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from which we drink are becoming noxious and will only become a weed of larger growth: the polluted—the contagion will sweep over us with leaves will expand, the fruit will swell ; it may bethe current of destruction, if we do not cleanse come more tempting to the eye and more abundant; the sources from which the corruption flows. but the poison increases in quantity and intensity

But a small portion of our task is ended; we with the increase of the fruit. It is a remark of have still to investigate the tendencies of the Hippocrates that the food ministered to a sick body novel—to consider and weigh its aims—and to de- only feeds the disease, and thus, when the heart velop the connection of the characteristics which is infected, the nutriment afforded to the intellect we have specified with Bulwer's career as a nov. does but add to its capacity for evil. elist, and especially with the influences apprehended from Lucretia. We do not now design any for- As man, perhaps, the moment of his breath,

Receives the lurking principle of death; mal review of this particular work, and shall not, The young disease, which must subdue at length, therefore, prosecute our inquiries with the same Grows with his growth and strengthens with his strength; precise divisions, nor in the same order in which So, cast and mingled with his very frame, they are now indicated. Our attention will be first The mind's disease, its ruling passion, came : directed to the avowed purposes of the novel—the Each vital humor, which should feed the whole, absence of all identity between mental and moral Whatever warms the heart, or fills the head,

Soon flows to this, in body and in soul; culture—the raging lust for wealth and its effects As the mind opens and its functions spread, upon the social condition—and that impatience Imagination plies her dangerous art, which so strongly marks the feverish pursuit of all And pours it all upon the peccant part. desires in these latter days.

Nature its mother, habit is its nurse, Horace, with that singular sagacity and moral Wit, spirit, faculties, but make it worse,

Reason itself but gives it edge and power truth, which so strongly characterize his poems, As Heaven's blest beam turns vinegar more sour. and still more the lyric poetry of Greece—and which have made them treasuries of wisdom-Hor- The praises of Intellect have been so often and ace, in one of his noblest Odes, alluding to the in- so variously chanted,-especially since it began fluence of nature and education, has prudently re- its march, “beneath the flag of Lord Brougham marked,

and Vaux"—that the lower faculty of our weak

human nature has been permitted to engross nearly Doctrina * vim promovet insitam

all our care and sympathy, while we have been Rectique cultus pectora roborant:

shamefully inattentive to the claims of the higher Utcumque defecêre mores,

and nobler power. Is the servant above his masDedecorant bené nata culpæ.

ter? Is the intellect more worthy than the heart? And Lord Bacon agrees that “there is no stoud Certain high faculties of mind have been accorded nor impediment in the wit, but may be brought out to us, but they have been all placed by the scheme by fit studies ;" but neither of these great observers of Providence in subordination to the feelings of of human life would have admitted without modi- the heart. Our wishes determine the direction in fication the fallacy of later times, that the cultiva- which we sail ; the mind points the course, detertion of the intellect is alone a safeguard against mines the means, and enables us to accomplish the vice. It may, indeed, diminish the frequency of journey : crimes recognized by human laws—it may substi

On Life's vast ocean diversely we sail, tute, from motives of slippery policy, the vicious

Reason the card, but passion is the gale. career for the criminal offences which entail upon the perpetrator the penalties assigned by legisla. Thus, not from the mind, but from the heart springs tion. Yet even this is problematical. Certain, the virtuous or vicious character. however, it is, that it cannot transmute the de- The whole human race is linked together by the praved into the virtuous. The mind is but the possession of one common nature; but this bond of minister of the will : our studies, as our labors, are union does not consist in the powers of the intelguided by the passions and desires of the heart ; lect. Neither rank nor station, nor chance, nor and according as these be regulated or undiscip- fortune, elevate the heart of one man above anothlined, so will our aims and character be hallowed or er: there the peasant and the prince, the rustic corrupt. No culture can convert the deadly night- and the sage are alike. The only mark of distincshade into the rose : it may increase its size and tion is within ; and the purity or deprarity of the luxuriance, but it cannot change its nature. If the heart may be equally predicated of individuals in seeds of evil be implanted in the heart, and suffer- every class of society. In this respect, all orders ed to spring up and put forth leaves, the only reme- of men are placed by the hand of God upon the dy is to destroy the plant, and not to attempt by same platform : the only difference that is recogcultivation to make it other than it is. The earth nized is one that pervades all grades, independent may be stirred about its roots, and every device of station. It is true that “blind circumstanceemployed to enrich the soil, but the noxious weed' that unspiritual god"—if unresisted, may pervert

