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where better seen than by comparing of England the whole account of the battle of the French and France; whereof England, though far less in makes it clear that they were miserably commandterritory and population, hath been, nevertheless, ed. As they were advancing from Abbeville to an overmatch; in regard the middle people of Eng- the position of the English, the king (Philip) land make good soldiers which the peasants of changed his design, determined to postpone the atFrance do not. And herein the device of King tack until morning, and ordered a halt and encampHenry VII. (whereof I have spoken largely in the ment. Froissart says: “The foremost stood still history of his life) was profound and admirable ; and would have abided but those who were behind in making farms and houses of husbandry of a would not but rode forward, and said that they standard; that is, maintained with such a propor- would in no wise halt till they had advanced to the tion of land unto them as may breed a subject to front; and when the front saw the rear advanced live in convenient plenty, and no servile condition; they continued to proceed ; so that neither the king and to keep the plough in the hands of the owners nor his marshals could rule them. So they proand not mere hirelings. And thus, indeed, you ceeded without any order until they came in sight shall attain to Virgil's character which he gives to of their enemies; and as soon as the foremost saw ancient Italy: 'Terra potens armis atque ubere them they retreated in disorder; at which those in glebæ.'"
the rear were astonished and terrified, and thought England not only cherished her yeomanry, of that the foremost company had been fighting : then which class of population France, divided into the they might have had leisure and room to have gone two extreme classes of nobles and peasants, was forward if they had wished : some advanced and wholly devoid, but looked carefully to its instruc- others remained still,” &c. tion in the use of that most formidable of ancient If this is not a picture of an ill-commanded milFeapons, the bow. Legislation, and prizes award- itary“ rabble” there never was one. ed by kings and the great peers, filled rural Eng. Again, at this battle of Cressy, the English, land with archers able to strike the smallest mark under the wise and hardy generalship of which I at long distances, and to pierce any but the very have spoken, were posted at great advantage. best Italian armor of the men-at-arms.
Moreover they numbered a large force, in proof the particular causes of the English suc- portion to their muster-roll, of the best archers of cesses in the ancient battles, Froissart gives a very their country, renowned as it was for unapproach. elear account in telling the stories of Cressy and able excellence in this department of military Poictiers. The English were con manded at Cres- strength; against which terrible array of bowmen sy by Edward III., a gallant knight and eminent the French had no similar force to oppose except general, and his son the Black Prince, with the their “Genoese cross-bowmen” who came into batrenowned earls of Warwick and Oxford, fought in tle “so fatigued," " Froissart says, “ with marchthe van. So generalled, the English fought with ing on foot that day six leagues, armed with their the utmost precision, good order, and effect of dis- cross-bows, that they said to their constables, we eipline. An instance of this strict order is, in the are not well ordered to fight this day, for we are following statement of Froissart : “ The same day not in a fit condition to do any great deed of arms, the French king had given a great black courser we have more need of rest.?” These Genoese to Sir John of Hainault, who made the Lord of became very soon so disorderly and mutinous that Fessels to ride on him and bear his banner; the the French men-at-arms assailed them as enemies, same borse was taken restiff, and brought him rode on amongst “the rascal roul” hacking and through all the scouts of the English; and as he hewing, whilst upon the mass so confused, fell the would have returned again he fell into a great dike " fiery hail” of the English cloth-yard shafis, and was much hurt, and he would have died there" piercing through heads, arms, and breasts.” A if his page had not been present, who followed him small advantage may be mentioned here : the Engthrough all the divisions, and saw where his mas- lish shot with the sun at their backs and conseter lay in the dike, with no other obstruction ex- quently shining into the faces of their enemies. cept his horse, for the Englishmen would not issue Finally the chivalry and stout yeomen of Eng. out of their ranks for the sake of taking any pri- land fought a battle of despair, whilst France might foner; then the page alighted in front of the Eng. fail in the one attempt, fall back safely, and come lish and relieved his master and bore him off.” on again at better occasion. It was with such sug
The French on the other hand were very badly gestions that Sir John of Hainault, cheered the contoanded. Philip, their king, was a poor gen- French king. “If you have received a lose at this eral, perhaps even a craven. Froissart says that time you will recover it again at another season." on " riding forward toward the Englishmen his The English, I say, fought a battle of despair. blood changed.” Whether this means that he They stood as one to eight against their enemies. showed a cowardly fear is not certain, but Frois. They fought chained in by the towus, strong forsart gives him no credit, and he delighted to give tresses, and teeming population of their enemy, it to kings, anywhere for one gallant action. But and only victory could break the chain. Defeat in
the face of such a muster of the military of France, the battle of Poictiers, “Sir Edward, of Rovey," must result in annihilation. But it was the despair Froissart tells us " fled alone which stimulates to superhuman action, not that pursued by an English knight who continually which depresses valor. Even the English yeo. cried to him 'turn again, Sir Knight, it is a shame man, desperate of winning a day against such vast to fly away in this manner;' then the knight turned odds, had kindled his nature to a lordly pitch, and back"-and, to curtail Froissarı's story, onhorsed was only ambitious to die like the gallant gentle. the English pursuer, and, turning the tables, took man who dismounted from his war horse, unbuckled him prisoner. “A squire of Picardy," in the same his spurs and took post by his side.
