lanchols event which occurred in the ciencies, and, consequently, the more vicinity of St. Donat:

favourable to the growih, of humi* Sacred to the memory of Sackville lity? And why should the same cic Torner, esq. a Captain in his Majesty's cumslaoce produce a quite opposile? 33d regiment, and of Sarah, his wife, effect on the Lower Classes ? who were cast away and drowned near If the Poor are instructed, from the this place on the nighi of the 5th of Sep; perusal of their Bibles, to follow the tember, 1774. He was born, at Therfield precepts therein contained, it follows in tbe county of Hertford, 1740. She was

ihat The strength of the argument born at Warton, io the county of Norfolk, 1752. Tbey lost two children; the eldest greatly depeods on what line of con

duct ihe Bible enforces. Now does not a year and a half old. Loved, esteemed, and respected, for every good quality the Bible teach insubordination ? Or, that could adoro human nature ; blessed does il enforce submission to lawfulauwith a genteel competency, with health tourity, and respect to the superiorily and content to enjoy it; bappy in them. of raok and station? The lailer most selves, and above all so in each other, undoubtedly the Bible places the this couple, without a momenl's warning, duties of obedience and subordioa. was cut off !-Reader! Let not this se

tion, in a much higher point of view vere stroke of affliction to all that kuew

than they can be in a human code them be thrown away upon thee. Be of laws. In our Statute Book, they thou, like them, prepared!"

are only introduced as affecting man's On the East side of the tomb is : temporal ioterest ; in the Statute “ Sacred also to the memory of Su.

Book of the King of kiogs, they are, sanda Crockley, who was drowned at the co-equally with every other virtue, same time, whose fidelity and attachment made the foundation of our hopes of as a relation and companiou, were evident a blessed eternity. I appeal then to in the last moments of her life."

the common sense of every reader, Yours, &c.

W. H. T.

whether an intimate knowledge of

the Bible is at all calculated to cause This is a mistake; he was only a discontent and pride in the minds of Knight. Sir Joho was the first Baronet. the Poor. I ask, wbich is most likely


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492 Education of the Poor.--- Progress of Literature. (June, to make a good member of society, appeared, in modern days, more conhe who acts from the impulse of his genial to the exercise and cultivation own uncultivated mind, or be who of the several departments of science has been early instructed to seek for than that of Italy, or the fruitful the most valuable kpowledge, from Islands of Greece and the Mediter. its only genuine source.

rapean, although in some cases these The System of Educatiog the Poor last have been equally tbe abodes of has, in some places, notwithstanding civilization and the elegant arts. the strong prejudices existing against The Northernmost parts of our it, been carried on a sufficient length Continent,--soils exbibiting for the of time, for experience to assist in most part perpetual barrenness and combating those very prejudices. SDOWS, as Finland, and even Green

Do we then find the Poor less will land, bave, in their poetry, often ing to fill the lower situations in life? discovered a vein of sentiment, Do we find them more averse to the livelioess of thought, a pathos and most menial offices? Do we hear the beauty of description, which their art. language of insubordination, arising less and untaught efforts, - strangers exclusively, or even principally, from as they are to the elegancies of dicthose cottages, where the ameliorat- tion and oftaste,--have scarcelyknown ing influences of Education have been how to polish to the regular, and arfelt? Do we invariably, or even ge- ticulate effusious of our more Southnerally, see on the countenances of ern schools. tbose who can read and write, the The Poems of Ossian, of Gesper, sullen gloom of discontent, or the yet and of Klopstock, may be deemed more alarming symptoms of despera- the offspring of a Northern soil, tion? These are questions I would although it must be owned, that this ask of those whose situations enable Jast partakes rather more of the them to answer them from experi- false glow and turgid sentiment wbich ence. They are put with candour :- bave, at various periods, been im. let them be answered without dissi- parted to us from the East, than of mulation. They are dictated by phi. the pathos and simplicity of the lanthropy :- let them be considered Northern bards. without malevolence.

