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after the third tribe had become thoroughly united amongst the citizens, and who were yet not the with the others, a third hundred was added by the dependents of any of the families. But though elder Tarquin.

their number may have been insignificant at first, The thirly Curiae into which the people were such a class as this will naturally spring up under divided, corresponded to the thirty centuries of every aristocracy. Personally free and indepenwhich the Roman legion was made up, and the dent, but having no share in the management of three tribes, in like manner, to the three centuries the government, they constituted what was called of Equites or Knights.

the Plebs, or Roman Coinmons. It is said in the common story, that when Rom- We must here carefully guard against the error plus divided out the State, he placed in the Coriae of confounding this class with the Clients, an error and tribes all who could show a noble origin in the originating with Dionysius, and repeated by PluSuales from which they had come, and thus gave tarch and all the succeeding historians, and one them a share in the administration of public affairs. that has confused and obscured all their accounts This tradition undoubtedly embodies the truth, at of the ancient constitution. The Plebeians belong whatever time the facts stated in it may have oc- to a later period than the Clients. We have seen curred. But after the State was once organized, that the thorough union and blending together into and the tribes, the Coriae, and the Genies, had one mass, of the original elements of the Roman been set apart in their regular divisions, they be- population, gradually took place and was finally carne exclusive in their character, and closed completed under the reign of the third king. The agaiost all others the entrance into their privileged Plebs or Commons, however, do not appear to have order.

been recognized as an element of the State until It was thus that the Roman aristocracy began; the reign of Ancus Martins, the fourth king. and hased upon the fundamental principle of all Though still enveloped in the hazy atmosphere of aristocracies, that of perfect equality among its poetry and fable, the traditions respecting this king own members and soperiority over all others, it are much more historical than those of any of the remained the same restrictive and exclusive body preceding, or even succeeding ones. And we may, throughout the whole of the early history of the perhaps, without leaving the limits of historic truth, commonwealth. In this division of tribes, Cu- concede his personal existence. It is related that riae and Gentes, we must not suppose that all he waged war against, and subdued many of the persons at Rome were included. There was still neighboring Latin towns, and transferred their poanother class of persons who were pot considered pulation to Rome. We may question the existence worthy of being participators in the government, of Ancus, but this conquest of the Latin towns is and therefore were not enrolled in the Curiae. clearly established by historical evidence. It is They were the dependents of the families who indeed highly improbable that the whole population composed the Houses and Curiae, and consequently of these towns was removed to Rome, but a conhad no connection with the State. The relation siderable portion undoubiedly was. We are not to in which they stood to these families was entirely suppose, however, that when thus forcibly brought a private one, and yet not to be confounded with a within the pale of the Roman Commonwealih, they state of servitude. They were called Clients, and were enrolled in the Gentes and the Curiae, and the persons to whose families they were attached, thus admitted into that exclusive and privileged were called their Patrons. It may not be out of order of aristocracy, in whose hands was the whole place here to remark that to these Clients was re- management of the government. A very slight stricted the practice of all the mechanical arts and acquaintance with the principles of an aristocracy, ! the trading business of the community, agriculture would enable us at once to understand that snch and war being reckoned the only employments could never have been the case, even if there was worthy of the Patrician freeman.

no direct evidence pointing to the truth. We are The principal feature in the constitution, that not left, however, to so general an inference. It we have so far discovered is, that the population is directly stated that these subject Latins when was composed of two entirely different and distinct removed to Rome were placed upon Mount Avenclasses. One class belonged to the familjes, and tine, and this circumstance fixes their position in therefore to the Houses, the Curiae, the tribes, and the State. We know that the Aventine was althe State ; the other class, being merely depen. ways the peculiar home of the Plebeians, that the dents, not belonging to the families, and iherefore Patricians were jealously excluded from it, and having no connection with the State.

that although densely inhabited, it was not included Bat we must now notice the introduction of within the sacred Pomoerium of the city, until long another and an entirely different element into the after the Republic had merged into the Empire. popolation of Rome. It is highly probable that in This large accession to the small class that had the first division of the families into tribes and probably existed from an early period, would at Curiae, there were a number of persons at Rome, once give it greatly increased importance; and whose low extraction prevented their being enrolled 'more especially as it is quite likely that many who

thus entered the Commons at Rome, had been no-Ited the throne, he found at Rome a very lar ve ard bles at home. And consequently we now first find powerful class, entirely excluded from the Curiae them distinctly recognized as a constituent portion and from all share in the government, whilst many of the Roman State ; and a portion too of very of them had been nobles in their own States, and great importance, as furnishing the materials for were still wealthy and powerful. He wished to the main body of the legions.