rout, "called John de Helenes," did a similar deed These are the causes of the English success on in turning and, man to man, making a captive of the field of Cressy; and they apply, in principal, the Lord Berkeley who pursued him. The pages to the victories of Poictiers and Agincourt. In of Froissart abound with proof of this sort, that these latter battles the English were commanded Frenchman and Englishman (practice in military by the greatest generals in the world--the Black exercises, and the influences of honor being the Prince and Henry V. In both battles great ad- same) were any thing but the monkey and lion, vantage of position was laken, hedges, stakes and which a purblind conceit had made some Englishditches made a means of defence against the charg- men believe them to have been, and to be. ing horse of the enemy. In both the bowmen, pro- But whatever effect the inferiority of the French tected in their position, shot for the honor of Eng- peasantry to the English yeomanry may have had land, and did terrible execution. In both the Eng- upon the issue of the ancient ballies at Cress, lish were so far out-numbered that nothing but the Poictiers, and Agincourt-no argument can be memory of Cressy at Poictiers, and of Cressy and drawn from it at all bearing upon the issue of the Poictiers at Agincourt, opened a hope to victory; battle of Waterloo. Napoleon's gallant conscripts, and such memories, in preventing despair, did not, burning with martial ardor, were very different we may be sure, depress valor. Finally in both from the ancient base and ignoble peasantry. The the enemy was a disjointed force, chiefly of pea- English might well have won Cressy, Poictiers
, santry, led on in a tumultuous manner. John, of and Agincourt, and lost Waterloo. France had France, did his devoir as a good knight at Poic- greatly changed from her ancient condition : tiers, but there is not a word in any history com- early as the beginning of the sixteenth century, plimentary to his wisdom and skill as a leader. Sir Thomas Hanmer, in 1648, found the country
There is nothing in these battles, gained by Eng-“very full of money-silver and gold—the towns land against great odds, to show that the French and villages not decaying, but the houses full of were (even at that day of the highest renown in people, and the streets swarming with children, arms of the "fierce islanders”) constitutionally in- which no man could well believe but he that say ferior as a race, in the manly virtues and powers, it.” The French Revolution removed the last to the English. The lower classes in England traces of that oppressive and debasing predomi. and France presented, for the causes which Lord nance of the high over the low, to which so wise Bacon has stated, the difference between a hardy a man as Lord Bacon traced the weakness of martial yeomanry, and a debased peasantry; but France in her wars with England. I repeat that it was not the better blood but the better institu- France might have very well, under one condition tions that gave superiority to the Englishman. of the manhood of her population, lost the ancient Where not debased into sallen indifference to honor battles, and yet under another won Waterloo. and love of country, the French character equalled Whether she had done so, or would have done so, the English or any other. Froissart is full of but for the Prussians is another question, and one proof of this. The knights and squires of France with which I have nothing to do. I am only anwere inferior to none on earth. li was the delight swering the argument of the writer of the note, of the chivalry of England to mate in deeds of who asked you the question about these ancient arms, claiming or achieving no superiority with battles. their “gentle enemies." Sir Eustace, of Rybe- In conclusion I have little more to say than that mont, struck the third Edward to his knee in a fair I have the greatest admiration for England, ancient encounter of swords under Calais ; the king, like and modern. The Portuguese ambassador at the a gentleman, gave him much honor and a chaplet court of Cromwell, rejoicing in the name, hard to of pearls for the good blow, saying that he was the write, of Don Juan Roderiguez de Saa Meneses
, best knight he had ever interchanged buffets with. Conde de Penagoaia, presented the Protector with Al Sandingfeld five French knights held open lisis a panegyric of him, written in Latin by a learned Jeand gave courteous reception, for love of arms, 10 suit, chaplain of the embassy—a panegyric which the chivalry of all christendom, and ronning sev- has been considered so fine, as to be worthy of beeral hundred courses, did gallantly in all, losing ing attributed to " Mr. John Milton, Latin secrehonor in none. Some scores of enterprising Eng- tary to Cromwell;" in this panegyric England is lishmen went off the worse for their powers. After nobly oulogized as “ a generous country, the mother
Long years passed on, again I saw
That maiden's graceful form,
Had bowed beneath the storm,
The joy of young love born ; With sick'ning anguish she had selt
That rose concealed a thorn.
