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said of all others. The farmer and mechanic can-, form, his capacities and capahilities, in order to his not be dispensed with. They are essential to the proper influence and command. Give a man knowexistence of the race in any form which elevates ledge, and you give him power Give hjin industhe condition of man above the barbarian and the try, and you give him wealth, which again is power. savage.
These greatly advance if they do not perfect him Yet it is evident that working men in society in his power to influence and control others. No have not the influence which naturally belongs man without them, onless in a state of barbarism to them; nor do they occupy that position to nearly related to the brute, has ever attained to which they are entitled. Whiskered impudence great power, or held it long. and dandy affectation of the gentleman take the We may find then in each class of society the precedence. Upstarts, whose lily hands and bleach- principal elements of its own elevation.
If some ed brows give evidence that they have never ful- have risen to unnatural heighis, their knowledge and filled the command of their Creator to work and to wealth have principally contributed to their false sweat for their bread, who have never provided for position. If other classes have been depressed their own living, nor can earn a living for others. and degraded below what belonged to them as men, ofien take the reward,-in some important aspects, their ignorance or poverty has done it. the highest reward in this life of human labor and Working men fail of their proper posilion in socieffort,—the hands and hearts of the fair, while the ely for want of knowledge and industry to compete hard-handed and whole-hearted, the laborious, eco- with other classes. Ignorance and poverty lead to Domical, efficient farmer and mechanic are rejected vice. These, united, aid and exasperate each other and despised. We may attribute this, and some and complete the degradation. times rightly, to the false education of our daugh. But is it necessarily so ? The working man is ters; but I am about to show that the cause lies not excluded from letters. So far from it—his ocdeeper, and goes back to the education of the other cupations often require the use and practice of some
of the highest principles in some of the most abThere is nothing in man so much admired by struse sciences. Geometry in many of its princidiscerning woman as manliness ; the character ples, is necessary to the carpenter ; chemistry to which belongs to him, who has the power by na- every man who works in the metals, and in many ture to provide for, defend, and protect her. Man of jts principles, to the agriculturist—and the grand then commends himself to her approval, when he doctrines of natural or mechanical philosophy, to fulfils the proper destiny of man, and appears in every mechanic whose trade occupies him with his appropriate character. She may be amused by machinery. the dandy, who can hand her politely through the
Yet because the time and terms of ordinary apstreets and pick her nosegays, slippered and sha-prenticeship in the mechanic arts do not allow him ven as from a bandbox. But when she is look- to study at college and acquire the theory separate ing to a seulement in life—for a protector who from the practice of his profession, popular prejucan, if need be, take her on his shoulder and ford dice and popular practice sometimes consign the the stream, or provide for her at home, the foot laboring man to ignorance. This is wrong. The that is shud for the mud, the hand that is hardened best advantages for studying principles are had in by industry, the sinews that are strengthened by the practice of them. The theory is best acquired labor, will naturally come into a very different es in the practice. It is the trae inductive method — timate. The man of business is the man of worth. natural, convincing, above all rendering the instrucWhere this is not the case, the state of society it- tions permanent in the mind. self is factitious and mothers are at fault.
Such are the advantages enjoyed by the mechanYet it is evident that in society, factitious as it ic for acquiring knowledge,—at least in some of is to a great extent, the working man has not the the trades. In all, the mind is left free to think. position which belongs to him. Why is it? The It is even aided by the animation and vigor impartanswer is obvious.
ed by exercise and free perspiration. There must be something more in man than brute Sludy-a habit of thinking, although on a sepaforce to raise him to his proper position, and se rate subject from the labor in hand, is in no way cure to him his proper influence in society. There calculated—unless il degenerate into a form of abmust be intelligence and industry, which are, in solute abstraction--10 divert the mind from a proptheir results, power and wealth.
er attention to business. Indeed, to a limited ex* Knowledge,” said Lord Bacon, " is power."tent, il certainly inspires the body to energy in * Time," said Franklin, “is money.” These pro- labor. positions, by two amongst the greatest men of our That the hardest thinkers have been the hardest Tace, are full of wisdom, and embrace the concen- workers, is a fact which fully sustains this position. trated instruction of volumes. These,-knowledge Let things take their proper course, and stody be and industry,—the appropriate properties of man, wedded, as is fit, to the mechanical trades, and paraust be added to his other qualities, to his upright'rents who wish to educate their sons will bind them
as apprentices rather than consign them to indo- quainted with each of the sciences named, and all lence and vice in a fashionable course.