include a portion of these in the number of Roman The Plebs stood in a general relation to the citizens, and for this purpose proposed to double State, were personally free and independent, but the number of the tribes, the Curiae, the centaries in none of the essential requisites, were they citi- of knights and all the other divisions of the Patrizens. It will be perceived at once, then, that when cians. But he met with so obstinate a resistance the people (populus) of Rome in this early age on the part of the nobility, that he was compelled are spoken of, none of course are meant but the to modify his plan. We have already remarked full citizens, the members of the tribes and Curiae. that the third tribe of Luceres was not raised to an The early writers undoubtedly understood and used entire equality with the others, until the time of the term in its proper sense, but when they came this monarch. This was probably a part of his to be copied by others who lived under a different plan which he first accomplished ; and the full equal. * state of things, and who we fear were no better ity was marked by the addition of the third hunacquainted with the language of the old Annalists dred to the Senate and the increase of the number than they should have been, the meaning of the of Vestal virgins from four to six, two for each term was often mistaken, and it was used in the tribe. wide signification it had acquired in their own day. After having created three new tribes of ten

Thus excluded from the great national assembly curiae each, and three new centuries of knights, bet of the Comitia Curiata, and loaded with a full pro- was prevented from placing them by the side ** portion of the national burdens, the noble Com- of the others, as he had intended, and consequently 30 mons of the Aventine struggled manfully against he incorporated them into those already existing, the grinding oppression of the Patrician aristocra- thus in reality doubling the number of the ruling te cy, and the history of Rome for the next three class, though the number of divisions was not inhundred years, presents one continued scene of creased. fierce and bitter strife between the two orders,

These changes made in the constitution by Tar- ** nntil the Plebeians finally won their way to a full quin, afforded some relief to the large class who equality of political rights.

were excluded from the rights of citizenship by a Such is a slight sketch of the constitution, as it small and narrow oligarchy, but Servius Tullius ir existed under the early Roman kings. Some im- reorganized the State throughout all its parts. portant changes were made in it by the elder Tarquin, and the whole fabric was reconstructed upon mion, and refer those who wish to look into the de

We can here only give the outlines of his constia different plan by Servius Tullius. The whole tails of the whole system, to the pages of Niebuhr. :> story of these later kings is equally as poetical and fabulous as that of their predecessors, and

He divided the main body of the Plebeian poptperhaps more likely to impose upon us, inasmuch lation of the State into thirty tribes, corresponding as they embody much real historic truth. Dr. to the thirty Curiae, four of which included those Arnold has well remarked that the constitution of who dwelt in the city and twenty-six those in the Servius Tullius is as real as the Magna Charia, country. These tribes met together to consult and yet its reputed author is scarcely a more his- and determine upon all matters relating to the intorical person than king Arthur. We know not

terest of the Commons, and the assembly thos even his name* or his race; whether he was a de. formed was called the Comitia Tributa and orpendent in the House of Tarquin, or a military ad-ganized upon the same plan with the Comitia Coventurer. We have pointed out above a few of riata of the Patricians, and its decrees were called the absurdities in the stories of Servius and the two

Plebiscela. Thus, to borrow an illustration, there Tarquins, and yet their names are still used for the were in the State two coördinate bodies cortes ! sake of convenience, to mark the eras of the sev.

ponding to the House of Lords and the House of * eral changes in the constitution; changes that are

Cominons in the British constitution. as real as their authors are imaginary.

