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From these views and considerations it will read-vate property, build forts, and do many other things ily be perceived that the power which rests with which the public good requires, even in a foreign the Navy of making surveys in the Mediterrane- territory, which, to-morrow, after the return of an-which has been exercised since the Tripolitan peace, no power under the sun has the right to dowar, we might have said since the foundation of such is the character of some of the incidental pokthe government, and which has never been called ers which the bills for the support of armies and in question before,- is derived from a source alto- navjes draw after them. gether different from that whence flows the power It remains now to show how the Dead Sea Eslo pull up snags and improve the navigation of our pedition is connected with the well-being of the own rivers and “inland seas."
navy or the interests of navigation, in order to take The power to do the one is incidental. The mere away from party purposes and party abuse, this act to maintain and support a Navy draws after it this enterprise with its enlightened and patriotic propower; it follows the Navy in all parts of the world. jectors. Its exercise is necessary to the safety of vessel and There are many phenoinena presented in the crew; for without charts, without the results of Mediterranean and on its borders of exceeding inscience, without the power and the right to con- terest to navigation. Among these may be meoduct a series of scientific observations, the Navy lioned the saltness of the water, and the presence could not be maintained. Without the lights and of a current which runs out through the Straits of guides of science, a vessel of war could not be con- Gibraltar. Notwithstanding the well known fact that ducied from place to place-seas would be as im- the rivers and visible sources of supply to that sea, passable as an ocean of flame, by vessels of war. do not afford water enough to supply evaporation
The survey of a shoal, or the removal of a wreck from it, there is a current which runs with great vi: from a dangerous place in a distant sea, tends to olence from it into the Atlantic. For years the source improve navigation. So also does the clearing out of this current has perplexed navigators and puzzled of snags from the western rivers, or the deepen- philosophers. What effect might a conjectured ing of their channels. But the power to do the difference of level between that sea and the Dead, one and the other does not arise in the same way. have upon this current, and other phenomena ! The former is incidental to a greater power, viz :
An expedition there would improve geography, to that of maintaining a navy; the latter is special and therefore Navigation; for by giving the height and is to be derived only from the constitution and of the mountains along the coast, you afford the by special legislation.
navigator the means to determine his distance from The Cumberland dam may have a great deal to them and to fix the place of his ship at sea, when do with commerce, but no one will pretend that the the lights of heaven themselves may fail him in his shoals of that river have any thing to do with the straights. maintenance of the Navy, and curious indeed must He who elicits a fact from nature, often makes he the constitution of that mind which can re- la discovery, says Humboldt, of more value than cognize in an order from the Executive to a Navy he who discovers an island in the sea. Here was officer to survey a sheet of water up the Mediter- presented a bundle of facts the importance and ranean, any principles applicable to improving the value of which, like the bearings of every new fact navigation of the Ohio.
gathered from nature, it is impossible to foresee. Suppose that by some convulsion of nature the This expedition could be accomplished without any, present channel from the Navy Yard at Norfolk to the least inconvenience to the public service, and the sea should be filled up and a new one opened. at a cost so trifling that the sum expended opou Would any one doubt the right of the Executive the pole which was stuck up on the top of the forthwith and of his own accord to order the Navy Capitol, to be taken down again as a puisance, to survey and buoy it out, in order that the men-ofwould defray the expenses of twenty such expediwar which might be there, and which it is his duty tions. The spot to be explored was a mysteto keep afloat, might get to sea ? Suppose the same rious une; those who had visited it before, bad convulsion should alter the channel, or change the died, and by their fate invested it with deeper incourse of the Mississippi river, would it not require a terest and shrouded it in darker mystery. From special act of Congress to enable him to expend infancy up, associations of terror and awful veoeven so much as a dollar in finding out a new chan- geance, were, in the minds of millions, associated nel there?
with the name of that spot, and throughout the Special powers may become incidental and the entire length and breadth of Christendom, there reverse, and officers of the government may to- was an eager, not an idle, curiosity with regard to day have incidental powers to do certain things, it; 10 explore it would redound to the glory of the which Congress itself by special act, has no right navy and the honor of the nation. Expeditions to give. Thus Congress voies supplies for an from other countries had been attempted and bad army in Mexico : the commanding vfficer of that failed. The American navy never fails; and one of army has the right to bridge streams, destroy pri-'its most accomplished officers, willing to risk his
life and reputation upon success, appeared entreat- He promised to consider the matter as soon as a ing for leave to go. His request came before an favorable opportunity should occur.