and corrupt those who under different contingen-, former time has the heavy rod of chastisement cies might have developed their powers in a virtu- more urgenily warned mankind to recall their footous manner. But in a healthy constitution, accus- steps from wandering in the giddy mazes of error, tomed to observe correct habits, the faculty of re- than at this present hour. The public taste is sistance grows with the necessity for its display. corrupted—its judgment impaired—its knowledge Thos, even in this case, the general law is not in- puffed up, arrogant, and unsatisfactory-and its fringed—and the natural equality of men is pre morals gradually decaying. When such is the served. But by the intellect one man is enabled case, can we yield to apathy? Is it not rather a to obtain preeminence over his fellows. This is time for the sedulous investigation of the causes of in consequence cultivated from pride, vanity or our folly and errors ? But as the undue cultivaambition ;—for the sake of place, power, wealth, tion of the intellect is one of the most prolific sousor reputation—rarely from the pure love of excel-ces of danger, let us examine further into its phelence, or the duty of its pursuit. The end, which, nomena. through its instrumentality may be attained, is It was a shrewd remark of an eminent genilesubstituted thus in the desires of individuals and man, that a flourishing literature seemed to spring in the estimation of the world, for the end at from a corrupt state of society. A paradox is which the intellect and the heart ought equally to never wholly true : it requires many modifications aim. With worldly passions and with worldly when we would apply it. There does, however, vers, we endeavor to invigorate the mind, to ex- appear to be some consanguinity, or at least coincitend the range of its capacities, and to enrich it dence between the iwo. They spring often from with abundant materials to work upon. Thus ar- the diversely operating influences of similar causes. tayed it goes forth to dazzle, and 100 frequently to It must, indeed, be considered remarkable, that every mislead. The mind engrosses all our care; the truly literary age has been accompanied or followtriumphs of the mind attract the admiration of men; ed by the prevalence of depravity. This striking and the March of Intellect is deemed the laudable phenomenon confirms what we have said above. phenomenon of a regenerated society. Meanwhile It is not owing to any necessary connection bethe moral character and the condition of the heart iween letters and immorality, for the former cultiand feelings have been strangely neglected. That vated under due restraints and in proper subordinapower which is evidently the chief both in dignity lion to the dictates of virtue, is beneficial and enand influence in the human microcosm, is ihrust nobling. But these restraints are, for the most either wholly out of sight, or is ranged in a subor- part, and especially in a literary age, disregarded. dinate rank. While we have been enlarging the The general admiration of mental power, with the cislern, we have neglected to cleanse the springs personal benefits which may be acquired by its whenee ihe waters flow. In our anxiety for quan- means. leads to the sedulous and too frequently extily

, we have been heedless of quality. We have clusive cultivation of the mind; and thus the natmistaken alike the destinies and constitution of urally less obtrusive and less dazzling virtues of the man. The habitudes of our ordinary thought and heart are thrown into deeper shade, and are almost conversation are framed under the constant, though forgotten. tot recognized influence of that false philosophy, which has inverted the laws of nature; and the

Nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit, coltivation of the intellect has been made exclu- says Horace; and to like purport, Ovid : sively or principally the object of our enlightened solicitude. In time this culture becomes absolute

Crede mihi, bene qui latuit, bene vixit, 15 exclusive in effect, if not so in theory : and the but this retiring virtue, so amorous of the shade, is most so perficial investigation into the state of the nearly unknown in the era of the March of Intelmodern world, will indicate how completely it has lect, for the exclusive cultivation of the mind genoverlaid the sedulous discipline of the heart. For-erates an anxiety for the reputation and fortune tunately by the action of that vis medicatrix, which which inay be achieved by its excellence. It feeds accompanies the operation of all the laws of Prov. and inflames ambition, and the impatient desire of idence, and either itself educes good out of evil, riches and distinction. It becomes the cynosure of of creates an alarm which should render man con- all eyes : all sing its eulogium and cry out in its scious of the necessity of remedying past blunders, praise ; and those who cannot speak intelligently, we can make no false step in reasoning which will will not the less vociferously cackle its commenno: injuriously affect us in life, and no error in mor-dations. Thus the more domestic virtues are slightals which will not contaminate our philosophy. ed; and in the eager pursuit of present eminence * Wherewithal a man sioneth, by the same also or profit, moral culture is habitually disregarded. shall be be punished :” and when the penalty comes Furthermore, it is a significant fact in the histoupon us, we may easily trace back its origin to the ry of the world, that with the diffusion of knowtransgression ; and knowing the transgression, it ledge, the circle of depravily has expanded, and resis with us to amend our ways. Truly, in no'its pestilential waters become deeper and darker.

