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The Pequots were first defeated and then exter- | to those who gave some signs of deserving them. minated, and their heroic King Philip, a patriot The name “Mr.” was allowed to those who had according to his own standard, was hunted like taken the degree of Master of Arts at College, a wild beast, his body quartered and set on and also to professional men, eminent merchants, poles, his head exposed as a trophy for twenty military officers, and mates of vessels ; and their years on a gibbet in Plymouth, and one of his wives and daughters monopolized the epithet hands sent to Boston: then the ministers re- “Mrs.” Mr. Josiah Plastow, when he bad turned thanks, and one said that they had prayed stolen four baskets of corn from the Indians, the bullet into Philip's heart. Nay, it seems was degraded into plain Josiah. “Mr." seems that in 1677, on a Sunday in Marblehead, “the to have meant simply “My Sir," and the clergy women, as they came out of the meeting-house, were often called '* Sir” merely, a title given fell upon two Indians, that had been brought also to college graduates, on Commencement in as captives, and in a tumultous way very programmes, down to the time of the Revolubarbarously murdered them," in revenge for tion. And so strong was the Puritan dislike to the death of some fishermen : a moral application the idolatry of saints' names, that the Christian which certainly gives a singular impression of Apostles were sometimes designated as Sir Paul, the style of gospel prevailing inside the meeting. Sir Peter, and Sir James. house that day.
In coming to the private affairs of the Puritan These were some of the labours of the clergy. divines, it is humiliating to find that anxieties But no human being lives without relaxation, about salary are of no modern origin. The and they may have had theirs. True, “minis. highest compensation I can find recorded is that ters have little to joy in, in this world,” wrote old of John Higginson in 1671, who had £160 Norton; and one would think 80, to read the voted him “in country produce," which he was dismal diaries, printed or manuscript, of those glad, however, to exchange for £120 in solid days. “I can compare with any man living for cash. Solid cash included beaver-skins, black fears," said Hooker. “I have sinned myself and white wampum, beads, and musket-balls, into darkness," said Bailey. “Many times / value one farthing. Mr. Woodbridge in New have I been ready to lay down my ministry, bury at this same time had £60, and Mr. Epes thinking God had forsaken me." "I was preached in Salem for twenty shillings a Sunalmost in the suburbs of hell all day." Yet day, half in money and half in provisions. who can say that this habit of agonizing intro- Holy Mr. Cotton used to say that nothing was spection wholly shut out the trival enjoyments cheap in New England but milk and ministers. of daily life? Who drank, for instance, that Down to 1700, Increase Mather says, most sala. twelve gallons of sack and that six gallons ofries were less than £100, which he thinks white wine which the General Court thought it " might account for the scanty harvests enjoyed convenient that the Auditor should send, "as by our farmers." He and his son Cotton both a small testimony of the Court's respect, to the tell the story of a town where “two very emi. reverend assembly of Elders at Cambridge,” nent ministers were only allowed £30 per an. in 1644? Did the famous Cambridge Platform num” and “the God who will not be mocked rest, like the earth in the Hebrew cosmology, made them lose £300 worth of cattle that year." upon the watera-strong waters? Was it only The latter also complains that the people were the Derry Presbyterians who would never give very willing to consider the ministers the stars, up a pint of doctrine nor a pint of rum ? It is rather than the mere lamps, of the churches, startling to remember that in 1685 it was voted, provided they, like the stars, would shine with. on occasion of a public funeral, that “some out earthly contributions. person be appointed to look after the burning He also calls the terms of payment, in one of of the wine and the heating of the cider," and his long words, “Synecdotical Pay,"-in alluto hear that on this occasion there were thirty- sion to that rhetorical figure by which a part is two gallons of wine and still more of cider, with used for the whole. And apparently various one hundred and four pounds of that ensnaring causes might produce this synecdoche. For ! accessory, sugar. Francis Higginson, in writing have seen an anonymous “Plea for Ministers back to the mother-country that one sup of New of the Gospel," in 1706, which complains that England's air was better than a whole draught “ young ministers have often occasion in their of Old England's ale, gave convincing proof preaching to speak things offensive to some of that he had tasted both beverages. But, after the wealthiest people in town, on which occasion all, the very relaxations of the Puritan minister they may withold a considerable part of their were more spiritual than spirituous, and to send maintenance." It is a comfort to think how forth a good Nineteenthly from his own lips | entirely this source of discomfort, at least, 16 was more relishing than to have the best Double now eradicated from the path of the clergy; X go in.
