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ibe English, French or German. At all events, we preferprove the good-nature with which he pursued his wanderthe testimony of one of our own countrymen-not only beings, never disconcerted by any unforeseen change in his cause be is likely to see more than is open to other eyes, plans, or vexed by the misadventure of getting drenched in but on account of the comparatively unprejudiced point of the Highlands. view in which he will regard everything. Besides, books! If we were disposed to find fault, at all, we should ques. of travel are confessedly the forte of our writers. They tion the propriety of calling the book a "Summer in Scotcertainly have a liberality of tone and accuracy of obser- land,” when Scotland is not reached until the 130th page vation only occasionally met with from other sources. The and we should assuredly take just exception to his views neat rolume before us justifies this assertion. There is no of slavery in the District of Columbia; but we forbear attempt at fine writing, and the sanctities of private life are comment upon this latter, which is vexata quæstio, as this is respected; yet we have a vivid picture of Northern Eu- not a proper place to discuss it. rope drawn with spirit and judgment. The author is con. The book is for sale by Messrs. Drinker & Morris. cise, sensible and evidently a faithful narrator. As Secreary of Legation at the Russian Court, he enjoyed excellent opportunities which he has obviously improved. Wel Hawkstone-A Tale for England in 184-. New York: believe this is his first production, and we trust it will re

Stanford & Swords. 1848. ceive the favorable recognition it so eminently deserves.

The questions which divide the church, at this moment,

both abroad and at home, are very ably presented in this HISTORICAL VIEW OF THE LITERATURE OF THE South

work. A discriminating view is given of the true grounds OF EUROPE. By J. C. Z. Simonde De Sismondi. New

of difference between the Catholic and ihe Episcopalian,

and the evils of fanaticism are described with severe, but York: Harper & Brothers. 1848.

incontrovertible illustrations. In fact, “Hawkstone," under The reputation of Sismondi for thorough and accu- the guise of a novel, unfolds the present condition of relirate research, philosophical insight and cultivated taste-gious opinion among a large body of Christians. All are has been very warmly recognized since his death. His more or less interested in the points at issue ; to those who Jane is honorably identified with the science of Political are actually partizans, we can imagine no recent volume Economy-(of which throughout his life he was a devoted balf so attractive. As a story, it is vivid and dramatic ; student.) with standard history and general literature. Re-while as an exposition of theology, it conveys a vast amount Lective men doubtless find his “Italian Republics" the of information as to the existent state of the Church of test suggestive of his works; but readers imbued with a England at once authentic and agreeably conveyed. On Eeanine love of belles-lettrez cannot fail to turn with de- the whole, Hawkstone is a remarkable work and we comlicht to the volumes named above. Upon renewing our ac. mend it to our readers as worthy of a careful perusal. The quaintance with them, after an interval of many years, we same publishers have just issued “ Mark Wilton, or the There been agreeably surprised to find the interest a waken. Merchant's Clerk,” by Rev. Charles B. Tayler, the popued by them as fresh as ever. Indeed, the account of the lar author of "Lady Mary,” and other religious novels. Troubadoors and of Italian literature abounds not only in earious information and personal anecdote, but traces the progress of the human mind and especially its relations A SYSTEM OF ENGLISH VersificaTION; containing rules with language and poetry in a discriminating and attractive for the structure of the different kinds of verse, &c., manner. The work is very neatly printed and should adorn &c. By Erastus Everett, A. M. New York: D. Applethe library of every man of taste. The same publishers ton & Co. 200 Broadway. 1848. have just issued a sparkling book entitled “The Bachelor of the Albany.” Its characteristic is an unilagging liveli

This is really a very excellent little volume and will be. pess; and it is the cleverest thing of the kind wbich has ap-19

come, we do not doubt, the vade mecum of a large class of peared for a long time, a most entertaining companion upon

bardlings. Of the good effects of its publication, however, a journey and by the fireside.

there may well be two opinions. On the one hand it may be urged (in objection to Mr. Everett's design) that as the

race of ballad-mongers is increasing among us, to a most A SOMMER IN SCOTLAND. By Jacob Abbott. New York: alarming extent, any book that promises to facilitate their Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 82 Cliff Street. 1848.