Iceland is decided to have been the Within my own sphere of obser- receptacle of learning, and the school vation, I can truly say the effects for learned men, when Europe lay in have been otherwise. In the Parish comparative darknessa-and, to pass where I reside, and wbere the Edu- over the New World, all the tribes cation of the Poor bas been carried inbabiting the countries bordering on for some years, no pernicious ef- upon Hudson's Bay and the vast chain fects have yet resulted. No instances of lakes in North America,-although have occurred, of individuals so puff- savage, and, with more than primed up with their own mental aliain- tive ignorance, exhibiting all the ments, as not to feel grateful to the wandering babits of our first forebenevolent hand that placed them in fathers-bave yet a native expresion a situation in which to gain their own of descriplive imagery and fine and livelihood, how subordinate soever impassioned sentiment whicb, rude that situation might be, and how me- as it is, proclaims that Nalare, or nial soever the offices required of the scenery with wbich they are surthem. Neither when once engaged rounded, bas iospired them with ideas in the service of their superiors, has of animated description in a far higher a spirit of insubordination or disobe- degree tban similar hordes in the vi

. dience manifested itself.

cinity of the Tropics, although rank. Yours, &c.

PALOMUSUS. ing, as to outward babits of life,

equally bigb in cultivation. PROGRESS OF LITERATURE IN DIJ.

Upon the credit of the most ioFERENT AGES OF SOCIETY. telligent travellers who have resided (Resumed from p. 417.)

among them, we admire the metapbo

rical, but plaintive language, in which THE VE meridian of England, or Scot- these people express their assent, or

land, and may it not be said of deliver their compacts. Sweden, and likewise of some other. Inexorable and remorseless when Northern countries of Europe, bave in battle, or when irritated to fresy,


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1821.] Progress of Literature in different Ages. 493 they are yet hospitable, docile, and to bave made any progress in civi. susceptible of emotion in their in- lization, or to be acquainted in any tercouse with those with whom they degree with the mechanical or fine are on terms of friendship.

arts, were situated, the former beof few ideas, and incapable of se- tween the Tropics, and the latter alrious thought, or the process of men- most immediately under the equator, tal illation, they smoke the pipe of and were certainly, (if indeed we may peace, or take up the hatchet of war, draw a comparison from the suspect. apparently with a composure denot- ed accounts we have received Ibrough ing the same indifference; and al- the Spaniards,) higher in civilized exthough in this they may be accused istence thao either the extensive isof bordering on that apathy of cha: lands lying within the Tropics of the racter which distinguisbes the tribes Pacific and Indian Archipelagos, or of a milder latitude, and, notwith the Kiogdoms of Africa in the neighstanding the picture which M. de la bourhood of the rivers Gambia, SeCoodamine, with a too great free- negal, and Niger, although the aotidom, has drawn of them,-in their quity of the people inhabiting the general delineation of feature, they former, may be thought, if not are yet acknowledged to be wholly higher, to be at least coeval with dissimilar.

that of the former. The plaintive style of their remon- “ Through the whole extent of strances, uoder supposed injuries, America,” exclaims the philosophiwhich occasionallydistinguish them - cal M. Pauw, in his usual sweeping their sincere proffers of friendship,- style, “from Cape Horn to Huda their energeticgusts of emotion whilst son's Bay, there has never appeared ventiog sorrow, or allegorizing their a philosopher, an artist, a man of ideas, in the former--and the parox. learning, or of parts, whose name isms of fury with which they exem- bas found a place in the history of plify the fiercest passions of buman sciences, or whose talents have done Dature, when jocited to the latter by credit to himself, or been of use to some sudden seose of wrongs, or others *.” breach of public faith,have alter- “ Europe," proceeds our Theorist, nately been the objects of admira- " is the only part of the world in tion and dismay of the intelligent which are found Poets, Philosophers, traveller.

