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to its rulers may be inferred from the fact, that in tion of the human mind, and deprive it of every their military enterprises, frequently as many as feeling and affection that renders our nature amiaseven helots attended each Spartan soldier, thus ble and lovely. constituting an army something like those of the The child was torn from its parents at a tender middle ages.

age and consigned to a stern and cruel master to There was one peculiarity in the Spartan mon- be trained up for the State--his whole life was archy that deserves to be noticed, at least, for its spent in the drudgery and hardship of military desposingularity. They had throughout their whole tism, and all the virtue he was required or expected national existence two separate and distinct royal to possess, was the lowest form of brute courage. families, each furnishing a monarch--so that there He displayed indeed upon the battle-field an obstiwere always two kings on the throne. It would nacy and a fortitude that excites our astonishment, be natural to expect that confusion would arise sometimes our admiration, but when he fell covfrom such a system, and the result shows that they ered with wounds for his country's glory, that unofien experienced its evils and inconvenient effects. feeling country suffered no tear to be shed for his

It has been observed, that the form of govern- fate--his mother, his wife, and his children were ment originally established in the several Greek taught to mourn, only when he had not madly and Siates was, in almost every instance, a monarchy-- rashly sought a bloody grave. Let such as can, confined to one royal line, but requiring an elec- admire laws and institutions that gave indeed a sta. tion from the members of the ruling class, to fill bility to the government, but fostered such feelings the throne when left vacant. The fate of these as these. We own, that to us the wildest outmonarchies was also pretty generally the same, at break of the stormy dennocracy of Athens is far Jeast in a large number of the States. The foun- less revolting than this calm of despotism--despodations of the throne were gradually undermined, lism not of one, but of a hundred-despotism pot and its power usurped, by a small and wealthy class of an individual, but of a class. of land owners, who formed for a while a self-con- Such was Sparta at the beginning, and such she stituted ruling body. This oligarchical form usu- continued throughout the long period of her politially lasted, until blinded by passion and power, its cal existence. We search in vain through the antyranny became loo odions to be endured, and the nals of this long period for any of those bright commonalty rose and burled from their seats the names that are endeared to us by all the associahated aristocracy. Then succeeded a stormy de- tions of Grecian art and Grecian genius. We find mocracy, swayed and guided by a class of design-indeed an occasional instance of noble and exalted ing demagogues, whose interest it was always to heroism-and heaven forbid that we should fail to keep the people in a tumult, that their own insidi- render a just tribute to the memory of Leonidas. ous arts might not be discerned. Such a state of But his glory belongs to himself and not to his affairs as this afforded a favorable opportunity for country-her courage was generally as selfish as some master hand to seize the helm and guide the it was wonderful. She managed to be a day too vessel of State--still impelled onward by the blasts late for Marathon, and fought at Salamis only by of popular commotion, but controlled and directed compulsion. in all its movements by one commanding genius. / The rise of Athens was much later than that of And when he, who thus gained the ascendancy, Sparta. Situated in a barren and rocky country, united to his great abilities virtue and patriotism, and apparently denied almost every physical adthe condition of the commonwealth was perhaps vantage, she was left to rely alone on the restless really happier and more prosperous than at any other energy and indomitable spirit of her gifted sons. time. Such, in some degree, was Pisistratus, and Her early history is comparatively devoid of intersuch, above all others, was Pericles--a name in- est, if any thing connected with the magic name separably connected with the brightest age of Athe- of Athens can be. nian genius.

