The Steam Engine Considered as a Thermodynamic Machine: A Treatise on the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Steam Engines, Illustrated by Diagrams, Tables, and Examples from Practice

Capa
E. & F. N. Spon, 1890 - 426 páginas
 

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Internal work and external work during evaporation
22
Graphical representation
24
Internal work during rise of temperature
27
Total internal work
29
Formation of steam in a closed vessel
30
Internal work in general
33
Explanation of terms
35
THEORY OF THE STEAM ENGINE PRELIMINARY 16 Necessity of a preliminary investigation
37
Nonexpansive engines
38
Condensation water Priming
41
1921 Work done during expansion
43
2225 Expenditure of heat in an expansive engine
48
Graphical representation
55
Expansion in general
59
2829 Compound engines
62
Diagram of energy of steam 87
69
ARTICLE PAGR
71
Theory of a heat engine working with a perfect gas
88
CHAPTER V
127
CHAPTER VI
152
Specific heat at constant volume
159
Expansion of dry and saturated steam
161
Specific heat of steam
166
Hyperbolic expansion
169
Comparison of results
173
Meaning of term internal workpressure
174
Any given expansion curve
176
7780 Examples of the graphical method
177
Formula for the heat supplied during expansion
191
Expansion of steam under a given supply of heat
192
Expansion in contact with a plate
198
Isodynamic expansion
202
CHAPTER VII
203
9495 Continuous supply of heat
209
Comparison of steam and air engine
212
Extension of the adiabatic equation Numerical examples
215
Connection between adiabatic curves
219
Nature of the process of expansion
221
Area of the diagram of energy Mean temperature of supply
222
Entropy
223
Temperatureentropy diagram
225
Thermal indicator diagram
227
Entropy of air and steam
228
CHAPTER VIII
231
Classification of losses in steam engines
234
Loss in heating feed
235
Loss in supplying heat during expansion
237
Effect on the expenditure of heat
260
Drying effect of clearance
261
123124 Steady wiredrawing
262
Loss by wiredrawing
267
Unsteady wiredrawing
268
Concluding remarks
272
CHAPTER X
274
Steady flow of heat by conduction
278
Fouriers equation
282
Harmonic cycle of temperature
283
Outflow and inflow of heat
285
Jacketed cylinder
287
Temperature cycle in general
289
Differences between the cycle of the metal and that of the steam
291
Radiation and convection
292
Conditions governing the intensity of the action of the sides
294
Action of a simple plate
298
Difference of action of a simple plate and the cylinder metal
300
Graphical representation of the action of the sides by a thermal indicator diagram
302
Graphical representation of losses
305
EXPERIMENTS ON STEAM ENGINES CONDITIONS OF ECONOMICAL WORKING ABTICLB PACK 144 Experimental determination of the pe...
308
Determination of performance Second method
312
Radiation and priming
315
Efficiency of condensing engines Table of examples
316
Missing work in condensing engines
322
Noncondensing engines
323
Determination of the exhaust waste
324
Graphical representation of the missing work
329
Cylinder condensation in general
331
Influence of size and speed
333
Influence of surface
335
Influence of speed
336
Condensation formula
337
Best ratio of expansion
343
Limitations of condensation formula
344
Compound engines
346
Jacketing and superheating
348
Expansion surface
352
Clearance and compression
353
Correction and combination of indicator diagrams
357
Feed water heaters
362
Utilisation of low temperatures
365
TABLES
369
Tables of the properties of saturated steam 369
386
Table of hyperbolic logarithms
391
CHAPTER FAGE
401

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