And an opofficer of the government, a brother statesman, as portunity did occur which made the expedition high-minded, as generous and as true-hearted as most apropôs : The Spanish government had withhimself. It was therefore entertained with respect. drawn the privilege hitherto allowed us of having
Lieutenant Lynch has redeemed his pledge: he at Port Mahon a depot of stores for our squadron has surveyed the Dead Sea, returned in safety, he in the Mediterranean. It was therefore found neand bis party, to their sbip, and may ere long becessary to send out a store-ship to that sea, and to expected to arrive in the United States with the keep her there with provisions, &c. on board, to rich fruits of their labor.
supply the wants of the squadron as they arose. Lynch, who planned this expedition, is a Virgi- The store-ship“ Supply" was fitting out at New nian ; Masop who authorized it, is a Virginian, and York for this purpose. After delivering to the could we envy the patriot any of the fruits of his squadron enough to satisfy for the time, a large labor, we should most of all covet the honors which portion of her stores would still be left on board, Mason deserves for the “ Dead Sea Expedition." and she would have to remain in port for several
We have some notes which we have treasured months, waiting for the first delivery to be consum. up for the benefit of our readers, and of all who ed. If she continued in port her officers and crew look with longing eyes and eager minds for the re- would continue with her of course, dragging out a sults of this interesting and honorable service. profilless and tedious time, if not contracting idle We offer a few of them now, perhaps we will give habits from the mere want of occupation. more of them at another time.
Lieut. Lynch was a most accomplished seaman. In the spring of 1847, Lieut. Lynch first ad- Officers were scarce, for most of them had been dressed the Secretary upon the subject. “ In the sent down to the Gulf, and the cargo of the " Suphopes," said that officer, " that it may receive your ply" was a valuable one. It therefore occurred to sanction, I respectfully submit a proposition to cir- the practical and business mind of the Secretary, cumnavigate and explore lake Asphaltites or Dead to send Lieut. Lynch in command of the “Supply," Sea, and its entire coast.
with his party as a part of her crew to the Medi" The expense will be trifling and the object terranean—10 let her report to the Commodore, easy of attainment.
meet the wants of the squadron, and then, instead "Our ships frequently touch at Acre in Syria. of lying idle in port, doing nothing but wait for the " That place is forty miles distant from the foot men-of-war to eat up what she had given them, to of Lake Tiberias, or Sea of Galilee. Through allow hier to proceed with Lieut. Lynch up the Leand from the last, the river Jordan runs and de- vant, and land him and his party, taking care that bouches into the first named sea.
after landing them, men enough should be left on " The frame of a boat with its crew and their board to manage the ship. provisions, can be transported on camels from Acre Instead therefore of idleness, here was active, to Tiberias. At the latter place, the boat can be useful and creditable occupation for a part of her put together, and the crew embark and accomplish crew, while the remainder could, as well as a thouthe desired work in fifteen days.
sand men, take care of the ship in port, or in her " Arms and a tent, a few mathematical instru- short and pleasant trips of a few days from place menis, provisions and water are all that will be re- to place. The arrangement was admirable. Lynch quired. The tent can be made on board ship, tem- was in the very nick of time with his proposition, porarily used, and the canvass afterwards applied and the opportunity presented was a glorious one. to other purposes on board ship. The arms from While, therefore, the preliminary arrangements the ship, and the ordinary rations will suffice; and are in progress here, let us take a glance at what the boat itself can be safely returned.
was transpiring in another quarter of the globe, " The Dead Sea has been circumnavigated but with regard to the same subject. by one traveller, Mr. Costigan. He very nearly At the very
time that Lieut. Lynch was engaged accomplished it in eight days. Unfortunately he with his preparations in New York, Lieut. Molyundertook it at a most insalubrious season of the neux, a gallant officer of the British Navy, was acyear and died at the termination of the voyage, tually engaged in transporting on the backs of without leaving a journal or notes behind. camels and from the very point suggested by Lieut.
" This proposition pertains to a subject maritime Lynch, a boat for the survey of the Dead Sea. in its nature, and therefore peculiarly appropriate The plans of these two officers for approaching to your office; and it is involved in mystery, the and exploring that sheet of water were remarkably solution of which will advance the cause of sci- similar. Neither knew that the thoughts of the ence and gratify the whole Christian world.” other were in that direction at all. But, that two
The proposition came at a time when the Sec- Navy officers of different services, and in parts of retary was collecting all the available forces of the the world far remote, should each without the Navy for the combined attack upon Vera Cruz.'knowledge of the other, be engaged with the same
original idea, is one of those curious coincidences Mason,” the iron, “Fanny Skinner," the party all of mental sympathy which is sometimes observed in high spirits, set sail from New York about the to take place among men of science. The coinci- middle of November, 1847. dence is as striking as the case of Le Verrier and It was, however, by no means certain that the Adams with the new planet.
object which these officers and men had so much On the 20th of August 1847, Lieut. Molyneux at heart, could be accomplished, for the permission of H. M. S. Spartan, was landed at Acre with a given was only conditional. It all now depended few seamen. Hiring guides, camels and horses, upon the Grand Turk. Unless he would give a he started early the next morning with the ship's firman with leave for Lieut. Lynch and party to dingey-a very small boat—for the sea of Galilee, visit and explore the Dead Sea, the expedition was and on the 23rd he was embarked on its blue wa- to be considered at an end. ters.
