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America, explored a tract of country lying on the Chesapeake Bay, belonging to what was then called South Virginia, and returned to England to procure a grant for it. But before the patent was made out, he died, and it was given to his son Cecil. The province was named by King Charles I, in the patent, in honor of his Queen, Henrietta Maria. A part of the province appears to have been included in the grant made some time afterward to William Penn, and to have caused much contention between the successors of Penn and Baltimore.

In March, 1634, Leonard Calvert, the brother of Cecil, arrived at the mouth of the Potomac River, bringing with him two hundred emigrants, most of whom were Roman Catholic gentlemen. Leaving the vessel, he ascended in a pinnace as far as Piskataqua, an Indian village nearly opposite Mount Vernon. The Indian Sachem gave him full liberty to settle there if he chose; but not deeming it safe, he began a settlement lower down on a branch of the Potomac, at the Indian town of Yoacomoco. The settlement was called St. Mary's.

Maryland made a very fortunate beginning. The colonists arrived in time to make a crop for that year.

Their neighbors in Virginia supplied them with cattle, and protected them in great part from the Indians, while their own kind and consistent course materially promoted their happy relations with the savages.

The charter which had been granted them was very liberal-ceding to them the full power of legislation, without any interference on the part of the Crown. In 1635, they made laws for their government, which were somewhat modified in 1639. In 1650, they had an upper and lower legislative assembly, as had their Virginia neighbors.

Ten or twelve years after its settlement, Maryland was disturbed by an insurrection, headed by one Clay borne; but this difficulty was soon settled. It played a conspicuous part in the Revolution, and adopted the Constitution April 28, 1788. Its progress has been fair, its present population being 687,049. Its geographical position and the mixed political character of its people caused it to assume a rather dubious attitude at the commencement of the rebellion of 1861. Some of its best statesmen, however, were among the most uncompromising friends of the Union.



Captain Henry Hudson, the famous voyager, discovered what is now New York, together with a considerable extent of territory contiguous to it, in the year 1609. Although an Englishman by nativity, Hudson was at this time employed by the Dutch, (Hollanders) who, consequently, claimed the territory. Meantime the English set up a claim to it, as being part of North Virginia. They also claimed it on account of Hudson being an Epglish

The Dutch, however, determined to hold it, and in 1610 opened a trade with the natives at Manhattan Island, on the spot where the city of New York now stands. They erected a fort on or near the site of Albany, named the country in general, New Netherlands, and the station at Manhattan, New Amsterdam. The Dutch retained the country until the year 1664.

It seems that, up to this time, they claimed not only the present territory of New York, but also that of Connecticut and New Jersey. The liberal governments of the surrounding colonies stood in great contrast with the despotic one imposed by the Dutch Government upon their American colonists. And when, in 1664, the English squadron dispatched by James, Duke of York, with instructions to take possession of the province of New Netherlands, appeared before New Amsterdam, the inhabitants were willing to capitulate without resistance. Peter Stuyvesant, their Governor, and an able executive, made vain efforts to rouse them to defense, and was forced to surrender. The Eng. lish Government was now acknowledged over the whole of New Netherlands, the capital receiving the name of New York, as well as the province. From this time forward to the Revolutionary War, New York remained in the hands of the English, and was under the control of a very arbitrary succession of Governors. The progress of the colony was steady, in numbers, wealth, and civilization. It took an active part in the Revolution, and adopted its Constitution July 26, 1788. After this it outstripped every other State in the Union in every thing pertaining to wealth and greatņess, save education, in which matter no State can compare with Massachusetts. At the commencement of the great Rebellion, this noble State showed herself truly worthy to be ranked as the Empire State. She has furnished the Government more money than any other State. Her population is 3,880,735.


