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their defence, and bring into view those good qualTHE TWO AFFECTATIONS. ities, which the worst man possesses in some de

gree. There are two sorts of affectation current in the At first, this goodness of Frank's was forced ; world: the affectation of being better than one re- or, if the reader pleases, affected. But it has long ally is, and the affectation of being worse. The since grown to be a second nature with him. His former is, to my mind, decidedly the preferable feelings have taken their tone from his words and

behavior-his heart has grown softer, by the softUnderstand me. I do not speak of pretences ness of his mann

nners-until at length, I hardly know that go the lengih of downright deceit in society, la more benevolent, or a more useful man, than hypocrisy in Religion, or treachery about public Frank Sofily. To avoid the shame of glaring induties. Such as those I neither justisy, nor pal- consistency, he was compelled to act out the huliate. But I speak of a courtesy, which to most manity he professed. His smooch manners drew persons might seem overstrained ; of bows, and him sometimes into friendly contact with the vicivil language, and kind behavior, to one whom we cious, which (as he was on his guard against bedo not like; of that politeness to all men, which ing corrupted by them), he occasionally improved answers to Lord Chatham's definition of true po. for their good. Opportunities were afforded him, liteness—" benevolence in irifles.” Let this silken of giving them counsel ; which was listened to, bebehavior be carried somewhat beyond the line of cause he had the tact to give it delicately, and strict sincerity,—let it betoken, to common obser- (above all) privately. Occasions of relieving disters, rather more warmth of regard for every one tress, now and then presented themselves; and he than the observed person feels--let a large major- could not wholly neglect them, though his geneity of them, therefore, charge him, not onjustly, rosity was not extraordinary. He is an agreeable with affectation : and it is this which I maintain companion, who never wounds the feelings of any,to be a virtue, in comparison with the opposite sort never puts harsh constructions upon men's conof affectation.

duci,- is never censorious, and never offends any My two friends, Frank Sofily and John Blunt, but those who think it a social duty to sit in judgare living illustrations of my meaning, and proofs ment upon the characters and actions of their neighof my position. By nature, they had dispositions bors, and who cannot get Frank to join them in their equally, yet not unusually kind, and capacities self-imposed task of condemnation, even where the equally great.

condemnation is deserved. Nor has his good naBut Frank showed, early in life, a great wish to sure ever led him into vicious indulgencies. He please. It was owing to some casual impression learned, betimes, the importance of knowing how made upon him in boyhood, by happily timed ad- and when to say no: and his kindly mannered refuvice from a friend, or by reading Lord Chesterfield, sal of all invitations to drink or game, gave no ot, perhaps, by the captivating suavity of a genıle- offence, but sometimes drew off a “fine fellow”' man who used to visit his father. Frank adopted from the bottle or cards. I have seen sturdier morthe winning style of manners, parily because he alists than Frank plunge into dissipation, because was charmed with the examples of it that he saw, they could not, or rather would not, say no as blandand partly because he hoped it would gain him fa- ly as he would. for, and promote his success in life. Whatever John Blunt's ruling sentiment, from youth uphis motive, he studied and practised the art of ward, was hatred of all dishonesty: and he justly pleasing—not by wit, or by varied and rich con. considered affectation as a species of dishonesty. Fersaijon, which he did not aspire to; but by uni- Unluckily, however, he deemed nothing affectation, tersal courtesy. Civility to all ages, and classes, but the presence of being better than one really is : was the role of his conduct. When he grew up, and in his eagerness to avoid that vice, he ran into and went forth into the world, where he was obli- the opposite one, of pretending to be worse than he ged to know that individuals he sometimes met with really was like the gentleman satirized by Horwere knavish and in bad repure, he treated them ace, more civilly than any one else did; nay, I fear,

“Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt." Was more civil to a wealthy knave than to a poor one—as who is not ? A thousand times he has put John affected the rough and surly in his manners. a constraint upon himself, to ask about the health, He so much abhorred couriliness, that he was foror the families, of men for whom he could not help ever giving pain to the feelings of some person or feeling the atmost contempt. I have seen him rise other. There is no telling how many disobliging and offer his chair to an elderly person whose cha- things he said and did to his mother, brothers and racter I knew him lo hold in the liveliest detesia- sisters, before he was twenty; though his affection tion. Not only before such people's faces did he for them was perhaps even warmer than usual. As give them countenance; but when he heard them he grew older, principle and reflection, with long assailed in their absence, he would often undertake 'absences from home, made him learn kinder manners to them : but he still sometimes gave deep wounds to them, whom he would have shed his STEAM-NAVIGATION TO CHINA. blood to protect. Abroad, where less allowance was made for "his way" (as he and his apologists Addressed to the Hon. T. Butler King. called his rudeness) he was continually giving offence, and making enemies. While one was doing NationAL OBSERVATORY, WASHINGTON, him a favor, he would be as gruff as most men