About two hundred and fifty years after the peSuch revolutions as these never occurred in the riod assigned to the legislation of Lycurgus, we unchanging State of Sparta, and such names as find a code of laws prepared by Draco for the gorthese never brightened the dull and monotonous ernment of Attica. Of the substance of these annals of her relentless tyranny.

laws, or the changes affected by him in the conIt is a curious problem, and one which we do stitution, not very much is known, except that the not here pretend to solve, by what means the in- penal part of his code was unusually severe. It stitutions attributed to Lycurgus maintained their was the first system of laws in Greece, that had ascendancy so long over the minds of the people. been committed to writing, and was aptly said to Congenial to their feelings, they surely never were. I have been written in blood instead of ink. This Laws and instilutions such as those that warred severity accorded not with the feelings of the peoagainst every feeling of the human heart, might stifle ple, and was probably one cause that led to their and suppress, but could never eradicate them, might speedy overthrow. Soon after this, the great lawaller, but could never change the whole constilu-'giver Solon appears on the stage. Entrusted with

ties great.

foll powers by his countrymen, he framed a code time to draw them to a close, though we must leave of laws admirably adapted to the genius of the the chequered history of this wonderful people just people. He began by passing an act of relief to at its most interesting point. the persons of debtors who had been reduced into slavery by their creditors under the laws of Draco. He then divided the citizens into four classes, and apportioned the barden of supporting the State, according to the pecuniary ability of the different classes, and according to the participation which

DEATH OF CARDINAL MAZARIN. they bad in the management of the government. He established also a legislative body, styled the

BY MRS. L. H. SIGOURNEY. council of four hundred, to deliberate on all public affairs, and remodeled the judiciary body known as

Two months,” the question'd bealer said, the Areopagus. A system of measures that, tried

And turn'd him from the place, even by the acknowledged principles of our own free

While every tint of color fled government, will be found to afford many of the

That dark Italian face,surest safeguards to the liberties of the people, and

Heart-struck was he, whom France obey'd, compared with the other systems of that age, will

Peasant, and prince, and peer, command our most profound admiration.

And with the clank of fetters made About this time the name of Pisistratus begins

Rich music for his ear. to catch our attention. An individual destined to play a conspicuous part in the history of his coun

Proud Ann of Austria lowest bent try. Though much younger, he was the cotempo

With subjugated soul, rary of Solon, and connected with him also by ties

And Ludovicus Magnus scarce of relationship.

Withstood his stern control, His genius was bold and aspiring, and his abili

While distant nations fear'd the man His mind was of that commanding Who rul'd in court, and bower, natore so well calculated to take the lead in a pop- Yet those slight words dissolv'd the spell ular goveroment like that of Athens. Solon saw

Of all his pomp and power. the danger to the free constitution from the daring ambition of his kinsman, and attempted to avert it, Before him pass'd his portion'd line, but failed, perhaps fortunately.

Mancini's haughty race, We cannot approve the means by which Pisis- Jewels and coronets they wore, tratos made himself master of the State, but it is With cold and thankless grace; highly probable that it was a fortunate event for the And for a payment poor as this, eity. It was a struggle between several violent Had he his conscience griev'd? factions for the mastery, and he certainly made a And marr'd with perjur'd hand the cross far better use of his power than either of the oth- His priestly vow receiv'd ? ers would have done. He was twice expelled and as often reinstated himself by the unconquerable Beside him strode a spectral form, energy of his character. He lent the whole force Still whispering in his ear, of his genius to the improvement and development “ Make restitution !" fearful sound, of all the arts, adorned the city with many imper

That none beside might hear; ishable monuments, and above all, he made the Make restitution !" But the spoil collection of all the Homeric poems we now have.

From earth and ocean wrung, We have now reached the dawn of a great era

By countless chains and wreathed bands, in the history of Greece, and in the history of the

Around his spirit clung. world—the era of the Persian invasion--the era

Two months ! two months !" these frightful words from which Europe dates her intellectual superiority. We should like to enter upon the history

Could all his peace destroy, of this stirring age-to watch the issue of the

And poison the enameld cup

Where sparkled every joy, great contest that is about to take place between a small band of freemen and the “ victim hordes" of

They met bim in the courtly hall, Asia. We should like to follow the glorious and

They silenc'd song and tale,

Like the dead fingers on the wall, dazzling career upon which Athens is about to enter-to sketch the character of some of those

That turn'd Belshazzar pale. master-spirits that had laid upon them the destinies Once in his velvet chair he dream'd, of nations, and were not found wanting in the hour But rocking to and fro, of trial; but the length to which these desultory His restless form and heaving breast remarks have already extended, warns us that it is Betray'd a rankling woe.