efforts and swell their ranks is a serious evil and ought to

| be discountenanced. On the other, it may be said that as The kingdom of Great Britain, from John O'Groat's to great numbers of young gentlemen and ladies will write Land's End, has been so extensively traversed of late verses, at all hazards, it is a laudable undertaking to teach years that there is scarcely a nook or cranny in either isl. them to write good ones ; at least, to place within their mund, which has not been described to us at length in the reach a manual which will give some notion of the cæsura Journal of the tourist. No obscure book-stall within sound and induce a regard for allowable rhymes. We incline to ef Bow-bells, but has been set down with the minutest par- the latter way of thinking, and we therefore look upon Mr. Beularity-no loch or burn of bonnie Scotia, invested with Everett as a public benefactor. Let all such as meditate the traditions of many centuries and endeared to us in the an epic or would indite a ballad, read this book with attenpages of Sir Walter and the poet ploughman, but has been tion. depieted by the traveller, with the aid of wood-engraving and quotations from Marmion. Indeed the field has been so frequently trodden, that little remains to be said of it, s

1, SHAKESPEARE PROVERBS: or the wise Saws of our wisest besides the mere personal incident of travel. In the volume before us, the author disclaims the attempt

Poet collected into a Modern Instance. By Mary Cow.

den Clarke. New-York: Wiley & Putnam. London to produce anything that shall be new to the reader. “The

Chapman & Hall. Look," says he, “claims no higher province than that of affering a rational source of entertainment to the reader in The first thing that strikes us in opening this little book

sisure hours." As such, we can commend it very higbly. is its exquisite typography, the next is the fact that Mrs. His reflections are always sensible and we cannot but ap. 'Clarke has changed her manner of spelling the name of

Shakespeare, since the complete Concordance to Shaks. have issued the first numbers of these magazines. The pere" was published.

Virginia Historical Register, a projet of the Virginia His “Patch grief with proverbs,” says one of the characters torical Society, must become, as their organ, an interesting of the immortal bard, and in doing this, we should resort to and valuable publication. The Editor, Mr. Wm. Maxwell, him after the inspired lessons of Solomon.

long favorably known to the literary world, introduces the The arrangement of the “Shakespeare Proverbs” is al- work with a graceful Editorial, in which he marks out the phabetical, with reference to the initial letter of the line; course it will pursue and invokes (we hope not in vain.) which may be best illustrated by citing a few examples. the generous encouragement of the public. With the is We open at the letter H.

creasing interest manisested throughout our State in the Hope is a lover's staff.

prosecution of historical studies, we predict for the Regis. He that dies pays all debts.

ter a large circulation and an extended field of usefulness. Hold, or cut bow-strings. He is well paid that is well satisfied.

The Iris is a very unpretending though excellent publi; &c., &c., &c.

cation, at the low price of $1 50 per annum, edited by For sale by Nash & Woodhouse.

association of gentlemen, whose names are not given to the world. The editorials are written in a pleasing style and are marked with good taste. We hope to see it pros

per. Chess for Winter Evenings. By H. R. Agnel. New

York: D. Appleton & Co. 1848.
This valuable and interesting manual should be in the

BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE AND THE ENGLISH QOARTERhands of every votary of the noble game to the illustration of which it is devoted. It contains, in the first place, the

LIES. New York. Leonard Scott of Co., 79 Fulton Street. Rudiments of the Game-then--Elementary Analyses of her most popular openings exemplified in games actually played