of them with every other branch of learoing—and Is this mere theory? Then it is so only because what may be done by these, may be done by any men are false to themselves. Every mechanic and other and every other master and apprentice in every working man has time to be a literary man; every trade and in every branch of business, I do and if he possess but an ordinary capacity, with not say that they will then know as much as the suitable application and mental discipline, he will masters and professors of these several seiences, become intelligent if not learned. A very few de- but they will know something worth having ;tails will easily show this.
they will discipline their minds in the process of Let any farmer's boy, who can read and spell, acquisitions, and make experiments and discoveand who has arrived at vears of discretion, take in ries often in their respective occupations. A koox. hand the small volume by Blake on the Physiology ledge of abont eight or nine minerals will soon enof Botany, and he will in a single year become ac- able an inquisitive mind to learn all the combinaquainted with the whole subject: with the nature. tions in the science of mineralogy. Geology is analysis and habits of plants; their manner of acquired with the same ease; and a comprehengrowth ; their diseases with the means of preven- sive geographic survey of the earth's surface is tion and core ; the composition, improvement and the work of but a glance of the eye. The nations adaptation of soils ; temperature and light; rotation in their respective ranks are soon marshalled in of crops : the best manner of coltivation and im- order and assigned to their relative locations; their provement of plants; with the whole system of manners, habits and character, arising to a great classification, nomenclature and analysis. Let him extent from climate, soil and natural relations, are the next spring take Mrs. Lincoln's Manual of Bot- educed from those relations with almost strict acany, and enter on the analysis of lowers, and he corary, without personal observation. Political becomes a Botanist.
government, statistical details, and more mioute Let the apprentice to any trade that is employed facts, are successively added to the enomeration, in working metals, take a small volume called and the common day laborer becomes a geogra. Jones' Conversations on Chemistry, and read suc- pher. cessively twenty pages a day; and the whole vol- Elihu Burritt carried his Greek grammar in his ome, containing a pretty complete system of Chem- hat when a blacksmith's apprentice. He now and istry, will be read in fifteen days. Then let him then stole a glance at its contents before the iron take the list of simple substances, with their subdi- was hot, and while he swong the sledge with his visions, and while at his regular work, he will re- sinewy arms, he revolved the idea in his mind until quire but two or three days to commit them famil- it was welded opon his memory like steel upon jarly to memory. Let him then turn his attention steel. Any blacksmith's boy may do the same to the imponderable agents, light, heat and elec- until he learns Greek and Latin, and like Borritt, tricity, with which he is practically conversant every fifiy languages besides. Whatever may be done day, and in a few weeks he learns almost every by a blacksmith in this way, can be done also by : thing that is known of them by philosophers, illos- shoemaker, a saddler, a jeweller, a button-maker, trated by experiments, which fall under his daily a wagoner on the road, a day laborer, or any other observation. He may proceed successively to the man of common sense in any avocation of life. metals, earths, alkalies, gases, chemical affinity, The separation of literary and scientific pursuits salts, crystalography, and the application of steam from manual labor is unnatural, and the popular power to machinery-and not to say that a few sentiment that has sanctioned it is fraught with the months spent in this employment of his leisure greatest evils to intellectual advancement. The hours, will greatly enlarge his range of thought mind is as free to act on any subject of science in and happiness, we say confidently that in another a blacksmith, as in closeted student. If not 23 year he is a chemist.
advantageously placed for abstract investigations, Let the carpenter's apprentice take Jones' Con- it is under greater facilities for vigorous effort. versations on Natural Philosophy; and while he Physical health conduces greatly, if it be not de shoves the plane one day, he may learn the names cessary, to energy and efficiency in mental action. and definitions of the general properties of matter. The "mens sana in corpore sano" can be expected In the successive chapters of this small manual, as only where regular labor, daily labor, secores the he goes to his work, let him take up the mechani- corpus sanum by the systematic use of natare" cal powers, and the laws of motion with their ap- sanative hard work. The physical ills that filesh plication to machinery and to the planetary system is heir to, can be prevented only by this applizace and he will soon be a scientific mechanic. A few against man's universal disposition to laziness, weeks more will suffice to take him through Pneu- So far then from the doctrine that labor unfits a matics, Hydrostatics and Optics, and he is able to man for study, the union of labor and study is datdispute with philosophers.