Two months ! two months !” he murmur'd deep, honour, favour, &c. But the other changes ad. Those fatal words were there,

vocated by the “School Friend” are much newer; To grave upon his broken sleep

and are, as yet, it seems to us, far from being enThe image of despair.

litled to claim the sanction of that despot, Uncounted wealth his coffers told,

Usus, quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi. From rifled king and clime,

However—the essayist in the Cincinnati paper His flashing gems might empires huy,

deserves to be heard with respect : and we give But not an hour of time,

his second number without further preface. No! not a moment. Inch by inch

(From the School Friend.)
Where'er he bent his way,

The grim pursuer stedfast gain'd
Upon the shrinking prey.

In a late article on the subject of Spelling, it

was shown, as we think, conclusively, that the law That pulseless hand a casket clutch'd,

of progress, and the practical character of the presTho' Death was near his side,

ent age, require, that all changes should be in favor And 'neath the pillow lurk'd a scroll

of simplicity. It is a matter of fact, that numerHe might no longer hide ;

ous and great changes have been made in our lanWhile buried heaps of hoarded gain

guage, all tending to simplify its construction. Let In rust and darkness laid,

us take, as an illustration, a few common words, Bore witness to the Omniscient Eye

and trace the changes through which they have · Like an accusing sbade.

passed, within the last two or three hundred years.

The left hand column below gives the spelling But on, the King of Terrors came

which was common in the 16th century ; the next, With strong, relentless hold,

that of a subsequent period ; and the right hand, And shook the shuddering Miser loose

the present method of spelling the same words: From all his idol gold,



And poorer than the peasant hind
That humbly ploughs the sod,


Murther Murder

Went forth that disembodied mind

Thynge Thinge Thing
To atand before its God.


Whiche Which






Slouthe Slouth Sloth

Slough Slowe Slow

Musicke Musick Music, &c., &c. Under this head several essays have appeared in the “ School Friend,"* vindicating some recent

The above examples are selected at random, the changes in the mode of spelling many English

first that happen to meet the eye, and form a fair words : changes which mainly consist in simplify- specimen of the nature of the changes which have ing orthography, by striking out letters hitherto been made, and are still in progress in our language, deemed essential. Doctor Johnson's retention of

when in the hands of men of good sense and ink in public, &c., to which many have adhered even


Let us now examine some of the more modern within the last twenty years, is now almost universally exploded. It is not to be denied, that many bear a part in advancing or retarding. In the left

changes, and those which we, as individuals, may high authorities have also revolted from another usage, held orthodox by him and by his successors

hand line we will show old spelling, and in the right till very recently—the employment of u in colour, the different sets of words, and quote from Cobb's

hand, the modern improvement. We will classify The School Friend is an excellent monthly paper of 16

Spelling Book for the old method. pages octavo, published and circulated gratuitously by


Old method. Modern method. Messrs. W. B. Smith & Co., Cincinnati. It is among the wonders of the day. About 3 of the pages are filled with


Cubic advertisements of works published: the rest is reading mat.


Stoic ter, almost all valuable, relative to schools, education, &c.


Tunic It is sent, without price, to all teachers, school-commis.


Antic sioners, and others, who will write to the publishers (post.


Classic paid) and request it. We hope and believe they find their account in this liberality : and if they do, it is a striking


Epic example of the way in wbich enlightened self-interest works


Music for the public good.


Public, &c.&c.