We have too long delayed the expression of our thanks by the greatest masters, and a series of Chess Tales. These to the American publishers, for copies of these excellest materials have been derived from the most authentic and works, sent to us regularly through the Richmond Agents, desirable sources. The volume consists of more than five Messrs. Nash & Woodhouse. To say anything in their hundred pages and is very handsomely printed. In the praise would, surely, be quite unnecessary, as their merits preface the Editor eloquently vindicates his subject from are well known throughout the United States, Black wood the character of a mere diversion and quotes both the

is, by far, the best of the English monthlies and is still the

precepts and practice of illustrious men in support of its same brilliant, good-humored, delectable falsißer that it has claims to an admirable exercise of the reasoning powers. ever been. We always take it up with avidity and lay it He quotes from Franklin's Morals of Chess to prove that down in a pet. There is invariably a high-tory article for Foresight, Circumspection, Caution and Self-reliance, are

home consumption, followed by two or three admirable all cultivated by the habit of Chess-Playing. But if

sketches, with some bursts of poetic melody, (when that

any one is a skeptic on the subject, the attractive manner in sweetest of lyrists, Delta, strikes the chords,) a pleasant which the subject is unfolded by Mr. Agnel in his volume, story in the department of fiction and very mang absard would soon convert him. There are four admirably con

fictions and stories about America. Indeed we have long ceived illustrations, (besides the diagrams.) representing the since ceased to look for fairness in anything that it publish. playing of the celebrated games. We understand the de- es. But we cannot be so far swayed by prejudice as the signs were prepared expressly for the work by Weir.

to award to it the highest literary excellence.

The American reader will peruse wish great satisfactise the article in a recent number of the Edinburgh on Sir

Francis Head's Administration of Canada. The Princess : A Medley. By Alfred Tennyson. Bos

It may be proper to state here, that by an arrangement ton: W. D. Ticknor & Co. 1848.

with the English publishers, Messrs. Leonard Scout & Co This is the most extended poem which has yet appeared receive the sheets of Blackwood in advance of its pabhifrom the pen of Tennyson. It contains numerous passa- cation and are thus enabled to issue it, before the Englist ges of exquisite beauty; especially those where minute copy reaches this country. description is blent with singular refinement of language. We have been struck with many of the comparisons wbich in their simplicity and boldness, remind us of the choicest lines in the old English dramatists. But while the beau

LITERARY News. ties peculiar to the genius of the author are widely scattered through these captivating pages, he sins against the dig. publish, a new edition of the “ Italian Sketch Book," by

J. C Riker, of New York, has in press, and will shorly nity of the Muse by frequently resorting to a free and easy H. T. Tuckerman, greatly enlarged and improred. This style-almost colloquial and in striking contrast with his volume is the result of two visits of the author to Italy an more elevated strains ; occasionally, too, some petty affectation mars the effect of a delicious effusion. Yet this Med- will contain sketches, tales and essays, suggestive of the ley abounds with fresh poetical conceptions that cannot but land. The style of Mr. Tuckerman is familiar to all read

most attractive features of that beautiful, though unhappy delight every reader of refined sympathy or delicate fancy.ers of the Messenger, and we know they will be glad o

welcome the appearance of this revised edition of bu THE VIRGINIA HISTORICAL REGISTER AND LITERARY

Sketch Book.
ADVERTISER. No. 1. January, 1848.
The Iris: Devoted to Science, Literature and the Arts, In-
cluding Medical News. Edited by the Quidnunc Club.

Mess. D. Appleton & Co. have in press an elegant wor March, 1848.

entitled “The Romance of the History of Louisiana, Our enterprising publishers, Macfarlane & Fergusson,' from the pen of a distinguished naljre of that State.

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examine and critically compare the different parts HISTORY AND CONSTITUTION of their knowledge. And hence it is, that when

the public mind of Europe first stirred from its OF THE EARLY ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. slumber of a thousand years, the spirit of investi

gation, of discovery and invention took the lead, The three great nations of antiquity, the He- while that of criticism followed far in the wake. brews, the Greeks and the Romans, have, each in the former was active in the fifteenth and sixits peculiar sphere, exerted a powerful and con- teenth centuries, the latter did not awaken until trolling influence over the thoughts, the feelings, the middle of the seventeenth. Then it was that and the destinies of the human race.

the great English critic, Bentley, appeared, who The Hebrews have emphatically written upon was so far before all the scholars of his age, that the heart of the world their religion ; the Greeks it was impossible for them to appreciate his attaio. their poetry and philosophy; and the Romans their ments. He long remained without a rival in any bistory. And all have written them in lines and part of Europe. It was not until the year 1685, characters that can never be effaced. So deeply ihat the spirit of historical criticisin may be said to have the effects and the principles of each sunk have exhibited itself in any definite form. into the homan mind ; so thoroughly have they be.