January 10th, 1848. would be on receiving an injury; and thus appear- My Dear Sir:-Yours of the 21st December, ed ungrateful, though in his heart he detested in 1847, in reply to mine of the day previous has been gratitude. He was ready for acts of romantic received. As it is the text for what is to follow, generosity or heroism, opportunities of which oc- I take the liberty of quoting it: cur seldom in a lifetime; but he neglected all the small courtesies and graces, which may be practi- day, this moment received. it discloses the re

“I am greatly indebted for your note of yestersed every hour, and which form so infinitely the markable fact, that in establishing the line of largest part of all that is amiable in human life.

steamers from Panama to Oregon, we have actuIn John, as in Frank, what was at first assumed ally taken a step of three thousand miles on our

way to China ! That California most afford the has now become natural. If John does a kindness, point of departure for our line of steamers to “ his way” often converts it into an unkindness: Changhai, which must consequently become our and it is only by a very few, who best know him, Commercial and Naval Depot on the Pacifie! that he is reputed to be any thing more than a self. Why should it not also become the rendezvous for ish churl. In truth, he is benevolent and public our whale ships, instead of the Sandwich Islands,

and the terminus of the great Railway to content spirited : but distress dares not lay itself open to

the Atlantic and the Pacific ? This great cirele him, for fear of the rough treatment that accompa- route from the shores of the Pacific to those nies bis benevolence-as many poor-houses are China, may justly be regarded in the light of an made so uncomfortable as to frighten away all but important discovery made by you—No other perextreme want from applying for charity. And his sons ever having suggested ii-I must therefore public spirit sleeps unexercised and unknown, be- beg the favor of you to give me your views respeccause none but his few intimates can keep him com- and also of the Gulf Stream to which you allude.

ting it, and the suggestions above more in detailpany, in concerting enterprises for the public good.

Most truly yours, A hedge-bog for a bed fellow, is not more unpleas- (Signed)

T. Butler King." ant than John Blunt as a companion to nine-tenths of his acquaintance. Thus his usefulness is per

With regard to a current of warm water across petually circumscribed, and his happiness marred, the North Pacific to the North-West Coast, from by his affecting to be unaffected.

the shores of Asia, and corresponding to the Gulf

Stream in the North Atlantic, I know but little An intelligent Virginian, who had spent some

more than what was stated by me in a paper on years in France, once told me that he thought the the Currents of the Ocean, read before the politeness generally practised by all classes there, National Institute in 1844, and published in the produced, in time, the kindly feelings of which at Southern Literary Messenger, for July of that first it might be only the counterfeit. And no ob

year. server of human nature can help knowing, that the I beg leave to refer you to that paper with the outward demeanor, when long and habitually prac. remark that all that I have since learned, tends to tised, does mould and temper the inward character. confirm the views there taken with regard to sach The calmness of the Quaker's mind is admitied to

a current. be increased by the systematic quietude of his be- will exercise great influence upon the course of

Should it be found really to exist, it havior. The pirate and the wild beast are render- navigation, and consequently upon the commerce ed more fierce by their cries of rage. Ill teniper of that Ocean. is always heightened by indulging itself in audible

Thanks to the enlarged views of the statesman out-breaks. The Englishman's unsocial surliness

at the head of the Navy Department, I am enahas grown, since it was noted by foreigners, and bled to carry out a favorite project, long entertaingloried in by himself, as a national characteris- ed, of preparing from the Log.Books of our mentic.

of-war and merchantmen, a chart which shall show I would not recommend any affectation whate- the prevailing winds and currents in all parts of ver : but methinks it is obvious, that as “ we do the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. grow like to that we most affect,"--it is better to The plan is to lay down on this chart the tracks affect what is good, than what is bad. And I would of several thousand navigators, in such a manner relieve some honest people of the delusion they as to show at a glance, the winds and currents efare under, in supposing themselves to be at all more countered every day by each. honest in pretending to be one thing, than in pre- Lieutenant Whiting and other officers have beer tending to be another.

detailed for the purpose of assisting me in this updertaking. The sheets of the North Atlantic, pre-standing at New Orleans, is about 3,000 miles pared by that officer, and already published, have, nearer to China, than he is when he starts from by the importance of their results, attracted the Panama by the way of the Sandwich Islandsattention of navigators, and given the undertaking notwithstanding he will have travelled at least 1,500 renewed impulse.