2d. Favour

Favor sing, and never know when to double the final letLabour


ter except by an arbitrary act of the memory. This Odour


generalization of principles, this enlarging of analVapour

Vapor ogies, is a very important advance towards simplifiArbour

Arbor cation. Of this character, also, is the change which Ardour

Ardor is in progress in the following class of words:



4th, Old method. Modern method.


Clamor, &c.



In these two classes of words, Mr. Cobb, in bis


Theater, &c. New Spelling Books, has omitted the k and the u, though, as he states, “ Not in consequence of a Of this class of words, which are transferred conviction that analogy or sound philological rea- from the French, a portion have received an Engsons require it; but from a conviction that the lish dress, as, chamber, disaster, diameter, disorder, practice and habit of omitting them, particularly charter, monster, tender, tiger, enter, fever, &c., the letter k, has become too firmly rooted to be from the French words, chambre, disastre, diameofercome.” We expect, if we should live much tre, disordre, chartre, monstre, tendre, tigre, entre, longer, lo see the same acknowledgment and re- fevre, &c. A proper generalization of the princitraction with regard to the following classes of ple requires that they should all be treated alike, words with which we continue our list. In these, and this adds another feature of simplicity. Anoththe old method is still followed in Cobb's New er class is as follows : Spelling Book, and other works. We refer to Mr. Cobb thus especially, because he presents it as

5th. Old method. Modern method. a point particularly recomencing his works, that Defence, defensive Defense, defensive they adhere closely to the old method of spelling, Expence, expensive Expense, expensive wbich is so rapidly becoming obsolete. We be- Offence, offensive Offense, offensive lieve, that very soon even he will say of these, Pretence, pretension, Pretense, pretension, &c. also, " that the practice and habit has become too firmly rooted to be overcome !!"

In these words, by the old method, we have the

primitive spelled in one way, and the derivative in 3rd. Old method. Modern method.

another, as, defence, defensive, &c., while in the Traveller Traveler

modern method the spelling is uniform. Besides, Travelling Traveling

these words are derived from Latin words, which Travelled Traveled

contain an s, as defensio, offensio, &c. Of a simDoellist Duelist

ilar character are the following spellings :

6th. Old method.

Modern method.
Cancelling Canceling

Connect, connexion Connect, connection Quarrelling Quarreling, &c. Reflect, reflexion Reflect, reflection

Inflect, inflexion Inflect, inflection In the preceding three classess and their deriva. Defeci, deflexion, &c. Deflect, deflection, &c. tions, there are not less than one thousand words, in each of which we save a letter, and thus throw We will close this article by the addition of a out of our language at least one thousand letters, few words miscellaneously arranged, and leave it which are entirely useless. But this is by no to the candid reader, in view of the principles and means the greatest advantage of the plan. We illustrations presented, to determine which system avoid exceptions to rules, and thus generalize prin- is best adapted to the practical uses for which lanciples. The fewer the exceptions to any rule, the guage was intended, and for which it must, sooner easier it is to apply the rule and to learn the ex- or later, be thoroughly fitted. ceptions. If all words of a certain class end in

Old method. or, it is much easier to remember the method of

Modern method. spelling them, than if some of thein end in or, and


Jail othes in our. If, also, we know that in adding a


Plow syllable, as in travel er, duel-ist, harras-ing, the


Mosk final letter is never doubled when not under the ac


Sythe cent, as in remit-ting, &c., we have a rule without


Cloke exceptions. But by the old method we have smat


Diarrhea ler-ing and travel-ling, blossom-ing and harras- |


Subpena, &c.




and low, of which the fluted jambs were united at CHARLOTTE CORDAY.

the summit by an arch, permitted the view of the

worn steps of a spiral staircase which mounted 10 HER BIOGRAPHY, TRANSLATED FROM THE HISTOIRE | the upper story. Two windows with cross-bars, DES GIRONDINS PAR A. DE LAMARTINE,

of which the octagonal glass was enchased in frames of lead, gave a feeble light to the staircase

and the vast and naked apartments. The pale light BY WM. BOULWARE, LATE CHARGE D'AFFAIRES OF THE U. S.