About that time appeared the Animadversiones eorie interwoven with the very texture and frame of Perizonius, Professor in the University of Leywork of our nature, that their controlling influence den, in which was clearly pointed out many of the will eease only when every trace of civilization

gross inconsistencies of the early Roman history. and learning has faded from the world, and men But the great claim he has to the thanks of the have ceased to yearn after the knowledge of things student of history, is, that he was first to discern of olden time.

beneath the stately rhetoric of Livy traces of the Bat though alike in this respect, they differ wide- popular songs and legendary ballads of which so ly in another. The inspired records of the Jews, large a portion of his history is made up. Bayle embodying their system of religion, have come styled the work of Perizonius, “ the errata of hisdown to us in a wonderfully complete and perfect corians and critics," and Niebuhr pronounces a high state ; the great works of Grecian genius contain- eulogiam upon its merits.* ing their poetry and philosophy, their eloquence

Next came Giambattista Vico, a Neapolitan his. and history, with few exceptions, still remain entorian, who published his remarkable workt in 1725. fire; but with Roman history it is far otherwise. He seems to have been a man of singular and It has been well said, that for a long while, the Ro- wonderful genius, but his judgment was often so mans were so much occupied in making their his- perverted by whimsical eccentricities, that he was tory, they had no time to amuse themselves with sometimes thonght to be partially deranged. He writing it. But at length the time came when they had an intuitive faculty of perceiving the truth, did write it, and they wrote it out, but not for us. though concealed beneath heaps of fiction and rub

With hardly an exception, all that remains of bish, and he divined, as it were, many of the great their great historical works, are mutilated frag- truths that Niebuhr afterwards discovered and dements. Had, however, these magnificent frag- monstrated. He it was who first called into life ments been properly understood and interpreted, the old Gentes and Curiae of the Roman constituie much of the history of the early Romans might tion, and pointed out the true relative positions of still have been known to the world. But the spirit the patricians, the clients and plebeians in the early of-historical criticism was never possessed by the organization of the State. He anticipated Wolf Ancients, even in their most enlightened days, but in his hypothesis respecting the origin and nature in a very moderate degree, and with the decline of of the Homeric poems, and pronounced them to learning was lost entirely. The consequence was, be the great work of a natjon. His history conthat until modern times, even scholars knew not tains many sound general principles and profound that the whole of the early history of Rome, as observations, but so inseparably interwoven with commonly understood, was naught but a beautiful wild speculations and fanciful theories, that his real and romantic fiction.

discoveries would probably have been of but little In emerging from barbarism and seeking after kaowledge, the operations of the human mind must

* See Nieb. Hist. Rom, vol. I, pp. 251, 252. ever be the same. Men must enlarge the bounda- + Principi di una Scienza Nuova d'intomo alla Natura ries of their information before they can begin to' della Nazioni.


value, had they not been re-discovered by other false impressions which prevailed universally on the and sounder heads.

subject; and its truth, like Newton's discoveries in Close in the wake of Vico's Scienza Nuova, fol. natural science, is not now to be proved, but to be lowed the treatise of Beaufort (De l'Incertitude, taken as the very corner-stone of all our research&c., in 1738.) He went into a critical examina- es into the internal state of the Roman* people." ljon of the early history of Rome, brought togeth. As another instance, we may take the important er and exposed its numberless inconsistencies and fact, which we believe he was the first to point out, absurdities, and prostrated the whole system to the that the term populus (People,) so constantly used ground. But like Voltaire, he was the architect and misused by Livy, when applied to the early only of ruin. He knew how to destroy, but not history of the Roman State, is to be confined exhow to reconstruct. He taught the world that clusively to the nobility. We shall speak of this Livy's history was a splendid romance, but told more fully hereafter. them not what they might believe, and if the Afier Niebuhr had led the way and brushed aside subject had remained where he left it, we might the cobwebs of poetry and fiction that had for twen. question the benefits resulting from what Legare ty centuries clustered around and concealed the calls his barren scepticism.