miles to reach Panama. But the great circle from With a liberality worthy of the enterprise of Panama through the Gulf and Louisiana, to China, American ship owners, and in a manner character as a travelling route, is impracticable, and the next istic of the intelligence of American navigators. step, therefore, is to find a route which is practithe most active coöperation has been promptly cable, and which shall deviate from this as little as and freely granted ; so that in the course of this head lands or other obstacles to navigation will adyear, I expect to have the voluntary, but effective mit. When we have found such a route, we can coöperation of several hundred merchant vessels, examine the advantages which it offers-compare making daily, in all parts of the sea, and on their them with other routes that have been proposed, passages to and fro, the requisite observations for and then form conclusions. this purpose.

By still holding one end of the string at ChangWben the facts and materials thus collected shall hai, on the globe, and carrying the end that is on be brought together, spread out upon the chart and this side, out into the Pacific, until the string will discussed, we shall then know certainly as to this just clear the Peninsula of California, we shall have Gulf Stream, and be enabled to form correct ideas an arc of a great circle along which a steamer, as to the prevailing winds and currents in all parts with fuel sufficient, might sail all the way from of that broad ocean,-a desideratum of great im Chili to the islands of Japan without ever having portance.

to turn aside for the land. In the various projects which have, from time to This, therefore, is the shortest route, and the time, been proposed for reaching China, partly by nearest navigable distance to China for all vessels, rail-road or canal across the Isthmus of Darien, or whether from Chili, Bolivia, Peru, Equador, Cenother parts of the continent, it does not appear that tral America or the Pacific ports of Mexico. In the great circle route across the ocean, has ever point of distance, it is the great highway from been considered. If we examine the course and America to the Indies, and will, hereafter, be called distance from Panama to Changhai, as they ap- the great commercial circle of the Pacific Ocean. pear on a Mercator's chari-which is the projec- After running along this route and passing Cape tion used in navigation-we shall find the distance St. Lucas and Bartholomew, if we look to the to be about 9,500 miles, and the course to be by right we shall find, at the distance of a few leagues, way of the Sandwich Islands, which are midway the beautiful ports of Upper California, including this route. But on this chart, as on all others, the the safe and commodious harbors of San Diego, surface of the earth, which is a sphere, is repre- Monterey and San Francisco. These ports are sented as a plane, and is therefore distorted. The right on the wayside of this great circle and comshortest distance then between any two places, un- mercial highway. They occupy that geographical less they both be on the Eqnator, or on the same position, and present, in the future, those commermeridian, is not the straight line on the chart which cial advantages which will assuredly make the joins them, but it is along the arc of the great cir- most favored of them the great half-way house becle in the plane of which they are situated ;-and tween China and all parts of Pacific America. this are, when projected on the chart, will appear The harbor of Monterey is said to resemble the as a curved line.

beautiful Bay of Naples. It has water and capaNow, if we take a common terrestrial globe, and city for the combined navies and ships of the world. draw a string tightly across it from Panama to The winds here never blow home, and the anchor. Chaoghai, it will show the shortest distance be- age therefore is perfectly safe. tween the two places, and will represent the great Merely as sheets of water, however, both San circle route between them. And this string, so far Diego and Francisco are, in the eyes of the sailor, from touching the Sandwich Islands, will pass up still more beautiful; but San Diego is on the verge through the Gulf of Mexico, thence through Lou- of a sterile country, while San Francisco is furisiana towards Oregon, crossing the ocean several ther out of the way of the great circle route than bonsand miles to the North of them. The dis either of the other two. tance from Panama to Changhai, by this route, My enterprising friend Wheelwright has a monthwere it practicable to travel it, is 8,200 miles, or ly line of steamers from Valparaiso, touching at the abont 1,200 miles less than it is by the way of the " Intermedias,” Callao, and Guayaquil, to Panama. Sandwich Islands.