ural, and those only should be classed among the In the same way, each of these may become ac- 'ignorant who are not obliged to work. I do not
mean to say that there may not be literary men by, cessful. Statements entitled to confidence have profession, who are under no necessity of devoting shown that a like proportion of young men, who themselves to manual labor, whose attention to the engage as clerks in some of our large cities, make duties of several learned professions creates a sort shipwreck of their moral characters. If this estiof necessity that they should be closeted students. mate should seem to exaggerate the truth, -yet Yet while certain professions may demand this ex- none will deny that facts would show a fearful apclusive devotion of time and talent, I say, the la proximation to such a resnlt. This is enough to borer possesses great advantages for vigorous men-prove that the employments of agriculture and the tal action, and he should be a student as well as a mechanic arts serve to secure that quietude and workman in his trade or art.
mental calmness favorable to successful effort. Called by business into the shop of an engraver It is the wise saying of a wise man, that "the in New York, I found the artist with his appren- objection to gaming is that it circulates money tices earnestly occupied each at his plate, while without any intermediate labor or industry.” This one in the centre was reading aloud from a useful brings to view a comprehensive principle. Genbook. He told me this was his daily practice, and erally, the same objection obtains to the gaming, or he found it beneficial in all respects. The prac- circulation of money in any other way, without inlice of many mechanic arts will admit of the same termediate labor or industry. Speculation may be plan of improvement. Moreover, all have their successful; but the money acquired not being the evenings, which must be spent somewhere and in result of labor, will be less valuable either to the something. Let them be diligently employed in possessor or the public. And whenever by fraud, gathering intellectual treasure, and the industrious or even by bargain, money is wrung froin the nemechanic will soon outstrip the slothful student in cessities of another without a proper equivalent, mental acquisition.
the moral sense of the oppressing party receives a The efforts at improvement now suggested will shock, and he loses with himself more in characrequire some resolution, labor and perseverance. ier than he gains in capital. Labor without profit But these are requisites for success in every thing. is often better than profit without labor. Labor is With them, any man of common capacity may be suited to the moral as well as the physical consti. intellectual and learned. Let it be tried. Let one tution of man: it is necessary to his moral as well year of assiduous application be pursued on the as to his physical health. Without it, he will eiplan proposed, and the result of the experiment ther be a savage despising accumulation, or a sucker will astonish the most sceptical. " Nulla dies sine on the vitals of society, falleping on the life-blood linea"—let no day pass without one line at least of others, and dull with plethora, while the victims and the year will present an aggregate of acquisi- of his sordid gluttony are fainting with famine. tion worthy of record.
That man is wise, and regards the physical conI have said that time is money. It is so when stitution of his nature, who earns his own bread by industriously employed. This money is power in his own labor,-personal, if not manual labor. He the hands of the possessor. It is certainly true, is unwise and disregards all experience aod all histhat a state of independence is secured with more tory, who trains his sons to rely on tbe results of certainty, and more generally by farmers and me. bis labors or estate, which may be soon squandered chanics, than by any other class of men. If spec. in the practice of idle and expensive habils, and ulators, who ofien lose all, do sometimes secure leave them doubly poor by contrast and a false edgreat fortunes, the patient and industrious mechan. ucation. Revelation in God s word accords with ic, in all cases, has the moral certainly of that revelation in his works. Both appoint and require which is much better—a competency-all he can that man shall procure his bread by the sweat of enjoy, an independence which raises him above his brow. The man who contradicts either fighis want, while he occupies a place below envy. He against God, and finds his proper punishment has the prayer of Agnr—"neither poverty nor promptly rendered. Lassitude, ennui, and insanity, riches"—the golden mean—the temperate zone of or dissipation follow in rapid succession. social life exempt from burning heat and frigid cold We think, naturally and of necessity. It is surof the extremes on either side. The hard-working prising how much may be acquired by direcung man, therefore, who is studious and industrious, ar- this, thought to some concentrated, consecutive rives with all inoral certainty at the two great sour-course of investigation. If we attempt one thing ces and means of power—knowledge and wealth. at a time, and always something, by single steps Franklin practised on these principles, and he rose we pass over distances and surmount difficulties from a poor printer's boy to be one of the most which might well frighten bold men in the aglearned, and personally, one of the most powerful gregate. The fable of the snail that outstripped
The natura! occupations of men are the the hare is full of sound instruction. It is not by safest both to pecuniary profits and to morals. Of fitful leaps, but by steady, persevering labor that all who engage in this country in mercantile profits, men are commonly made great either in wealth or it is estimated that seven-eighths at least are unsuc- 'intellect. The mechanic that is always in his shop
will be easily found by those who are seeking | labor creditable to the man who engages in it. This his services. If he is always at work, he will be we do, when the laborer is made a scholar and enabled to do much, to be punctual, to fulfil his secures to himself the influence and respect which promises, if they are judiciously made. Punctual knowledge commands for the man who has it. This labor will make punctual customers, and this man we do, 100, when the laborer is cheered on to per. will grow rich, and in due lime, when age requires severance in his efforts and attains to the wealth rest, he will be able to be at leisure, leaving his which is the proper result of industry. business to others, while those of his age who were Such men have been honored, are honored, must at leisure wbile he was busy, will be struggling still be honored, wherever they are found. Knowledge even under the infirmities of age for their daily is power. The man who has it, other things being bread.