Lieut. Lynch, with his compaoion, Lieat. Dale, The natives manifested great reluctance to his had therefore to proceed to Constantinople for the descending the Jordan. But hy a show of arms purpose of obtaining the requisite authority from with ihreats to shoot the Sheiks who annoyed him the Turkish government. Business of a public on the way, he made good his descent, though it nature called the Supply there. The Sultan treatwas in part accomplished by land.
ed them with marked consideration. He gave The 3rd of September found him fairly embark- Lieut. Lynch a private audience, readily granted ed on the Dead Sea. The greatest depth which the firman addressed to the Governors of Jerusahe found is said to be 1350 feet. At noon on the lem and Saida, requiring these functionaries to 5th the party returned to their tent, on the shore, give that officer all needful aid and friendly assistcompletely done up. Every thing and body in the ance. tent was covered with an offensive, shiny substance The Sultan was so much pleased with the infrom the water. The iron was corroded and look- terview, that the next day he sent for the Grand ed as if covered with coal tar.
Vizier and expressed a wish to make the AmeriHaving disembarked, the dingey was again can officer a present “such as became a sofermounted on the backs of camels, and the party pro- eign." This of course was declined, and the party ceeded with it to Jerusalem. Lieut. Molyneux were permitted to depart in peace. Every thing returned to his ship by way of Jaffa, and died soon now bid fair, and “with a will to spare no ererafter getting on board.
tion," wrote Lieut. Lynch to Judge Mason, “ I The news of his melancholy fate could not, when trust in God for ability to deserve your good opinit reached them, fail to excite painful emotions in ion." the minds of Lieut. Lynch and his party. But in On the last of March, the Sapply landed the happy ignorance of the event, he and they were party at Kaiffa under Mount Carmel, and proceedin America, busy with their preparations. The ed to execute her orders in the Mediterranean. “Supply" was fitting at New York as a store-ship Two American travellers, viz : Henry Bellow and for the Mediterranean squadron. Lieut. Lynch Dr. H. J. Anderson, joined the party about this was designated to command her, and she was to time. be provided with two metallic boats instead of the All hands were now set to work in making the neusual boats of wood, one of which was made of cessary arrangements for their departure into the iron and painted, the other of copper.
interior. They met difficulties at every turar; at The stores being on board and the ship report- last they found out that they all proceeded from ed ready for sea, the necessary orders were issued. the rapacious and unprincipled Seid Bey, the Gor“ The object with which I have yielded to your ernor, who was endeavoring, by creating dificulrequest," said the Secretary of the Navy in his ties, to extort money. As soon as this discovery admirably drawn letter of instructions, " is to pro- was made, Lieut. Lynch refused to have anything mote the cause of science and advance the char- more to do with him, and proceeded in his own acter of the Naval service.”
way. All things being considered—we can scarcely Seemingly insurmountable difficoltjes presented imagine a more legitimate subject, an object more themselves. The boats had to be transported to praiseworthy, or a more glorious opportunity for the sea of Galilee over mountain gorges and heights elevating the character of the Navy through its which nothing larger than the sure-footed horses officers. The question was, should ihe sojourn of of the country had ever passed before. Bet the these officers in the Mediterranean be one of idleness sailor resources of the pariy, supported by zeal in on board a store-ship at her anchors, or should it the noble enterprise, were sufficient to overcome be with them a labor of love and of usefulness in them all. About noon of the third day, the party the cause of science ?