The divisions of the Patricians were also chanIt has been stated that the whole Roman people were ged in many important particulars; and in addition divided into three tribes and thirty Curiae, and that to the two assemblies we have mentioned, the corresponding to these were three centuries of Comitia of the Curiae and of the tribes, the one Equites or Knights, and thirty centuries of foot. exclusively Patrician, and the other Plebeian, a soldiers. When, however, the elder Tarqnin moun- third was instituted including both classes, called

the Comitia Centuriata. We will now attempt in * By some authorities he was called Mastarna, and said give as clear a view as we can of this mixed asto be a military adventurer.

sembly, premising, howerer, that there is still

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good deal of obscurity hanging over many parts | All the others who could not enter this class were of it.

included in four centuries, from whom was required The Comitia of the Curiae was based exclusive- little or no military duty, and the last two were also ly upon distinctions of birth or family; the Comi- exempt from taxation. And finally there were three tia of the tribes opon purely democratic principles: centuries composed of persons not according to bat in the mixed assembly of the centuries, it was their property, but according to their occupation. necessary to avoid both these extremes, and to These were the centuries of Carpenters and Smiths, adopt some principle that would at the same time of Hornblowers, and of Trumpeters, all of whom preserve the necessary distinctions and also give were required to attend upon the army. the Commons their proper weight. The one adopt- From this outline it would appear that this ased by Servius was that of wealth, as affording the sembly of the Comitia Centuriata was composed fairest prospect of enabling the Commons to bal- of one hundred and ninety-five centuries. lance the weight and influence of a hereditary however, quite cerlain, that the Clients were also aristocracy.

admitted into it, though in what manner is not dis. It was stated that Tarqnin had in reality doubled linctly known. The probability is that they were the pomber of the ruling class; but the Patricians attached to the centuries of their Patrician patrons, had so far succeeded in their resistance as to ad- who thereby acqnired more weight in this body bere to the old forms of the Constitution in the than they otherwise appear to have had. number of its divisions. Servios, however, chang- Such is a brief and popular, but we hope clear ed the name as well as the reality, and the double and satisfactory sketch of the celebrated Constitucenturies of the knights of the old Ramnes, Titi- tion of Servius Tullius. It was, however, never enses and Luceres counted as six centuries, as they fully carried into effect. Scarce had it been comreally were called the sex soffragia, and possessed pleted by the “good king of the people," when, six rotes in the new assembly of centuries. To as the story goes, he was hurled from his throne these were added twelve new centuries of knights by the second Tarquin, and every vestige of the ehosen from the wealthiest of the Plebeians, and free Constitution, and the rights of the Commons, voting along with the other six in the new assem- were swept away by the rigorous tyranny of the bly, though they still belonged also to the assem- last monarch. bly of the tribes. These centuries of knights, We have already observed more than once, that however, composed but a small proportion of this none of these kings are to be regarded as historiDew body: the great mass was made up of the cal persons. But though they may be the mere centaries of foot soldiers, who belonged to the shadows of fable, yet the great revolutions which Commons, and in order to the introduction of these, they represent are real and substantial. Laws it was necessary to arrange them into classes with and institutions, we cannot too often recollect, are reference to the amount of their property. Con- but the offspring of the manners and customs of a sequently, the whole body of the Commons, who people, and these can never undergo any great were to serve on foot, were divided into four class and important change, without leaving behind traes, according to their wealth, and it naturally hap-ces that can never be obliterated. The memory pened that the first class was the smallest in nom- of rights once theirs, (and wrested from them by ber, the second next, and so on through the third the hand of lyranny,) will ever live in the hearts and fourth, the last being moch larger than either of a people, and it usually seeks to embody itself of the others. Their weight in the assembly, how- in the person of some favored monarch, whose erer, did not depend upon the number of persons name is made to swell upon the national chorus, in each class. This was arranged by an arbitrary until its reëcho is caught by the historian of a dissystery. The first class formed eighty centuries, tant age. Such undoubtedly was Servjus Tullius the second, third and fourth each iwenty centuries, with the Roman Plebs, and such we know was Edin this mixed assembly. So that the first class ward the Confessor with the old English Commons. possessed more weight than the other three to- From this time the whole internal history of the gether ; but as a compensation on their part for Roman Commonwealth is one protracted struggle this advantage, they were required to arm them- between the Patricians and Plebeians. Within a selves in a much more complete manner than the few years after the expulsion of the kings, the celothers, to serve in the front ranks of the legions, ebraled secession of the Plebeians upon Mons and to pay much more to the support of the State. Sacer took place, and she Tribunes of the ComThese four classes composed the phalanx, or main mons were created to defend them from the oppresbody of the Roman army.

sion and cruelty of the aristocracy. But the evil There was then a fifth class, probably containing was radical and permanent, the remedy only para very large number, whose property fell below the tial and temporizing. amount required for admission into the phalanx, who were formed into thirty centuries, and equipped *Vide on this subject Legare's very able report on the Ar: themselves as light armed troops to follow the army.' bitrament of National disputes.