VOL. XIV-31

The popularization of learning at Athens, which metaphysicians to their mistress. This porsuit, resulted from the labors of the sophists, was one however, (especially when followed by erroneous of the earliest symptoms and main instruments of or insufficient results, as has been uniformly the case her decay: and at no period was education more hitherto,) both encourages an over-estimate of the widely diffused through the Roman Empire than intellect; and is preëminently obnoxious to all the during the long ages of jus decline. Literature has blighting consequences of that fatal mistake. been a lamp that blazed for a moment with serene Moreover, while it engrosses our attention in ex. light, and then, as the flame grew larger, gleamed amining the machinery of the human mind, it makes with a murky ray, and threw around it dense clouds us wholly oblivious or neglectful of the motive of poisonous vapor.

In all cases the demoraliza- power, and all the checks and counter-checks of tion of literature has accompanied its diffusion, and the system. But we may almost say, that pore been attended by the violation of the principles of Ethics, as a science, not as a part of Christianity, art. The bitter, but spirited, and just censures of has scarcely made any important advance since Euripides, with which the Comedies of Aristopha- Aristotle wrote. Thus, not only has the culture of nes abound, will furnish abundant illustration and the intellect been hitherto unaccompanied by the confirmation of this law.

parallel cultivation of the heart; but it has beea Let it not be supposed that we by any means de- chiefly directed into those channels which diverge cry either Literature or the most sedulous intellec- most widely from the wholesome springs which tual culture. Far from us be such madness. There freshen and invigorate the moral character of man. is no necessary or irremediable connection between Everywhere, but especially in a country like this, these and immorality--their onion is merely con- where rank is unknown—where station affords no tingent. Their tendency is to this result, unless prestige of greatness—where wealth is not acknow. their effects be duly constrained and directed by ledged as conferring legitimate influence—it is the authority of a higher law. The pernicious dangerous to consider mental ability and attaioconsequences have followed from inattention to the ments as the first great requisite. The man of limits within which the mind should be cultivated, greatest talents is not, therefore the best: Inteland the control to which it should be rigidly sub- lect, like fire, is an excellent servant; but a terrijected. But the exclusive or overweening cultiva- ble master. According as we use or abuse it, is tion of the intellect has ever led, and must ever our capacity for good or for evil increased. The lead to ruin. We should add too that when the true rale, as the true democratic principle, is to fever of literary ambition spreads like an epidemic estimate the man by himself, independent of staover a whole people, there is a wonderful proclivi- tion, fortune, or talent : if he be good, these things ty in society to disregard all precautions, and to increase his capacity for doing good : if he be bad, invite the distemper in its most virulent form. these things augment his capacity of evil. Thas, When all are sick, who shall be the physician ?- true philosophy, sound politics and religion, all when all are equally unconscious of the plague, unite in inculcating the maxim that first must be who will dream of the necessity of seeking his aid ? acquired, wisdom, or the healthy discipline of the And thus society sinks beneath the weight of the heart, and that all other things are only additions moral pestilence, wholly incognizant of its presence. thereunto. When Pompeii was buried beneath the lava of Ve. Perhaps

, if we were to examine more closely, sovius, the storm of death, according to Bulwer, we should find that the Physical Sciences have fell upon those who imagined not the proximity of been so sedulously cultivated, chiefly on account of danger.

their intimale relation to the physical wants and The tendency and the result of unchastened de pecuniary profits of the human family. But amid votion to intellectual pursuits have been particularly the crowded populations of Europe, the prosecumanifested in the modern world. Lord Bacon's tion of monelary results has already over-shot the great reformation in the processes of physical sci- mark: the accumulation of wealth is immense, but ence, gave a singular impulse to scientific pursuits. the people are nevertheless destitute: nations are His teaching rendered science more splendid and overflowing with riches, yet every where are porattractive, and also more prolific of fruits. Hence erty and grinding want. To borrow an api illusit became, and continues to be, the load-star of the tration from Carlyle, and with him apply it to Eng. greatest minds of Christendom. Its influence has land; “ Midas has acquired the fatal gift of tornbeen felt in every department of human knowledge, ing all he touches into gold; but when he would even when its operation may be least appreciable. have bread, he finds no food but only gold." In But those studies which have more immediate re- the same manner intellect has gone astray : it has lation to the feelings and character of man have achieved mighty and splendid triumphs, but " its since Bacon's day been sadly neglected. Meta- fruits are ashes :" for all its victories have burried physics, it is true, has been abundanıly studied, on rather than checked demoralization. It has so though with trifling advantage. Ixion and the lent itself to the ruling passion of the last few cenCloud furnish the symbol of the addresses paid by 'turies-has so ministered to the feverish lust for

