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ments from this time until they preëmpted all the territory from Cape Henlopen to the falls of the Delaware. At this time the colony was called New Sweden. In 1651, Gov. ernor Stuyvesant, to check the aggressive movements of the Swedes, built a fort near the present site of New Castle, of which the Swedes afterward obtained possession by stratagem. Enraged at this movement, the Government of Holland ordered Stuyvesant to reduce the Swedes to submission, which he speedily accomplished with six hundred men, in 1655. The province was soon after annexed to New Netherlands. Delaware was, after it fell into the hands of the English, included in the grant made to William Penn, in 1692. It remained attached to Pennsylvania till 1691, when it was allowed a separate government. It was reunited to Pennsylvania in 1692. In 1703, it was again separated, having its own legislature, though the same Governor presided over both colonies. The ancient forms of the government were preserved through the revolutionary struggle. It ratified the Constitution December 7, 1787.

Its position, at the commencement of the rebellion of 1861, was somewhat dubious. It being a northerly slave State, was somewhat divided as to where its interests lay. It, however, finally came out somewhat decidedly for the Union, although its entire strength has not been exerted against the rebellion. Its population is 112,216.

THE CAROLINAS.

In the year 1563, the coast of Carolina was explored, and named after Charles IX, of France. The first attempt to settle it was made by the celebrated and accomplished Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1585, twenty-two years before the settlement of Jamestown, and thirty-five years before the Puritans landed at Plymouth. This effort failed, on account of the incapacity of the Governor appointed by Raleigh, and the ill-behavior of the colonists toward the natives.

The first successful attempt was made sometime between 1640 and 1650, under the direction of Governor Berkley. The settlement was made in Albemarle County, by a few Virginia planters. In 1663, a large tract of land, lying between the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude, having the Atlantic Ocean for its eastern boundary, was conveyed by Charles II, to Lord Clarendon and associates, under whose auspices a settlement was made near the mouth of Cape Fear River, in the year 1665, by emigrants from Barbadoes: Sir James Yeomans was appointed Governor. A settlement was made at Port Royal, South Carolina, in 1670; and in 1671, a few persons located at what was then called Old Charleston, which place was abandoned in 1680, and the foundation of the present city of Charleston laid, several miles nearer the sea.

All the various settlements here mentioned went under the general name of Carolina, until 1571, when a division was made, and the northern and southern portions were called by their distinctive names, North and South Carolina. These States were the scenes of many revolutionary tragedies. South Carolina, in particular, although the home of Sumter, and Marion, and Rutledge, was replete with tories, (royalists) who spared no efforts to annoy the infant Republic, and play into the hands of the British Government. South Carolina ratified the Constitution May 23, 1788, but threatened to break the compact in 1832, and was only prevented by the stern will of President Jackson. After this the State did nothing worthy of note until December 20, 1860, when it seceded from the Union, taking the lead in the great Rebellion. Present population 703,708 .

North Carolina ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789, and seceded from the Union May 21, 1861. Population 992,622.

PENNSYLVANIA.

The Old Keystone State, and one of the most wealthy and prosperous in the Union, was settled by the Quakers, under the direction of Wm. Penn, at Philadelphia, in the year 1682. The founder of this colony showed himself a philosopher, a philanthropist, a thorough political economist, at the very commencement of his labors. He put the province under the government of a Council of Three and a House of Delegates, chosen by the freemen, who, according to his arrangement, were all those who acknowledged the existence of one God. He pursued such a course with the natives as won their confidence and esteem. No Quaker was ever murdered by an Indian; and to this day the “sons of Wm. Penn" are every-where respected by the savage. The treaty Penn made with the Indians was never violated. In framing the colonial government, he provided for the largest religious liberty, allowing every one to worship according to the dictates of his own conscience. Up to 1684, Delaware, as before mentioned, was included in Penn's grant. But about this time he procured a new charter, more strictly defining the rights and limits of Pennsylvania, and Delaware was detached. For seventy years prosperity smiled upon this colony, during much of which time Penn was, according to the historian, its governor, magistrate, preacher and teacher. It was troubled with no Indian wars till 1754, when Penn's example and teachings began to be forgotten. The population, owing to a considerable influx from Sweden, Germany, and some other countries, began, at a later date, to assume a more varied aspect; and when the colonies rebelled against the mother country, Pennsylvania contained sufficient “fighting" material to lend valuable assistance to the cause of liberty.