early history of Rome, he was succeeded by a host At length, however, came forward the great his- of eminent writers, who, with industry, learning torian, who was destined to revive and reanimate and perseverance, following in the footsteps of their what time had almost effaced. Perizonius had great leader, have continued 10 pour a flood of suspected, Vico had divined, Beaufort had doubted, light upon this deeply interesting subject. Among but it was reserved for Niebuhr to discover and to them we may be permitted to mention, absque indemonstrate the whole theory of the Roman con- vidia, the names of Arnold, Malden and Michele, stitution. He too pulled down and destroyed, but he and Bonseu and Gherard and that crowd of Gerrebuilt more than he pulled down; he reconstruct- man scholars of whom it was quaintly said, that ed more than he destroyed. It is for his discov- the great historian had left his city Rome to a Geteries, and not for his doubts, that he is so much man colony, who were carefully taking an inventorevered. In the language of Michelet, he knew ry of all that belonged to them by right of conAntiquity as Antiquity knew not itself. That the quest. great truths put forth and demonstrated by him The story of the early Roman history is so were nearly all his own independent discoveries, is miliarly known to every reader, so marvellous and shown by the fact, that the first edition of his his poetic in its features, and so deeply impressed upon tory was published before his attention was called the recollections of our childhood, that it would be to the remarkable coincidence between several of a needless waste of time to give even a meagre the positions established by him and the previous sketch of it here. The miraculous preservation conjectures of Perizonius, and particularly of Vico.* the twin brothers, the foundation of the infant city, But in all such cases, though the discovery may its struggles and treaty with the Sabines, the midhave been anticipated by another, the demonstra- night meetings of the good Numa and the nymph tion is all his own. It is almost needless to speci- Egeria, the pathetic story of Lucretia, the noble fy particular instances of his beautiful discoveries, heroism of Brutus, and the expulsion of the hasghwhen nearly the whole theory of the old Roman ty Tarquins, are perhaps better known to every Commonwealth is his.

school boy in the land than the most striking and We will, however, mention as one, his defini- important incidents in the history of our own countions of an Agrarian Law, which it is hardly too try. It has been intimated above, that all this wellmuch to say no one before him ever understood. known story is a beautiful and romantic fiction. We cannot now enter into a full explanation of its we cannot, of course, in the very limited space alcharacter, but will simply remark, that the odious lowed to us, go into the arguments at length to sense that the term has acquired in our language prove this proposition, but we shall endeavor in an was founded upon an entirely erroneous idea of the brief and popular a manner as possible to give measure, and that so far from being a levelling of some of the evidences of its fabulous character, all the barriers of properly, it was but an act of and the reasons that lead us to reject what was se sheer justice. It meant only a fair and equal di- Inng believed, and believed even by most of the vision of the public land conquered in war, between Romans themselves. And in thus summing of all the citizens of the State, instead of giving it these evidences, we do not pretend ourselves to say all to the nobles. In speaking of the importance great originality. We but follow at a distance those of this discovery, Dr. Arnold remarks, that “twenty- great names we have mentioned, and guided be the four years have not elapsed since he first published clear lights they have held up, have attempted to it, but it has already overthrown the deeply rooted thread our way through the complicated.labyrinths Let us, then, examine for a moment the sources | brought under the dominion of another branch of from which our knowledge of early Roman history the same stock of people. In following out this is obtained, and from the character of the fountain darling theory, he hesitates at no alterations it bejudge of the nature of the stream.

of historical criticism. * Vid. Hist. Rome, by Malden, in Lib. U. K., c. iv, p. 137, note.