Yes, scattered were the dreams of youth,
Faded Love's magic flower
Berest of all her power;
She spoke with servent tone,
of Fame's high temple shone.)
The fading of Love's myrtle wreath
Has round thee cast a shade;
Will never, never fade :
A joy could never bring,
'Neath Fame's majestic wing.
While Hope thus spoke the brilliant fire
Of Intellect awoke, The pale cheek flushed, while from her lip
These thrilling numbers broke; Yes! I will cast away the links
of love's delusive chains, I'll bow before the starry shrine
Where Godlike genius reigns :
And I will weave, of burning song,
Those links which bind the soul,
Acknowledge Mind's control :
Again will take his rest
The temple of my breast.
Again years passed, and time had stolen
Tbal maiden's youthful bloom;
Had been her early doom.
Shone Fame's ennobling wreath; But ah! the anguished brain that throbbed
Its sparkling leaves beneath.
See! while I gaze, pale Mem'ry comes
And holds her magic glass,
In silent order pass,
When Hope had known no bilight,
With visions of delight.
And when love's golden lyre was struck
By disappointment's hand,
Took his bewildering stand,
She turns away, her hands she clasps
And wildly cries oh! Fame, Now, in this wretched hour, I feel
That thou art but a name!
Though when I strike my spirit's chords
The lofty streams which flow, Thence in free burning numbers make
A thousand bosoms glow.
Of Lethe's stream, a part?
A lonely, broken heart?
Ob Hope! thou false delusive shade,
E'en from this very hour
No more to own their power;
Before her wond'ring sight;
And eyes of cloudless light.
Like Hope she seemed, but oh! more fair
Was her seraphic brow,
A pure celestial glow,
A shrouded form is seen ;
What can this vision mean?
Mortal! the precious spell of hope,
Oh! do not cast from thee,
Before my presence flee,
Beneath my gentle sway,
Thy soul I'll lead away.
In loitering through a gallery, where on either side we see the prim portraits of our grandmothers, or where the canvas introduces to our acquaintance queer old gentlemen in powdered wigs and small-clothes, we seem to be transported back, as it were, to the little day" in which they lived and to quite forget the scenes of the busy world around us. Right pleasant is it at such a time, to muse on the faded splendors of the past, -to recall the memories of happy hours, “ departed, never to return." With us, the same feeling is produced in turning over the pages of an old magazine. We love lo open the volume as a time-worn portal, that discloses to our view apartments long shut out from human observation. We love to linger among the records that are enshrined-we may rather say ea. sepulchred—therein, and bringing them forward once again to the light, to read over the story they contain. And in this dreamy, onprofitable sort of studious relaxation, we pass at least half of the reading hours of our existence.
There is before us at this moment a goodly rol. ume of magazine literature, not remarkable, it is true, for exceeding age,-although it goes back three and sixty years into the dim regions of the past,—but still embodying so much curious infor mation and presenting so accurate a reflection of the “ form and pressure" of the time, that we propose to discourse a little on it, “ by way of remembrance." It is entitled “ The European Magazine, and Losdon Review ; containing the Literature, History, Politics, Arts, Manners and Amusements of the Age. Simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. By the Philological Society of London. Vol. VIL for 1785. London. Printed for Scatcher & Whitaker. Ave-Maria Lane and I. Sewell in Cornhill.” 1785! But two generations of mea have passed away since that period and yet what events have transpired on the earth in the interval! It may be regarded, perhaps, as the dawn of a new era in human affairs, as the connecting link between the present and the olden time. The American, who looks back to it, will feel a pardonable pride in the patriotic associations with which it is connected, he will think first of the position of his country, just then acknowledged as independent by the powers of Europe, and if he be “ of imagination all compact,” he will indulge in an ornitholog. ical rapture over the American eagle, newly fledge ed, that was just then mounting to the face of the sun. 1785 ! Through what a long vista do we see its characters and its incidents! What simple, old-fashioned people they were, who moved about in the twilight of the eighteenth century! Who then had heard the melodies of Bellini, or seea the light of science and olefiant gas shed upon the darkness of Piccadilly, or rumbled at the rate of
My shadow, earthly Hope, now bent
In silence at my side, The wreaths which she did give to thee
Were swept by sorrow's tide. But the fair garlands in my hand
'Twine flowers that ne'er will fade, They'll bloom amid the icy air
By death's dread shadow made.
This wreath will make earth's hopes seem dim,
'Twill check sad mern'ry's sigh When o'er the hours of vanished joys
She casts a tearful eye,
Its most envenomed sting,
A beauteous halo fling.