Under your bill of the last session, and by the Now, to those who are accustomed to form ideas energy of the Navy Department in giving it effect, of bearings and distance from maps and charts, Aspinwall & Co., of New York, have the contract and not from globes, this statement may appear for another monthly line of steamers from Panama startling : yet it is nevertheless true, that a person'to the mouth of the Columbia river. This line,

owners.

no doubt, will connect at Panama with Wheels (trade-winds blow, a vessel will average about 150 right's, and with one or more lines on this side to miles a day. From Changhai to Monterey, by the Chagres. The steamers of Aspinwall's line are great circle, a vessel would be for much of the to touch at Monterey; and Monterey is, therefore, way between the same parallels of latitude that the port for the American terminus of the China she would be from New York to Liverpool. The ai line.

prevailing winds are probably the same for each It is in latitude 36° 38', and is one third of the ocean; this, however, is conjecture, but like causes distance, and directly on the wayside from Panama produce like effects the world over; and those mail to China; and from Monterey by the great circle physical conditions which make the west winds to Japan is not nearly so far as it is from Panama, blow across the North Atlantic require them to by the compass, to the Sandwich Islands—the lat- blow, at least with equal prevalence, across the che ter is 4,500 miles, the former 3,700, or just the dis- North Pacific. The latter is a more open sea and tance from Charleston to Liverpool.

a wider ocean : There is less land in it to interfere There is no stopping place, no land, between with the prevalence of winds, to intercept them, to tell Panama and the Sandwich Islands; and in the change their direction, or modify their force, and -20) present stage of steam navigation, no steamer can therefore we may suppose that the prevailing winds carry fuel for 4,500 miles at a stretch, and pay of the North Pacific are more uniform than they 1

are in the Avantic. But supposing them equal, one in Midway between Monterey and Changhai, and of the New York packets at her average outward immediately on the wayside are the Fox or Elcou bound rate of sailing, would make the passage by tian Islands, where the Monterey line can have its the Great Circle from Changhai 10 Monterey in 41 depot of coal. It is just about the distance both days, which is about equal to the passage from Rio from Monterey and Changhai to those Islands, that to the United States. it is from Liverpool to Halifax, where the Cunard If we suppose the same ratio to hold in the Paline has its depot. Though the lines from New cific, which obtains between the outward and the York to Liverpool, Havre, and Bremen, have homeward passage across the Atlantic, then the proved that 3,000 miles are not beyond the fuel average sailing distance the other way, that is from limits of steamers.

Monterey to Changhai, would be 57 days by the By examining the chart or a globe you will see Great Circle. The trades are favorable for the that this route from Monterey lies wholly without the outward bound trips of sailing vessels from Monlimits of the north-east trade-winds; and therefore terey, and therefore the old sailor adage : "the so much the better for steamers. Though little or longest way round is the shortest way home,"will nothing is known of this part of the ocean, except to probably continue to hold good for that half of the the enterprising whale-men of New England, yet voyage. reasoning from what we know as to the prevailing But you have asked me to consider the best roote winds between the same parallels in the North not for sailing vessels, but for a line of sleamers. Atlantic, I suppose that this route, under certain The Great Circle is the route for steamers both circumstances, will also be found the best for sail ways—and supposing the vessels upon the proposed ing vessels. But the “wind and current chart” line to be equal in speed to the “Great Western" which is in the course of preparation, will deter. in her palmy days—and why should they not be mine this point.

superior ? they will make the passage to and fro Before the navigation of the North Atlantic was between Changhai and Monterey in 26 days, inas well understood as it is at present, and, indeed, cluding the stoppage of a day for coaling at the the practice is scarcely wholly abandoned al this Fox Islands. day, it was customary for vessels trading betwecn It has been shown that Monterey is directly on this country and Europe to run down to the south the great highway from Western South America many hundred miles out of their way, in order to and Mexico to China. This fact is of juself suffiget the north-east trades. This was done with cient to show why the preference should be given the expectation of more favorable winds and a to it as the American terminus of the line. quicker passage ; but experience has proved the Intimately connected with this subject, however, contrary, and there are but few navigators now, is a rail road from the Atlantic to the Pacific. who, unless they be bound to the West Indies, pur- A rail road from Savannah and Charlesion to sue the “southern route” across the Atlantic. Memphis has been already projected and is partly The old practice in the Atlantic, however, still ob- completed. From Memphis to Monterey, the distains in the Pacific. The Sandwich Islands are tance by an air line is 1,500 miles. within the trade-wind region, and all vessels bound Supposing your proposed line of steainers eswesterly across the North Pacific, are in the habit tablished to China, and this rail road completed to of getting into the trades and making those Islands. Monterey, the productions and rich merchandise of

The New York packet ships in their trips 10 China and Japan might be placed in the lap of the Liverpool average 130 miles a day. Where the great valley of the Mississippi within thirty days.

Chioa.