and Astronomers; for the Chinese, And, if we asceod to regions yet with all their boasts, have neither. higher towards the Pole, we find They bave no more their Sculptors, in their forlorn inhabitants an oc- Painters, or Architects, than the other casional warmth of sentiment and of nations of Asia ;-as to their Poets, feeliog,-a glow of passion appa- they are mere Troubadours ; and for rently incompatible with their na- their Drama, there is as great a diftire spows, animating their breasts. ference between their Taba-o-chi-couThey have, occasionally, shewn, al- ell, their best tragedy, and the Phæthough in artless Dumbers, that a dra of Racine, as between the Alaric privation of the sun's resplendeot of Scuderi and the Pucelle of Chapelain beams is not able to efface those sus. and the Ænead." ceptibilities which Nature bas im- That the New World, taken in the planted, more or less, in all her sons. aggregate, in this yet ipfant state of

of the vast continent of America iis civilization and intellectual existit may be said that, ootwithstand- ence, should not have been remark. ing the charge of sterility of inven- ably fertile in the production of the tion, which has been occasionally first-rate men of genius, or in ils conbrought against her inhabitants, sbe seems, in some at least of the * This distinguished Speculator does climates wbich prevail on ber ample not sometimes discriminate with sufficient territory, to have been regulated in accuracy in his taste for new discove.

ries and bold assertions, his proscription former days by laws physical, or

of the genius of America (loes not, whatsooral, or both, somewhat differing ever of truth it may contain, accord with from those of the Old World.

strict fact. The pames of West and Frank. The Mexicans and Peruvians- lin, indigenous on that soil, are alone although it is true, the only nations abandanily sufficient to rescue it from the which at its first discovery were found imputation.



494 Progress of Literature in different Ages. (June, tributions to the geoeral cause of sci- strous and depraved Laste, while their ence, althongh we have there favoured most ingenious efforts bare scarcely an hypothesis somewbat different, is enabled them to mould a bust or an perhaps, by no means a phenomenon; esligy, which, in Europe, would be and may, in part, be explained from tolerated in the shed of a common the circumstance of the human mind statuary. As Physicians, Astrono. being slow in its advances to know- mers, and Geographers, their koos. ledge, when not acceleraled by ad- ledge is scarcely of a higher order. ventitious causes, either physical, mo- Noiwithstanding the great facilities ral, or political

they possess, in their mildness of cli. But ihat Chioa, a vast and popu- male and clearness of atmosphere, lous empire, of very high antiquity, their attainments in exploring the and amongst whom the sciences and heavens,- in developing the true liberal arts are represented to have system of the universe, or ascertainbeen known, and even cultivated, in ing its laws,--are extremely low, so the days of their celebrated Confu- low indeed, that they may be said to cius,--should, at this day, rank so be by no means equal to those of low in intellectual exercises, may be the antient Assyrians, who at least said to present a phenomenon alto- framed conjectures, and maintained gether anomalous to the usual course ingenious hypotheses ;— while their either of human progression or of speculations in the science of Geohoman vicissitude. The jealousy graphy discover at once igoorance with which they have always regard. and puerility. As Physicians indeed, ed the intrusive visits of foreigners, they pretend to some eminence, and the scrupulousness with which and voluminous treatises have been they have ever affected to preserve written and studied upoo this importtheir name, character, and privileges, ant science ; these, however, have as a unique and secluded people, als been termed lille better than her. though it may bave assisted io per. bals,-aod an essential acquaintance petuating those narrow and contract. either with the human system, of ed views which are generally observed with the system of the universe which to attend a people unenlightened stretches round them, their sagacity by the influx, the counsels, or the and industry have yet to acquire. opinions of other pations, is alto- Thus, it would appear, that China, gether inadequate to explaio it. We with all its natural advantages, and find amongst them the same indefa. the patriarchal jurisdiction which ils tigable industry applied to the use- emperors and nobles are pretended to ful, and even to the polite arts, and exercise over its vast population, attended with pretty much the same has yet (inay it not be said,) some results as before the Christian Æra. thing in its soil and atmosphere not Practice and long experience seem decidedly propitious to the growth at least, in the latter, not to have and developement of genius. improved their taste, quickened their The human mind, with all its dajovention, or enlarged the sphere of live and inherent curiosily, seems their mental knowledge. Their Paint here to have been wroughi upon to ings are, still, scarcely emancipated surpass the efforts of a former age, from the character of mere daubs- neither by an honest emulation, or tame and spiritless compositions, by the principles imbibed, turned inlo and if they have sometimes acquired fresh channels of thought--yel TBGIR the character of expert and neat ancestors and those of Britain, or of copyisls, it has rather been in the mi- Greece, inherited from Nalure, il nuteness or servility of the imitation, must be presumed, the same capacithan in the vigour or conception of ties, and partook of one common the design. Their sculpture and ar. origin. chitecture are represented, by the Can it then, by any."