She adopted the Constitution December 12th, 1787, since which time her increase in wealth, and advancement in general improvement has been almost without a parallel. Her vast coal fields and rich iron mines constitute a source of eternal wealth. Upon the breaking out of the rebellion of 1861, her position in favor of the Union was well defined.

Her population is 2,906,115.

GEORGIA.

General James Oglethorpe, and a company of twenty-one others, received, in the year 1732, from George II, of England, a grant for all the land between the Savannah and the Altamaha Rivers. In January, 1733, a company of one hundred and fourteen men, women, and children, arrived at Charleston, S. C., destined for Georgia. They were kindly treated by the Charlestonians, and were greatly assisted by them in their labor of forming a colony. The first laws made for the province by the twenty-two grantees, prohibited the importation of rum, trade with the Indians, and the use of negroes. They also provided that lands should go back to the original owners in case the purchaser had no male heirs. Although the first, second, and third of these provisions were undoubtedly wholesome, the fourth was highly objectionable, and tended very much to retard the progress of the colony. In the year 1740, General Oglethorpe, as commander-in-chief of the forces in Georgia, at the head of two thousand men, invaded Florida with the intention of forcibly annexing it to Georgia; but he was soon repelled from the the territory, and returned home bootless. The Spanish, in turn, with two sail of vessels and three thousand men, invaded Georgia in 1742, and were likewise forced to return home thwarted. The progress of this colony was for many years very slow; the people manifesting that indolence and indifference which is still too prominent a characteristic of Georgians. It was mainly on the side of freedom during the revolution.

It ratified the Constitution January 9th, 1788. Since the Revolution, the State has manifested but little life as compared with its sisters, and its secession from the Union, May 19th, 1861, was followed by speedy ruin.

VERMONT.

The territory of which this State is composed began to be settled in the year 1731, but was for some years considered as a part of New Hampshire. It was also claimed at one time by New York, and a contest arose between that State and New Hampshire, which was adjusted by the King of England in a manner by no means satisfactory to the settlers. The result was a quarrel between Vermont and the Crown, in which the Green Mountain Boys, led by Col. Ethan Allen, resisted the officers of justice, as well as the New York militia, who were called out to sustain them.

The province appears not to have had even a territorial government until 1777, at which time a convention of delegates met at Westminster, and declared themselves an independent State, under the name of New Connecticut. Previous to this time, however, they had rendered material aid to the Revolution. In May, 1755, Col. Allen, at the head of two hundred and seventy men, reduced Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and thus became complete masters of Lake Champlain. During the whole period of the Revolution the State did good service in the cause of liberty, although it remained independent. Some time subsequent to its declaration of independence its name was changed to Vermont. As it was not one of the original States, it did not ratify the Constitution, but, upon application, was admitted to the Union during the second session of Congress, in the year 1791. It has been a highly prosperous State, and added much to the luster of the Union in its palmy days of peace. It fully sustained its Revolutionary reputation at the commencement of the Rebellion of 1861. Its population is 315,098.

KENTUCKY

Was settled, in the year 1775, by Daniel Boone and a number of associates from North Carolina. The trials and adventures of these hardy pioneers, and especially those of Boone, constitute one of the most romantic leaves in the history of the West. For over two years, previous to 1775, Boone was busily employed in surveying Kentucky, building roads and forts. One of the latter he erected at Boonsborough; to which place he removed his family, in 1775. Boone said that his wife and daughter were the first white women who ever stood on the banks of the Kentucky River. For a number of years after Boone's settlement, he and his associates experienced many difficulties with the natives— Boone's daughter being at one time captured by the Indians, though shortly afterward rescued by her father. But, , notwithstanding the difficulties with the savages, the young territory grew rapidly in population and wealth, and on June 1st, 1792, was admitted to the Union. Having a fertile soil, and affording excellent pasturage, she has far outstripped most of her slave-holding sisters in general improvement.

Her position for some time after the commencement of the Rebellion was by means promotive of her prosperity.

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