imprinted, through this antiquity and this obscurity,

on the dwelling, an appearance of dilapidation, of No writer in the range of modern French Literature is

mystery and of melancholy, which the imagination better known than Alphonse de Lamartine and no charac of man loves to see extended as a winding-sheet ter that appeared upon the bloody and crowded stage of the over the cradles of great thonghts and over the French Revolution is invested with so sad an interest as abodes of great natures. It is there, that lived the beautiful, the accomplished, the devoted Charlotte Cor. at the commencement of 1793, a grand-daughter day. We commend the following article, therefore, for the of the great French tragedian, Pierre Corneille. graces of the composition and the interest of the subject. Poets and heroes are of the same race. There is The History of the Girondists is, undoubtedly, the greatest no other difference between them than that between production of Lamartine and the elegance and fidelity of thought and action. The one does what the other the translation we here present will be admitted by all who conceives. But it is the same thought. Women have read the original. It is rendered the more acceptable are naturally courageous as the one and enthusiasfrons the fact that the passage from the History, embodying tic as the other. Poetry, heroism and love are of the Life of Charlotte Corday, has never yet been laid be the same blood. fore the public in an English version. Two volumes have been issued from the press of Harper & Brothers, reprinted from Bohn's Library edition, translated by H. T. Ryde, but they bring down the History no farther than the im

III. prisonment of the Duc d'Orleans.-[Ed. Mess.

This house belonged to a poor widow without children, aged and infirm, named Madame de Bretle

ville. With her, there lived for some years a young But while Paris, France, the leaders and the arrelation, whom she had received and brought op to mies of the factions prepared thus to tear in pieces sustain her old age and afford her company in the republic, the shade of a great thought passed her isolation. That young girl was then twentyover the spirit of a young girl and prepared to frus- four years of age. Her beauty, grave, serene, trate events and men, in casting the arm and the and collected, although brilliant, seemed to have life of a woman across the destiny of the Revolu- contracted the impression of this austere abode, tion. One might have said that Providence wished and of this retired life, even to the bottom of her to sport with the grandeur of the work, in the fee- heart. There was in her something of an appa. bleness of the hand, and delighted in contrasting rition. The inhabitants of the quarter, who saw the two fanaticisms in the struggle hand to hand: her come forth on Sunday, with her old aunt, to the one under the hideous features of the ven- accompany her to church, or who had a glimpse of geance of the people in Marat; the other under her through the door, reading for long hours in the the celestial beauty of love of country in a Jeanne court, seated upon the steps of the fountain in the d'Arc of liberty; the one and the other yet meet- sun, recount that their admiration of her was mining at the end in their wandering, at the same act,gled with prestige and respect. It may be, that it murder, and resembling unfortunately before pos

was the radiation of a strong thought, which ioterity, not in the object, but in the means-not in timidates the eye of the vulgar; it may be, the atthe physiogoomy, but in the hand ; not in the spirit, mosphere of the soul diffused over the features ; but in the blood !

it may be, the presentiment of a tragic desting which breaks out in advance upon the countenance.

This young girl was of an elevated stature, yet without surpassing the ordinary height of the large

and slender women of Normandy. Natural grace In a large and populous street, which crosses the and dignity marked as an interior rhythm her step town of Caen, the capital of Normandy, and at that and her movement. The ardor of the South was time, centre of the Girondin insurrection, was seen mingled in her tint with the coloring of the women at the bottom of a court, an ancient house with of the North. Her hair seemed black, when it gray walls, discolored by the rains and reft by time. was attached in mass around her head, or when This house was called the Grand-Manoir. A foun- it opened in iwo waves upon her forehead. It aptain with a margin of stone, grown green with moss, peared glittering with gold at the extremity of the occupies an angle of the conrt. A door, narrow'eresses, as the head of wheat is more deeply col.


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