The internal dissensions continued, and the sa- Our State Library as at present regulated is not cred cause of the Commons steadily advanced, the Library of Virginia, but of her Legislature until finally the barriers of the hated aristocracy and a few of her public officers-gentlemen who one by one were levelled to the ground, and the are presumed for the most part to have already rewhole Roman people united into one mass. The ceived a liberal education, and consequently not Licinian law first threw open to the Plebeians the to stand so much in need of its benefits as the laroffice of the Consulship; shortly afterwards the ger portion of our community. It is true, that by Ogulnian law admitted them to the sacred offices the courtesy and kindness of our Librarian and his of the national religion, and finally the right of Assistants, (which we lake leave here to say, are intermarriage completed the unity of the nation. always extended to every applicant,) a person desi

And then it was that Rome entered upon that ring information on any subject can obtain admitlong and wonderful career, that terminated in the tance to the Library for the purpose of examioa. conquest and subjugation of the world.

tion ; but there are few of us who would be wil. ling to tax that courtesy and kindness to any great extent for our own instruction or amusement-cer. tainly not to the extent that we would if we had

the right to do so. HYMN,

We repeat, then, emphatically, that our Library

is not now the library of the People of Virginia. FOR THE DEDICATION OF A CHURCH.

And why is this so? Was it not purchased and is Before thy sight, we give, Oh God!

it not kept up at their expense—and why should This humble house for thine abode,

not they enjoy some of its benefits? Was it the Let arch and aisle and turret be

design of its founders to collect together valuable A pleasing tribute, Lord, to thee.

works to be secluded from view and use "as a miser

hoards his gold”? Or was it not, on the contraHere let thy sovereign grace be poured

ry, their intention that it should be a medium of Thro' the rich mercies of thy word, And here thy choicest blessings flow,

circulating knowledge and spreading information As on thy favored court below.

and enjoyment throughout our land!

And here we must say that we ask these quesMay each imperfect note of praise,

Lions in no demagoguish spirit. God forbid that That here our feeble voices raise, To all thy guardian care proclaim

we should ever in any way countenance or encourAnd glorify thy matchless name.

age that spirit, which alas ! is already too prera.

lent amongst us and which we fear is to cause our When here we bow before thy throne,

ruin. On the contrary, our aim in the present un Lord, make thy radiant presence known!

dertaking is to afford another source of enlightesAnd shed upon us from above

ment to our people, so as to enable them to rise The inspirations of thy love.

superior to the wiles and deceptive arts of the vile And when at last, in life's decline,

and contemptible demagogue, who, to compass his This earthly temple we resign,

own ends, professes to be actuated solely by love of May we unite to swell on high

“the dear people." The choral raptures of the sky !

We submit, then, that a State Library ought to Σ.

be free and accessible to all its citizens. We at least have always supposed that the main object in

founding such an institution was by an unity of ef. fort to collect together a fund of knowledge-far

beyond individual enterprise-to be enjoyed by all A FEW PLAIN SUGGESTIONS contributors. The genius of our instilutions is

such, too, that auy citizen, however homble his

origin, may aspire to the highest rank, whether in LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA.

science or in politics—but that aspiration ought to

be predicated only on native intellect, cultivated We propose offering a few plain suggestions as and improved by education and study : and we conto the Library of Virginia, with a view to its utility ceive it to be the duty of Government to foster and as a means of education and improvement to our aid such development of intellect in every way citizens—views which we have for some time en- practicable. tertained and in which we were greatly strength- We hear in our sister States of " learned blackened by a conversation which we had the pleasure smiths" and " literary operatives,” but we knor of holding with that distinguished Frenchman and them not amongst us. Does Virginia lack natire istrue “friend of America,” M. Vatlemare, during tellect, or is it owing to the deficiency of her sources his recent visit to our State.