In the year 1633, the Puritans of Massachusetts, having heard very flattering reports of the valley of Connecticut, resolved to make an effort to settle it. Accordingly, a company of them sailed for the Connecticut River, taking with them the frame of a house. Meantime the Dutch, claiming the territory as theirs, built a fort on the river where Hartford now stands, to prevent the emigrants from passing up. The Yankees, however, with that steady perseverance which has always marked their course, proceeded on their way, paying no attention to the Dutch fort, whose only demonstration was an unexecuted threat to fire on the emigrants if they passed it. Landing where Farmington River enters the Connecticut, they founded the town of Windsor. Other settlements were subsequently formed at Westerfield, Hartford, and Watertown. The first general court was held at Hartford, in the year 1636. The province suffered severely from the depredations of the Pequod Indians, with which tribe a great and decisive battle was ultimately fought on the river Mystic, in the year 1636.* During this year the towns of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, met in convention and formed a Government, electing John Haynes the first Governor of the colony.

Its course from this period forward was one of great prosperity. It stood in the front rank during the war for İndependence, and in no case was ever known to flinch from duty. It ratified the Constitution June 9, 1788. Its present population is 460,147.

* This battle resulted in the destruction of the Pequod tribe.

At the commencement of the Rebellion, in 1861, its voice was for the Union and the Government of the Fathers. Its aid in behalf of freedom has been earnest and efficient.


In June, 1636, Roger Williams, an earnest, enthusiastic advocate of religious liberty in the broadest sense, having been banished by the Puritans of Massachusetts from that colony, went to what is now known as Rhode Island, purchased the present site of Providence of the Narragansett Indians, and founded a colony, of which he was at once pastor, teacher, and father. He donated land to any whom he thought worthy, and Providence Plantation, as it was long called, became an asylum for persecuted Christians of all denominations, especially the Baptists. The first settlement in Rhode Island proper, was formed by William Codington, in the year 1636. Up to 1640, the citizens of Rhode Island made their own laws in general convention. But, in 1644, Roger Williams, with the aid of Gov. Vane, of Massachusetts, procured a charter for two settlements, under the name of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. The Constitution framed under this charter was a good one; and lasted until the year 1818. For many years the legislative assembly of this colony met twice a year.

Rhode Island is distinguished as the smallest State in the Union. It did noble service in the war for Independence, but did not, for some reason, adopt the Constitution till the 29th of May, 1790. It has been a highly prosperous State ; is distinguished for its good schools and large man. ufactories.

At the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1861, it stepped nobly forward in defense of the Government, sending its own Governor to Washington at the head of a regiment of volunteers. Its population is 174,620.


At first, formed a part of the Dutch province of New Netherlands. But soon after the latter came into the hands of the English, the Territory of New Jersey was transferred to Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, by the Duke of York. The first permanent settlement was formed at Elizabethtown, in 1664, by emigrants from Long Island. Philip Carteret arrived in the colony in 1665, and became its first Governor. The province had very little trouble with the Indians. Many emigrants from New England and New York soon arrived, and for a series of years the colony advanced in prosperity. It enjoyed the blessings flowing from a liberal form of government.

In the year 1685, the Duke of York became the King of England, under the title of James II, and disregarding his former pledges, assumed, in 1688, the government of New Jersey, placing it under the control of Sir Edmund Andros, whom he had already made Governor of New York and New England. This state of things was terminated by the revolution in England, but left New Jersey for years in a very precarious condition. In 1702, its proprietors having resigned their claims, it became a royal province, and was united to New York. In 1738 it became again a separate province, and so continued until the Revolution, in which it took a very active part in favor of liberty. It ratified the Constitution December 18, 1787. Thenceforward its career has been a highly .prosperous one.

Its strength has been put forth to aid in crushing the great Rebellion. Population 672,075.


Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, formed a plan of establishing colonies in America as early as the year 1626. But as he died on the field of Leutzen, during the German war in 1633, without carrying his scheme into effect, his minister took it up, and employed Peter Minuets, the first Governor of New Netherlands, to carry it into effect. In 1638, a small Swedish colony arrived under the direction of Minuets, and settled on Christian Creek, near the present town of Wilmington. Notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Dutch Government of New Netherlands, who claimed the territory, the Swedes continued to extend their settle

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