equal, will exert a controlling influence. He triA great mistake often made and fraught with the umphs over matter. He controls the masses of worst consequences is, that labor is discreditable to men—their minds as well as their physical foree. a gentleman. Nature says there can truly be no This it is which gives the great superiority to some gentleman without it. It is necessary to the ex- men over others. They are sought out, and will istence-certainly to the perfection of the race in occupy the high places of society. When these their proper relations here. It is necessary to powers are directed to the melioration of human wealth, comfort and happiness. It is the appoint- woes, those who possess and exert them become, ment of God himself. God made man a laborer. and are called, benefactors. Their names are inIn every good sense of the term, which connects scribed on the catalogue of honored and honorable him with the interest of his race and the proper men. They do their part, and do much to render destiny of man; He made the laborer a gentle labor reputable. Let the mass of working men man and the gentleman a laborer. It has been said then do their duty, and things will find their proper the devil made the gentleman, and this very volgar level. The order of nature will be restored in the expression is certainly graphic in truth whenever estimate men place on the different professions and any man is tempted to believe that it is discredita- occupations of life. Among the nobility of nature, ble to work for a living, and that a gentleman is the farmer will hold the pre-eminence, first among made by idleness. The term properly expresses equals. The mechanic next-and we shall all a character, not a form or profession. He is a come in, not far behind, indeed, but yet behind in true gentleman, whose heart dictales a propriety our respective professions, forming concentric eirof conduct in all the relations of life, and whose cles : the one great human family around the soil, outward acts are the comely expressions of correct whence we came, and from which we derire our principles.
subsistence while we live, and to which we are Our day is distinguished for expedients to im- destined to return and repose in death. prove and advance the human race. This is well. The effort is a noble one-worthy of man; and that is saying enough. But, like the efforts of the day on all other subjects, there is a strong tendency to fanaticism in the labors of those who seek
THE GOLDEN-RING. human perfectability by ordinary agencies and factitious schemes. Here, too, men seek for the phi
From the German of Bettine Brentano's. losopher's stone, some catholicon, a panacea which is to work miracles, some high-pressuré expedient for making gentlemen without labor, and securing the avails of labor without industry. After men I mow by the Necker, are starved into the truth, thev will find that nature
And mow by the Rhine :
I have a heart's treasure, cannot be well forced to make gentlemen. They
Yet lonely repine. must come in the regular way. As well might the doll-maker attempt to compete with nature. He What helps me the grass, if may make a pretty thing. But he produces no
The scythe's edge be worn ? living, breathing, thinking, useful being. So fash
What helps me a treasure,
If froin me he's gone? ion may make a gentleman out of any dandy that walks on two feel instead of four-but it is a thing But since I must reap only fit to show in the windows of a loy shop, and
By the Necker and Rhine, had much beiter he left there for fools to gaze at, I'll throw to the waters than be put into the hands of a young lady. We This gold-ring of mine. confer a real benefit, do something effectually to ele
It rolls down the Necker, vate the race, and make advances to the only real
It rolls down the Rbine ; philosopher's stone which turns every thing it touch
It sball swiin on there under es into gold, whenever we do any thing to render
And sink in the brine,
But a fish, as it swimmeth,
events, through all its meanderings, in every age Has swallowed the ring, of the world ; in every clime,
diverThey serve up the fish
sity of circumstance, and no period can be found in At the board of the king.