The Navy glories in use halted nine miles from Tiberias. Their tent was ful occupation.
pitched on a mountain side, with Nazzreth on the Provided with their simple outfits and the two right, Cana to the north, Moont Tabor to the southboats aforesaid—the copper one, named “ Fanny east ; spread beneath them was the plain, on which
the bloody battle between the French and the Eng. On the third day they were compelled from her lish was fought, and three hours in advance was the shattered condition to abandon the Galilee boat, sea of Galilee with its beautiful blue waters danc. and to trust entirely to the “two Fannies." ing in the sunbeams. Emblematic of its Master, May the 18th the party arrived at Masaraa, a it alone of all things around them, remained the place on the river consecrated by tradition for the same. Just as the Apostles saw it when our Sa- passage of the Israelites and the baptism of the viour said to it, “ Peace, be still,” this little band Redeemer; it is nine miles from Jericho, where the of rovers now be held it.
pilgrims cross. The passage is dangerous, and So far not an accident had occurred, nor a mis- Lieut. Lynch tarried here for the purpose of lendhap of any kind, save that “ Fanny Skinner" had ing them assistance should accident befall and assistgot her paint rubbed a little.
ance be required. The two graceful little “ FanAfter baring surmounted incredible difficulties, nies,” with colors flying, were anchored on the still greater ones awaited them in this nine miles of other side, ready to succor and to help. Early in distance. The boats had to be left in the mountains, the morning the pilgrims began to arrive, and by while the exhausted party struggled forward to get 5 o'clock there were several thousand already on water and to refresh themselves. The next day all the bank. hands returned to the boats. They had to be low- The great secret of the depression between ered down precipices with ropes. But at this work Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea, is solved in the Jack Tar was perfectly au fait. Finally at 2 P. opinions of Lieut. Lynch, by the tortuous course M., Saturday, of April the 8th, Lieut. Lynch had of the Jordan. In a distance of about sixty miles the satisfaction of reopening his despatch to an- that river winds along through a course of about nounce the pleasing intelligence : “ The • Two two hundred miles. Within that distance he and Fannies,' each with the American ensign flying, his party plunged down no less than twenty-seven are now afloat upon the sea of Galilee." threatening rapids, besides many others of less de
We can now, in imagination, hear, reverberating scent. among the mountains, the soul-stirring cheers with The difference of level between the sea of Galwhich that flag was greeted, as the gallant leader ilee and the Dead Sea has been stated at over a of that gallant little band Aung the star-spangled thousand feet. But it has been urged by some banner to the breeze for the first time upon the wa. that this could not be so, else the Jordan in its run ters of that ancient and venerable sea.
of 60 miles would be a continuous cataract. The The natives took the bright copper of the “Fan- Mohawk, it was thought, was among the rivers of ny Mason” to be gold, and looked upon her as an the greatest fall in the world, and it averages only esponent of the greatness and wealth of the Uni- four or five feet to the mile. But it is now known ted States. They were friendly and offered the that the Sacramento of California has a fall of 2000 party no interruption in their progress.
feet in 20 miles, on an average of 100 feet to the Here Lieut. Lynch purchased for twenty-one dol- mile. With Lieut. Lynch's discovery and explalars and a quarter the only boat on the lake, to assist nation as to the length of the Jordan, it is necessain the transportation down the Jordan. That lake ry to give it an average fall of only about 6 feet abounds now, as it did of old, with excellent fish in each mile to account for the difference of level and wild fowl. But that at this day there should between its source and mouth. be only one boat on that sea, and that used not for “A few weeks earlier or later,” says he, " and fishing, but for bringing wood across, and valued no the passage would have been impracticable. We higher than at $21 1-4,may be taken as a sign that are the first who have accomplished the entire deno " fishers of men” are to be found there now. scent. The small English boat last year, (Lieut.
With this little wooden boat, the “Two Fan- Molyneux’s dingey,) was taken partly on a camel, nies" and the river Jordan for the rest of the way, and the officer made the journey by land. His it was thought the difficulties of the route were at notes were unfortunately taken in cipher, and by an end. But to the consternation of the party it his death, are, I am told, lost to the world.” was fogod that the difficulties were but just com- Leaving Masaraa, Lieut. Lynch took the lead in mencing. The course of the Jordan was found to the “ Fanny Mason,” followed by passed midshipbe interrupted by frequent and most fearful rapids. man Aulick in the “ Fanny Skinner," while Lieut. But the party to a man felt now that their own Dale with his friendly Bedouins, and a few others, honor, the reputation of the Navy, and the credit accompanied the baggage and stores by land, for it of their country were all at stake upon their efforts. was necessary to carry provisions along. After To a man they gave their energetic leader the most separating in the morning, the two parties saw no hearty coöperation. “ Sometimes placing our sole more of each other antil they met at night. trust in Providence, we had,” says he, “to With an hour's pull the two boats stopped to fill plange with headlong velocity down appalling de-their gum elastic water breakers. This accomscents.” So great were the difficultjes, that in two plished, the party resumed their oars, and were days they accomplished but twelve miles. soon led to expect the close proximity of the Dead
Sea, from a fætid odor-but this was traced to two across the desert of Arabia with a stifling heal streamlets strongly impregnated with sulphur. The At 8 P. M. their thermometer, which before had Dead Sea, however, soon burst opon their view, ranged from 889 to 970, stood at 1069. "We into which the little boats bounded with a north- could not take our tents with us," says the interwest gale.