wealth, that it has now become the most magnifi. I ment and coronation of mammon as the dominant cent monument of homan blindness, and proved lord of the civilized world. how otterly rojnous may be even the cultivation of Under the operation of such combined influenthe mental powers, when not controlled by higher ces, virtue, skill, science, learning, reputation, hoprinciples. It is much to be feared that since the nor-everything, in fine, which in times past has reformation the generations of the world have mis- been most highly prized, has lost its ancient fascitaken the true path in intellect, in morals, in poli- nation, and money alone has become the common ties, and, if we judge from the continued discord object of adoration. If intellectual, or other exof the secis, even in religion.

cellence is pursued, it is sought neither for itself, The connection which exists between the modern nor for the tranquil pleasures which it may bring : devotion to intellectual pursuits, and the wonderful it is desired but as the means to an ignoble enddevelopment of the pecuniary resources of nations, it is valued only as it leads to the acquisition of brings us to the consideration of another of the ob- wealth. We have wooed and won the false Florijects contemplated by Bulwer in the composition mel: and the result is bitterness and distress. of Lucretia.

Diva Pecunia sits enshrined in the sanctuary of This is the increasing love of money, and its in

our hearts; to her every knee is bent, every ori

son addressed; and to her all the fruits of merit foence upon the morals of society.

are offered up as a welcome sacrifice, and a proThe multiende of new inventions facetiously piliation to ensure her smiles. The world cordialtermed useful—the rapid development of mechan-ly recognizes the claims of Mammon : ical arts, commerce, and manufactures—the multiplication of artificial wants supplied by new artifi

God of the world and worldlings I me call, ees—and the increase of physical comforts for

Great Mammon, greatest god below the skye, those who are able to pay for them—these form the That of my plenty poure out unto all, sum of advantages bestowed upon society at large And unto none my graces do envye : by the increasing labor of the last four centuries.

Riches, renowme, and principality, With reference to these things, more than half the

Honour, estate, and all this worldės good,

For which men swinck and sweat incessantly jorisprudence and legislation of every civilized

Fro me do flow into an ample flood, country, has been framed--until by legal legerde- And in the hollow earth bave their eternall brood. main ten talents have been given to him who had len--fire to him who had five--and from him who

Wherefore if me thou deigne to serve and sew, bath nothing has been taken away that which he At thy commaund, lo! all these mountaines bee; had. For the sake of these objects, old codes have Or it to thy great mind, or greedy vew, been cancelled, and new principles of law intro

All these may not suffise, thern shall to thee duced. They have mingled with other coöperating

Ten times so much be nombred francke and free. influences in obliterating the privileges of rank, remodelling the constitution of society and alter

The degrading offer was scorned by Sir Guyon, ing the political condition of the world. The de- it is thankfully welcomed by our age, and so far sire of wealth has been the moving agent in direc- has the world already gone in its adoration of mamting the exertions of those whose lives and ener- mon, that it is ready to imitate the degradation of gies have been expended in the various occupations

its god. of productive industry. The object has been fully achieved :-diligence and perseverance have met

Mammon-the least erected spirit that fell

From heaven--for even in heaven his looks and thoughts with their reward. Immense riches have been

Were always downward bent; admiring more acquired by commerce and manufactures ;-and

The riches of heaven's pavement, trodden gold, science, by becoming practical, has lent wondrous

Than aught divine, or holy else enjoyed aid in augmenting the magnitude of this result. In vision beatific. Thas has arisen the class of the capitalists, which has sobjected to itself the industry by which it was We might fancy that this was merely a violent enriched, and has become, not merely a quart état, return of an intermittent fever, for the world has but the ruling power in every state. “ The House always been dazzled with gold and silver, and hanof Austria is in favor of war," said an English kered after the fleshpots of Egypt, but the disease newspaper, a dozen years ago, “but the House of seems now to have become chronic, and leaves Rothschild is against it, and there will consequently little hope of its early cure. We might reasonabe no war.” The growth of national prosperity-- bly hope for some alleviation of the plague, if the the progress of the sciences—and “the diffusion of causes which have occasioned it, and which minisuseful knowledge," have attained their end, but— ter to its strength, were not active, deep-seated, we are again reminded of the wisdom of Solomon, and daily increasing in vigor. The old-fashioned that " wherewital a man sinneth, by the same also system of ranks, orders, and classes of society has shall be be punished"—that end is the enthrone-'given place to relations in many respects more ad