The lady paused, but Faith drew nigh,
The precious wreath she placed,
His own dark name had traced.
His home of beauty made,
Slept 'neath their balmy shade.
forty miles an hour over a vast continent, or talked present! There was Windham, who has been by lightning with a friend in a distant empire? well described as “the finest gentleman of the London was indeed at that time a huge metropolis, age-his form developed by every manly exeras it has since been described,
cise—his face beaming with intelligence and spir
it.” There might be seen a very young man of re"A mighty mass of brick and smoke and shipping, markable stateliness of person and quiet dignity of
Dinty and dusky, but as wide az eye
deportment, who had not yet heard his own voice la sight, then lost amidst the forestry
in the hall, but who was destined to wield the scepOf masts ; a wilderness of steeples peeping
ter of resistless eloquence,-Charles Grey. On On tiptoe through the sea-coal canopy,”
the benches of the opposition, the leader of his but where among those masts could be seen the party, was the bnrly form of Fox, known out of
doors by his slouched white hat and his unfashionsmoke-stack of a steamer, where then was the phii- ionable coat,-Fox, whose countenance always losopher Punch, who now edifies weekly the Uni- thoughtful, even amid the symposia of the clubs, ted Kingdom, and where could be found that won- was strikingly so in the fervor of discussion. Promdrous salon of fashion,
inent among the greatest was one, who, although it “Which opens to the thousand happy few
has been said of him that An earthly paradise of Or Molu” ?
"too deep for his hearers he went on refining,
And thought of convincing while they thought of dining," These things were not. Oh unlucky race,-bis terque unfortunati,—to have lived before Napoleon was yet the most splendid orator of modern times, had reformed the tactics of the continent, or Brum-fthe renowned Edmund Burke. There, too, was mell the neckcloths of Grosvenor Square,—to have Pitt, in the twenty-seventh year of his age, Prepassed away from the scene of action in ignorance mier of the Realm, combatting against majorities of railroads and without an acquaintance with the with his impassioned declamation and ready for any Waverley Novels!
emergency in which he might be placed. But perLet us look a little more closely, however, at haps the most singular genius of all, who sat on 1785, through the medium of the European Mag- that floor, was poor Sheridan, an antithesis in himazine. We manage things much better than did self, full of wine and wit, firing epigrams into the the good people of that day, and yet we shall find ministry and lashing their measures with his merEngland then a wonderful nation, making large ciless ridicule ; who, with all his frivolities and ex. improvements in the arts, great in council and in travagance, had such kindly affections and such action, and with “manners and amusements” so generous traits of character, that we can never songenial to our tastes, that we could wish to have find it in our heart to condemn him. participated in their enjoyment.
All, who are familiar with the political history Perhaps we might search in vain through all his- of that day, will recollect the excitement growing tory for a period so remarkable for great men, as out of the Westminster Election. It occurred just that of which 1785 is a part. A glance at our own after the dissolution of Parliament by Mr. Pitt in anoals will convince us of this. Washington, 1784, and resulted after a violent struggle of fortyFranklin, Henry, Adams, Hancock and Jefferson seven days in the return of Mr. Fox. Upon this are numes belonging to that period and names which election all the resources of the Whig Party had the world " will not willingly let die.” A glance been brought to bear. But perhaps no wing of at the annals of England will confirm us in the that party was so effective as that lovely coterie of opinion. She had not, indeed, any man, whose female politicians, in the uniform of the buff and character would stand in comparison with Wash- blue, who carried on the war with the light artilleington. The only man in English history who fur- ry of smiles and bon-mots from behind the tapesnishes any parallel to Washington had fallen on the tries of Carlton House. This splendid mansion field of Chalgrove one hundred and forty-two years was the theater of their triumphs.
There they before
. Bat there were, in 1785, prominent in her discussed affairs of State and won over inexpericabinet and distinguished in her parliamentary de- enced young men to the liberal side. There they bates, men who gave direction and impulse to the ate good suppers and arranged political imbroglios. whole course of human affairs and whose speeches in the bustle of the Westminster election, it is represent the best models of English composition. corded that these fair politicians, descending from Sir Walter Scott and Sir James Mackintosh were their gilded eminence, took up the cause of Mr. boys at their books in Edinburgh, Mr. Canning Fox among the people and sometimes even bartered was making Latin hexameters at Eton and Burns kisses for votes. However this may be, Mr. Fox was at the plow, but characters who figured more triumphed. We recur to this election, because we largely than even they, were then in the vigor of are reminded of it by the Parliamentary Report of manhood and in the plenitude of their fame. What the European Magazine. The return having been a spectacle did the House of Commons at that time contested by Lord Hood and Sir Cecil Wray, Mr.