human most intelligent travellers, as alto- quiries be fixed, what are the merigether void of genius or of grace. dians best calculated to call forth aod

With them magnitude-Dot beauty direct the mental energies, ---to temor proportion, constitutes the per- per them to the reception of literary fection of their art ; their triumphal refinement, or rouze them to the arches, their ornaments, and many of bold enterprise of discovery - The their public buildings, exhibit a mon- subject, in all its relations, involves

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1821.) Progress of Literature in different Ages. 495 considerable intricacy ;-it would ap- tude, whose lands present few obpear presumptuous, perhaps, in the jects for the repose of iodolence, or limits here assigned io our specula- the indulgence of luxury.--Those tions, to determine a point which who inhabit them, if iodeed they rather demands the loug and the de- possess strength of body and actiliberative contemplation of the en- vity of mind, are driven to culti. lightened student. A few hints, how- vation for a subsistence, and afterever, for the assistance of the en- wards to procure thosc conveniences quirer may, perhaps, in closing, be which their neighbours, of other laadduced from what has taken place titudes, gather by stretching forth in lbe course of human experience. the hand. These habits of industry,

It is well known that the Antients and of mental application, which deemed the tropical or middle re- are thus generated, at first through gions vafit, not only for intellectual a sort of necessity, may be said not expansion, but likewise for human, to cease, when their wants are supif not for animal existence. As the plied, but gradually to expand into observations of men, it is true, be- ivore Duble and dignified pursuits come more enlarged, it was found than the mere gratification of their ibat civilized life, and moral dispo- animal wants. sitions, were capable of being gene. It is observed by Sir William Temrated, and exercising their functions, ple, in his remarks upon the climate under the most intense beats which and character of the Dutch, that, in visit our Globe. Europe, however, their moist atmosphere, their ideas has been the concentrated spot, where, move slower and heavier, though the in the great aggregate, the talents of impressions of it are deeper, and last our world may, in all ages, be said lo longer, “the motions of thought bave been displayed, which fact cer- are less light and quick, and the range tainly, in some degree, argues in fa- of imagination more contracted than vour of a temperate zone for the ma- in constitutions which are more airy turity of intellect.

and volatile." Particular countries, however, on It will not, perhaps, be departing the other hand, of this our quarter too much froin matter of experience, of the globe, such as Greece, Rome, fioally to assume that, in some Northand Sicily, have, io antient times, ern countries, the keen, sublle, and turued the scale of intellect in favour bracing air of the bleak atmosphere, of a sultry almosphere and a fertile when not infected by fogs and exhasoil, and, in modern days, the inha. Jations are more propitious to strength bitants of Spain and Portugal,-how- of mind, sound judgment, and intense ever suok, now, froin their “ high application. Following the same rule, sphere,"-were ihe active and per- although exceptions will frequently severing iostrumeots who opened to occur, it will appear, that the nearer mankind new discoveries of an ex- we approach the Equator (except in tent and maguitude far surpassiog the countries in its imniediate neighia any ideas which the wildest concep: bourhood, where languor, and avertions of fancy might have formed sion to mental exercise are usual chaprevious to this epoch.

racteristics), vivacity of imagination, With regard to the Northern coun. airiness of spirits, aod quickness of tries of Europe, we see, in our own parts mark ihe buman dispositions, day, meotal cultivation and know. and are often found to be distinguish. ledge carried to a distinguished height; ing and predominating in the genius -The sentiment, however, of Montes. of nations so situated, although cir. quieu, just now quoted, -that soils, cumstances of a moral or political spontaneously producing the richest kind may frequently intervene to turn fruits of nature, or, in other words, the tide of thinking, and suppress the an atmosphere warmed by the con- vative energies which would other. tinual presence of a cloudless gun, wise expand in their full force. will naturally produce civilization, Whilst surveying the richly-cultiaod its consequent mental superi- vated tracks, fertilized and adoroed ority; this might, perhaps, even in by the industry and talent of former theory, with greater truth, be ap- days, contemplation will naturally plied to countries of a bigher lati. suggest topics of illustration, and pro

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