The intelligence brought by each arrival would the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, for the purpose of be instantly caught up by telegraph, and as instant- uniting the two oceans. Afterwards, it became ly delivered in New York and Boston. Here the the favorite route by which the Manilla merchants steamers would receive it on board, and in thirteen and others crossed over from Acapulco to the Gulf days more arrive with it in England, thence it of Mexico. would be taken across the channel in a few hours Towards the latter part of the last century, an and immediately communicated through the mag- accidental circumstance gave it fresh importance. netic wires to all parts of the continent. And thus, The Vice-Roy Bucareli observing some brass pieby this route, intelligence might be conveyed from ces in or near the famous castle of San Juan de China through the United States to the people of Ulloa, with the stamp of Manilla foundry upon St. Petersburg and Moscow, and perhaps at no dis- them, wished to know how they were brought to tant day to Constantinople also, within forty-five the Gulf. It was ascertained from the archives of days.

the Imperial city of Tehuantepec that those heavy I see no reason why the rate of travel over the pieces had been transported from the Pacific to the rail roads, hereafter to be built in America, should | Gulf, partly by land and partly by water across not at least be equal to that of the English and that Isthmus. The route from the Pacific being European rail roads. I believe the usual rate in up the Chicapa across the rual-paso, thence by England to be about forty miles the hour. Over land over the grand Cordilleras to the head-waters come roads, it is more. But sopposing the rate of the Coatzacoalcas, which empties into the Gulf. over the great Atlantic and Pacific rail road to be At what sacrifice of money, time and men those only twenty miles the hour, the time from Monte-pieces were transported is not stated—but it should rey to Memphis would occupy three days. be recollected that the feat was performed when

This route has further the advantage of being at the Spanish galleons from Acapulco were ballasted once the most central and direct route that has with silver and laden with gold. ever been proposed from the United States to In 1814, the Spanish Cortes actually ordered the

canal to be made ; but this order produced no other The distance from Memphis by Monterey and result than a reconnoisance by Gen. Obregoso, the Great Circle, is only 7 per cent greater than it which I have before me in the very excellent work is by a “ bee line" drawn through the air from of De Mofras, entitled " Exploration de Territoire Memphis direct to Changhai.

de L' Oregon, Paris, 1844.” Although the GenIf you look to the long and much talked of canal eral's geodetic report was never completed, it gives, across the Isthmus of Darien to Panama, you will in the language of that intelligent writer, “ very find that a person from Memphis to China by that correct ideas of the nature of the ground and of route would, on making Cape St. Lucas the south- the difficulties it presents.” ern point of the Peninsula of California, be no I have also before me a MS. copy of the survey nearer to Changhai, in point of distance, than he made three or four years ago by Cayctano Moro, was the day he embarked at Memphis, notwith-in connexion with the grant by Santa Anna to Don standing that to reach Cape St. Lucas he would Jose Garay, for connecting the two oceans by cabare travelled opwards of 4,000 miles; and if he nal through this Isthmus. This MS. was obtained should go by the way of the Sandwich Islands, he by Commander McKenzie, U. S. N., at Mina-tïtwould, to reach China, have to perform a journey lan, from one of the assistants of the survey. It of 5,000 miles greater than would be required of was copied by Lieutenant May, U. S. N., by order bim on this new route by rail road and Great Cir- of Commodore Perry, and sent here, and is now in cle rig. Monterey.

the hands of the Engraver for publication. In the progressive spirit of the age, time has be- With these, and other sources of information to come to be reckoned as money ; and if there were guide me, I have attentively considered the praca canal already cut from Chagres to Panama, the ticability of a ship canal through the mountains of circuity of the route and the loss of time compar- Tehuantepec. ed with what is to be gained by the proposed line From sea to sea, the distance across, in a North from Memphis and Monterey, would, in time, cause and South direction, between the parallels of 16° the abandonment of that and the completion of this, and 18°, is rather less than 120 miles. By Moro's so far at least as raw silk and other small parcels MS., you can carry 9 feet water 150 miles up the of merchandize for England, travellers and the Coatzacoalcas, though other authorities put the people of the United States are concerned. head of schooner navigation at the Island of Ta

The route across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, canachipa, which is only 25 miles from the Gulf. though not so far out of the way as that by Pana- But taking the most favorable view which gives ma, is nevertheless quite a round-about way; the 9 feet for 50 miles, and commencing the canal at distance by it to China being over 2,000 miles the point proposed, which is about 15 miles further greater than it is from Memphis via. Monterey. up at the confluence of the Malatengo, there re

lo 1521, Cortes caused a survey to be made of' mains a circuitous distance of seventy odd miles

VOL. XIV-32

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