which, under whatever disadvantages, and in conSpoke out the king thereat ;
flict with whatever formidable obstacles, unappalled - Whose ring shall this be?
and incorruptible witnesses to the supremacy of Then out spoke my Treasure;
man's moral nature, have not stood forih. Beyond - The ring is for me.
and above all, the Deity hiniself has spoken through My heart's dearest riding
the medium of revelation : and the “great central Both up hill and down,
truths" of humanity—the dictates of duty-the obQuick brought my ring back from
ligations and responsibilities of man—and his desThe court and the town.
tiny in time and eternity-have been proclaimed Thou may'st reap, (he said,) darling,
“ in letters of living light" by Him who "spake as By Necker or Rhine,
never man spake," and who vindicated his authoriBut throw not henceforward
ly as a Messenger from Heaven, by the clearest Thy ring in the brine.
testimonies of power. Eighteen centuries and a
J. M. LEGARE. half have rolled onwards : that religion which Jesus South Carolina.
taught has found its way to the highest seats of hu
man civilization, and professedly lies at the foundation of every enlightened government : its re
wards and penalties—its doctrines and requisitions, have diffused themselves far and wide over the en
lire surface of society; and yet the worst depravTHE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.* ity prevails. Injustice stalks abroad in the noon
day sun of Christianity. Man oppresses his brothIt requires but a cursory observation of the past er man : deprives him by force or by fraud of his history and existing condition of mankind to be most valued rights : crosses his path at every turn : come sensible of the widely extended prevalence, violates the sanctuary of his home: blasts his repin this our world, of a principle of evil—which, otation : crushes the fairest flowers of hope and call it by what name you will-account for its ori- affection which sprung up around his path—and gio as you may-limit if you please its dominion systematically prepares pit-falls for his destruction, and establish the impossibility of its ultimate tri- even while professing for him the highest regard, umph, by considerations drawn from the most in- War consumes its thousands, and the unrestrained fallible oracles of truth,-exerts, nevertheless, and indulgence of human passion, in channels unsanchas ever exerted a potent, not to say a paramount rioned even by public opinion, its tens of thousands. influence over the happiness of our race.
How to Want and wretchedness abound; while millions counteract this influence and to substitute in its are expended in the establishment and support of place the general, if not universal prevalence of armies, the administration of civil and criminal tritruth,-how to circumscribe within the narrowest bunals, and the maintenance of institutions renderboundaries the operation of the vicious propensi- ed necessary solely by the prevalence of ignorance ties of our nature, and correspondingly to expand and vice. the sphere of the nobler and purer affections—these While, however, indulging in this melancholy are problems which in every age, and in none, per retrospect of the past—this gloomy survey of the haps, more than in the present, have tasked the in- present—we are by no means at liberty to infer tellects of the wisest and best of mankind. As. that no progress has been made in substantial wiscend the stream of history to its very source, and dom and virtue during the ages which have elapsed amid the darkness of primeval ignorance, we shall since the commencement of the historical era. On still recognize the presence, and to some extent, the other hand, it is manifest that a very considerathe influence of “ preachers of righteonsness”
ble advancement has taken place in the general vindicators of integrity, expounders of wisdom, standard of intelligence and moral worth : and that blameless in their lives, uncontaminated by sar- while individual instances of mental and moral surounding corro ption, fearless and triumphant in their periority in the earliest periods of humanity have deaths. Trace the complicated current of human not been surpassed in later times, there has obvi
ously been a gradual diffusion of the elements of * Eleventh Annual Report of the Secrrory of the Mas- true greatness and happiness throughout the intersachusetts Board of Education. Boston : 1848.
vening period, so that at the present day knowledge The Radix: or Virginia Public School Advocate. By of every description, is far more general, and a S. A; Jewett. Richmond : 1848.
high moral callure far more frequently attained than Southern Journal of Education. Knoxville and Rich. in any preceding age. Those impatient spirits mond: 1848.
who, taking counsel from the clearness of their own