* Vid. Hist. Rome, vol. i, ch. is, p. 105.

comes necessary to make in the accounts given by Liry and Dionysius of Halicarnassus are the the old annalists. He never, even in treating of two principal authorities from whom has been drawn times the most remote, honestly acknowledges, like the common narrative. Now, Livy wrote during Livy, the contradiciory statements of his authorithe reign of Augustus, and Dionysius a few years ties and the uncertainty that hangs over the whole later, so that they were separated by an interval of subject. His history moves on in one unbroken about 750 years from the time of the events and stream, giving in monotonous and wearying suctransactions of which they give such minute and cir. cession circumstances and anecdotes, that from eumstantial accounts. It cannot be very unrea- their very nature, could never have been known, sonable in us then, before giving full confidence to even if true. We often discover from Livy, that all their statements, to ask from what source did upon certain points the old annalists directly conthey derive their information, and what surety had tradict each other from the account of the same they for the genuineness of the history of ages so subject given by Dionysius, we would never susdistant from their own? They inform us that they pect that he had met with the slightest discrepanhave drawn from the old annalists who preceded cy in his authorities. them, and whose works, except a few scattered In short, if we are sometimes compelled to disfragments

, have since been entirely lust. Before credit Livy's narrative, from his carelessness and we examine the character of these old writers, let passion for relating fine stories, in a much greatus cast a hasty glance at that of the two histori-er degree are we forced to question the credibility abs who stand between us and them.

of Dionysius from his want of candor and honesty. Liry was a man of brilliant imagination and re- Such, then, being the character of the two historimarkably fond of telling, and telling too in an in- ans, from whom we derive nearly all our immedicomparable manner, the fine stories with which the ate knowlege of Roman history, it may be well for early pages of his history abound. He forewarns us to look behind them, and discover, if we can, us in the outset that it is not his intention, either something of the character of those old annalists to affirm or to refute accounts that partake more of from whom they have drawn. We shall give the the character of poetic fables than of stern history.* names of the principal of these and the periods at And again be afterwards remarks that he would not which they composed their works. The first was spare the caret of investigating, if by so doing it Q. Fabius Pictor, a Senator and Consul and cotemwere possible to arrive at the truth ; and that he poraneous with the close of the second Punic war, shall rest satisfied if what we receive as true be so that his history must have been written about like the truth. I If Livy thus openly acknowledg- the year of the ciiy 550. L. Cinius and M. Pores the unsatisfactory nature of his materials, and cios Cato, also Senators, lived abont the same pesets up for himself so low a standard of historical riod with Fabius, and compiled their works only a Sruth, it cannot be considered very presumptuous in few years after his. Piso followed at an interval a madera historian to refuse credit (as Niebuhr has of sixty or seventy years, and was succeeded at dote) to his statements, when they confliet with about the same interval, by Val. Autias and Lici. the known current of events, and bear stamped nius Macer. Polybius, the Greek historian, also upon them all the features of a romance.

wrote upon the early history of Rome about the Dionysios was a writer of altogether a different same time with Piso, and alihongh the part of his east. He possessed more patience, more research, work that contains this digression has now been more investigation, but less candor and honesty. lost, it seems to have been the principal source He wrole for a special purpose, and that a dishon- froin which Cicero drew the substance of the early est one. He was a Greek, and commenced his Roman history contained in his treatise De Rehistory with the avowed object of proving that publica. Rome was founded by the Greeks, and consequently, It were a needless task to examine the character that all the Roman glory belonged still to the Gre- and credibility of each one of these in detail. We cian race; and that Greece, instead of having been shall confine ourselves only to a few of the argasubdued by a barbarian power, had only been ments that equally affect all. It appears from the

* * Quae ante conditam condendamve urbem, poeticis dates we have given, that the earliest of these writapis decora fabulis quam incorruptis rerum gestarum mon ters was separated by an interval of five hundred Tarentis, trasluntur, ea nec affirmare, nec refellere, in ani- and fifty, and the latest by more than six hundred moest. Datur haec venia antiquitati.”- Livy Preface and fifty years from the foundation of the city.

"Cura non deesset, si qua ad verum vin inquirentem The question then again recurs with still greater ferret

, nune fama rerum standum est, ubi certam derogat force, from what sources did they draw the maleTetostas fidem."--Liv., I. vii, c. 6. * “ Sed in rebus tam antiqnis, si. quae similia veri sint, rials for the early history of Rome ; and were those pro veris accipiantur, satis habeam."--Liv., l. v, c. 21. sources reliable? In seeking from them the an

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