of education and improvement! Our State pride


would forbid our acknowledging the former, even not the means to improve themselves at home, who if we were not painfully conscious of the truth-of would thus have an opportunity to spend their eventhe latter cause. We all lament, deeply lament ings in storing their minds with useful knowledge, the deplorable State of ignorance prevalent amongst and thus fit themselves to be a ornamenis to their our masses and the total inefficiency of our pres- families, to society and the State-young men, ent system of education—but still we do nothing whose destiny it may be, al some future day, to remedy it. We rest on the “past glory" of Vir

The applause of listening senates to command, ginia and content ourselves with repeating that

The threats of pain and ruin lo despise" the sceptre has departed" from the "mother of

To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land States and of Statesmen.” Or if we do anything, And read their history in a nation's eyes. it is to hold Education meetings and conventions, draft reports and resolutions, make speeches and With this arrangement, we will require probably de nothing more. Action is what is essentially another Assistant Librarian, or at any rate an innecessary to advance the cause of Education : but crease of the salaries of the present incumbents, like the man in the fable, each one of us calls upon and we propose that that increase of expenditure Hereules for "help," instead of putting his own shall be borne by the citizens of the metropolis, who ** shoulder to the wheel.” There is scarcely a would derive more benefit from it, than those from State north of us, but has, (in addition to its sys. other portions of the State, and who would thereby lem of Common Schools.) Public Libraries, Mu- quiet any jealousies which might otherwise arise ; seains and Athenerms in every town and village. while the tax upon them would be as “a grain of

It is true, that owing to the sparseness of our sand upon the sea-shore" in comparison with the population and the character of our domestic institu- benefits to be derived. For this last suggestion Livas, we cannot adopt to the full extent the North- we are indebted to M. Valtemare, whose just apem system of Common Schools, still we can do preciation of our institutions and quick perception something to reform our present system, which is of our character struck us very forcibly. almost as bad as none at all-and we can afford And in this connection we trust we shall be parlight tou to our fellow-citizens in other ways. And doned for urging upon our citizens the claims of we ought to do so.

that system of International Exchanges, to effect Providence has blessed us with “ free institu- which, that interesting gentleman has paid a visit tivns," for the preservation of which we must rely to our Country and State, at such a sacrifice to on the virtue and intelligence of our citizens. Our himself of time, money and domestic enjoyments : Constitotions to be respected, must not only be a system marked by " the largest philanthropy," Written on parchment, but they must be engraved which has for its object the introduction of nations on the hearts of the people-else, as “ writings in 10 one another, and the coltivation of more intisand," they will be swept away by successive ebul- mate relations between then, through the medium lions of popular feeling. We must be taught to of free-will offerings of one nation and its citizens know and appreciate the beanty and blessings of our to another-even as an individual feels more kindly systems of government both State and Federal—and inclined towards a stranger who has extended to him “knowing dare maintain them.”

any courtesy or civility of life. It is a system, loo, Let os arouse ourselves, then, from our apathy, which should appeal especially to the patriotism of and do something to regenerate Virginia.

every American as enabling us in some degree, by To aid that cause, we propose that the State Li- means of our writings and works of art and science, brary shall be kept open from 9 o'clock in the to falsify the charge of ignorance so often brought morning to the same hour in the evening-free against us as a nation by foreigners, and to show to and accessible to every person to read and examine the Old World, that in our rapid strides to power doring that time, any work contained in it, in the and greatness, we have not been altogether unprésence of the Librarian or his Assistants. Of mindful of Literature and the Arts. course we would not extend the right to take any Under this system, properly sustained, every toork away any farther than it is at present enjoyed, American would visit with a light heart the Hotel and we would have stringent roles too to prevent de Ville, and as he entered the Hall of the " Uniang injory being done to the Library during the ted States," would point with a conscious pride to

their representatives, claiming to be admitted as We have proposed that the Library should be members of the great “ Republic of Letters." kept open until 9 o'clock in the evening, for the rea. And shall the praise-worthy efforts of "our son that there is many a man occupied with his friend” fail for want of encouragement on our part ? business during the morning hours, who would Remember, too, that it is la belle France who gladly pass a leisure afternoon in a Library, read- makes you this offer through one of her citizens : ing and improving himself: while there are many she who in the hour of need, through the agency young men who have to work for their daily bread or another son, lent us a " helping hand” and enaand who feel the stirrings of ambition," but have bled us to triumph in war, now gives us an oppor

time that it is kept open.

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