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mirable and more consonant with human develop. To desires already keenly excited, a singular de

But a black strand is entwined with every gree of fretfulness and restlessness has been comwhile Ihread spun by the Fates, and with the dis-municated by the feverish spirit of the age. The appearance of the regularly graduated system have introduction of steam and its application to mavanished all those numberless links of mutual and chinery and manufactures in so many forms have intricate interdependence which bound men 10- given inwonted rapidity to our conceptions and gether in social harmony and comparative content- our efforts 10 realize them. It is not an empty ment. Then no class nor individual was indepen- metaphor to term this the age of steam, and to atdent of the rest-they all clustered and hung to-tribute to men the habit of thinking by steam. gether-all lived for the common benefit-content We think, resolve, and perform under high-presto discharge the duties of their position without sure action. We endeavor to imitate in the moral any solicitous anxiety for increase of wealth or and intellectual world the velocity of movement elevation, in consideration of the security, the sym-eshibited to our eyes in the material. We would pathy, and certain support which they received. fain arrive at the complete accomplishment of our These things had their day—their adaptation to the plans with the same rapidity with which we reach wants of men gradually diminished—they became the end of our journey. Thus, in our anticipa. antiquated, and were justly thrust aside. But when tjons, no protracted future is suffered to intervene we snapped the old links which held together the between the project and its realization: the fullframework of society, we forgot or neglected to inent of the hope must follow its origination as supply their place with others. Money has usurp- quickly as the sound of the thunder follows the ed this function, and is now our only substitute. glare of the lightning. It cannot cement together the parts of the political The vast expansion of commerce and manufac. fabric, but it can command the coöperation of others tures-the numberless happy applications of scifor a limited time and a definite purpose. It is a ence to the aris—the new combinations of machine. go-between equally respected by both parties, but ry—the fortunate speculations which have occur. incapable of uniting them by any permanent rela. red amid the shifting sands of modern policy—the tions. Nay, it is ultimately dissociating in its ten- energy, industry, and skill manifested—have condency, and disorganizing in its remote effects, for curred to furnish many opportunities and examples the party who gives and the party who receives are of the sudden acquisition of immense wealth. equally independent of each other before and atier These instances are diligently treasured up in our the transfer is made. It is a menstruum in which memory and they impress upon our impetuous deall the elements float, and for which all have the sires the appearance of feasibility. We are josta strongest elective affinity. The relative strength ling each other in the same headlong race—all of the affinities of each varies with the shadows on striving to reach the same goal. A wild fever of the dial : the other elements, however, cannot com- speculation has seized npon us all—money has bebine together into organic systems, in consequence come the main desire as the absolute necessity of of their constantly reiterated combinations with man—we have seen others acquire wealth at a sinthe common medium. The alchemisis declared gle bound-we remember only successes and are gold to be the universal solvent, and such is begin- blind to failures-we all anticipate the immediate ning to be the experience of the world. Still it is accomplishment of our schemes for its attainmentthe universal substitute for faith, allegiance, dury, we expect an abundant fruitage to follow all but feeling, and as such the great motive power of life, simultaneously the first feeble blossoming of hope– and the first absolute requisite of existence. Mo- and instead of contenting ourselves with moderate ney, or money's worth, can alone command labor or success, or with gradual advancement, we are foud : the same thing is the sole charter by which seized with a mad vertigo, and leap forward foolthe poor inan claims his bread, and the rich man ishly and fretfully to grasp at once the golden fiece ensures the service of the poor. Impassive, im- which is the prize of all our dreams. In his haste personal, immutable in its character, it repels while Ixion embraced the cloud instead of the Goddess. it attracts, and attracts while it repels, it is the the tempting fruit escaped the hands of the doomed universal solvent of all social ties; and the first, Tantalus when apparently within his reach-and Jast, imperative necessity of all. On this basis the the return of Jason with the golden fleece was the foundations of our modern society insecurely rest. commencement of a career of depravity and crime

. The painful consciousness of this absolute ne- We have overlooked the lessons of sober reason, cessity is directing the aspirations of all towards and the whole world has become infected with the the same end. The advice of the satirist is ever same wild, impatient, and uneasy lust of gold. In sounding seriously in our ears :

place of the healthy current of our natural blood, an unstable tide of quicksilver throbs furiously

through our veins. Si possis recte, si non, qnocunque rodo, rem.

(To be Continued.)

rem,

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