esting letter from which we are quoting, “nor did The water of the river was sweet to within a we need them, as we found it more agreeable sleepfew hundred yards of its mouth. The waters of ing in the open air upon the beach." the sea were devoid of smell, but they were bitter, Having circumnavigated the Lake and returning salt, and nauseous.
to their place of departure, they found the sad in“As we rounded to the westward," writes Lieut. telligence of Mr. Adams' death awaiting their arLynch, " the agitated sea presented a sheet of rival. Their colors were lowered at half mast, and foaming brine. The spray, separating as it fell, there out upon the dark waters of this mysterious left incrustations of salt upon our faces and clothes, sea, this little band of true-hearted Americans paid and while it caused a pricking sensation wherever a tribute to the memory of the patriot and statesit touched the skin, was above all exceedingly pain- man, with 21 minute guns fired from their frail resful to the eyes.
sels. The echoes from the cavernous recesses of “ The boats heavily laden, struggled sluggishly the lofty and barren mountains which surrounded at first, but when the wind freshened to a gale, it them, startled the Arabs, and reverberated loudly seemed as if the bows, so dense was the water, and strangely upon the ears of the mourners. were encountering the sledge-hammers of the Ti- The letters of Lieut. Lynch giving an account, tans, instead of the opposing waves of an angry currente calamo, of his proceedings, are of great
value and exceeding interest. We hope soon to “At the expiration of an hour and a half, we were have the pleasure of announcing his return to the driven far to leeward, and I was compelled to bear United States and of welcoming him and his conaway for the shore. When we were near to it, and panjons back to country, home and friends. while I was weighing the practicability of landing “We have,” says he, “ elicited several facts of the boats through the surf, the wind suddenly ceas- interest to the man of science and the Christian. ed and with it the sea rapidly fell—the ponderous “The bottom of the northern half of this sea is quality of the water causing it to settle as soon as almost an entire plain. Its meridianal lines at : the agitating power had ceased to act. Within short distance from the shore scarce vary in depth. five minutes there was a perfect calm, and the sea The deepest soundings thus far 188 fathoms, (1123 was unmoved even by undulation. At 8 P. M., feet.) Near the shore, the bottom is generally aa weary and exhausted, we reached a place of ren- incrustation of salt, bat the intermediate one is dezvous upon the north west shore."
soft mud with many rectangular chrystals-mostly The three succeeding days were devoted to sound-cubes-of pure salt. At one time Stellwagen's lead ing.
brought up nothing but chrystals. Resting over Easter Sunday, the party resumed " The southern half of the sea is as shallow as the operations the next day, making topographical northern one is deep, and for about one-fourth of sketches as they went, and touching at a copious its entire length the depth does not exceed three stream issuing from hot springs, and the mouth of fathoms—(18 feet.) Its southern bed has presentthe river Amon of antiquity. They proceeded ed no chrystals, but the shores are lined with irthence by degrees to the southern extremity of the crustations of salt, and when we landed at Uzdom, sea, where the most wonderful sight that they had in the space of an hour, our footprints were coated yet seen awaited them.
with chrystalization. “ In passing the mountain of Uzdom, (Sodom,) “ The opposite shores of the peninsula and the we unexpectedly and much to our astonishment," west coast present evident marks of disruption. continues our adventurous explorer, “saw a large, “ There are unquestionably birds and insects rounded, turret-shaped column facing towards S. E. upon the shores and ducks are sometimes opon the which proved to be of solid rock salt, capped with sea, for we have seen them—but cannot detect any carbonate of lime; one mass of chrystalization. living thing within it; although the salt streams Mr. Dale took a sketch of it, and Dr. Anderson and flowing into it, contain small fish. My hopes bare I with great difficulty landed and procured speci- been strengthened into conviction, and I feel sure mens from it."
that the results of this survey will fully sostain the The sea soon proved so shallow that they could scriptural account of the cities of the plain. proceed no further. Half a mile from the south- “With one exception we are all well, sare to ern shore they found but six inches water, and be that one, not a dose of medicine has been adminyond, an extensive marsh too yielding for a foot-listered—and his disease is neither caused nor af. hold.
fected by the climate. Although we are up early Near the eastern shore they encountered a si- and out long, living on two meals a day, save when rocco, which came sweeping from the southeast'we are restricted to one, there is no complaining,