and it is painful to think that there ever was a In spite of the dignity of this influential class, period when wealthy parishioners did not enjoy they were called only Elders for a long time. the delineation of their own sins. Titles were carefully adjusted in those days. Yet the Puritan divine could cominonly afford The commonalty bore the appellations of Good- not only to keep house, but to keep horse like man and Goodwife, and one of Roger Williams's wise, and to enjoy the pet professional felicity offences was his wishing to limit these terms of printing his own sermong. As to the last privilege there could have been no great trouble, easiest room in hell." But he wedded the ladys for booksellers were growing rich in New Eng. and they were apparently as happy as if he had land as early as 1677, not that it is always an not been a theologian ; and I have seen the inevitable inference that authors are, and Cote quaint little heart-shaped locket he gave her, ton Mather published three hundred and eighty- | bearing an anchor and a winged heart and two different works for his own share. Books “ Thine forever.” were abundant enough at that day, though Let us glance now at some of the larger crosses somewbat grim and dingy, and two complete of the Puritan minister. First came a “ young Puritan libraries are preserved in the rich col- brood” of heretics to torment him. Gorton's lection of the American Antiquarian Society at followers were exasperating enough; they had Worcester; without whose treasures, let me to be confined in irons separately, one in each add, this modest monograph never could have town, on pain of death, if they preached their been written. As for the minister's horse, the doctrines, -and of course they preached them. moral sentiment of the community protected But their offences and penalties were light, comhim faithfully; for a man was fined in Newbury pared with those of the Quakers. When the for “ killing our elder's mare, and a special Quakers assembled by themselves, their private good beast she was.” The minister's house doors might be broken open,-a thing which was built by the town; in Salem it was “13 | Lord Chatham said the King of England could feet stud, 23 by 42, four chimneys and no gable- not do to any one,-they might be arrested withends;" so that the House with Seven Gables out warrant, tried without jury, for the first ofbelonged to somebody else; and the Selectmen fence befined, for the second lose one ear, for ordered all men to appear with teams on a cer- the third lose the other ear, and for the fourth tain day, and put the minister's ground in order. be bored with red-hot iron through the tongue,
Inside the parsonage-house, however, there - though this last penalty remained a dead letwas sometimes trouble. Rev. Ezekiel Rogers ter. They could be stripped to the waist, tied wrote in 1657 to his brother in England : to a cart, and whipped through town after town, "Much ado I have with my own family; hard -three women were whipped through eleven to get a servant who enjoys catechising or family towns, eighty miles, but afterwards the num. duties. I had a rare blessing of servants in ber was limited to three. Their testimony was England, and those I brought over were a bless- I invalid, their families attainted, and those who ing; but the young brood doth much afflict harboured them were fined forty shillings an me." Probably the minister's wife had the hour. They might be turned out shelterless worst of this, but she seems to have been gen- among wolves and bears and frosts; they could erally, like the modern minister's wife, a saint, be branded H for Heretic, and R for Rogue; and could bear it. Cotton Mather, indeed, they could be sold as slaves; and their graves quotes triumphantly the Jewish phrase for a must not be fenced to keep off wild beasts, lest model female-“one who deserved to marry a their poor afflicted bodies should find rest there, priest;" and one of the most singular passages Yet in this same age female Quakers had in the history of the human heart is the old gone as missionaries to Malta and to Turkey gentleman's own narrative, in his manuscript and returned unharmed. No doubt the monks diary, of a passionate love-adventure, in his later and the Sultan must have looked on the plain years, with a fascinating young gir), an "ingeni. | dress much as some clerical gentleman have ous child," as he calls her, whom his parish since regarded the Bloomer costume,--and the thought by no means a model female, but from Inquisition imprisoned the missionaries, though whom it took three days of solitary fasting and the Sultan did not. But meanwhile the Qua. prayer to wean him at last.
ker women in New England might be walking He was not the only Puritan minister who to execution with their male companions,-like bestowed his heart somewhat strangely. Rev. Mary Dyer in Boston,-under an armed guard John Mitchell, who succeeded the soul-ravishing of two hundred, led on by a minister seventy Shepard at Cambridge, as aforesaid, married years old, and the fiercer for every year. When his predecessor's widow “on the general recom. they asked Mary Dyer, “Are you not ashamed mendation of her," and the college students to walk thus hand in hand between two young were greatly delighted, as one might imagine. men ?" she answered, “No, this is to me an Rev. Michael Wigglesworth, in 1691, wooed the hour of the greatest joy I could enjoy in this Widow Avery in a written discourse, which I world. No tongue could utter and no heart have seen in manuscript, arranged under twelve understand the sweet influence of the Spirit different heads,-one of which treats of the which now I feel.” Then they placed her on prospect of his valuable life being preserved the scaffold, and covered her face with a handlonger by her care. She having children of her kerchief which the Reverend Mr. Wilson lent own, he offers mysteriously to put some of his the hangman; and when they heard that she own children “out of the way, if necessary, was reprieved, she would not come down, saying a bint which becomes formidable when one re that she would suffer with her brethren. nd members that he was the author of that once suffer death she did, at last, and the Reverend famous theological poem, " The Day of Doom,” Mr. Wilson made a pious ballad on her execuin which he relentiôgly assigned to infants, be- tion. cause they had sinned only in Adam, "the It is no wonder, if some persons declare that about this time the wheat of Massachusetts be- | minority always matched the majority. Grave gan to be generally blasted, and the peas to grow divines did not like to be pelted with such epi. wormy. It is no wonder, that, when the witch- thets as these : Thou fiery fighter and green. craft excitement came on, the Quakers called it headed trumpeter! thou hedgebog and grinniog a retribution for these things. But let us be dog! thou mole! thou tinker ! thou lizard! just, even to the unjust. Toleration was a new | thou bell of no metal but the tone of a kettle! born virtue in those days, and one which no thou wheelbarrow! thou whirlpool! thou wbirli. Puritan ever for a moment recognized as such, gig! thou firebrand! thou moon-calf ! thou or asked to have exercised toward himself. In ragged tatterdemalion ! thou gormandizing England they did not wish to be tolerated for a priest ! thou bane of reason and beast of the day as sectaries : they claimed to have authority I earth! thou best to be spared of all mankind !" as the one true church. They held with Pym, , - all of which are genuine epithets from the that “it is the duty of legislators to establish | Quaker books of that period, and termed by the true religion and to punish false,"-a doc- Cotton Mather, who collected them, “quills of trine equally fatal, whether applied to enforce porcupine.” They surpass even Dr. Chauncy's the right theology or the wrong. They objected catalogue of the unsavory epithets used by to the Church of England, not that it persecuted, Whitefield and Tennent a century later; and it but that its persecution was wrongly aimed. It was not likely that they would be tolerated by a is, therefore, equally absurd to praise them for a | race whose reverence for men in authority was toleration they never professed, or to accuse so comprehensive that they actually fined some them of any inconsistency when they practised one for remarking that Major Phillips's old intolerance. What was great in them was their mare was as lean as an Indian's dog. heroism of soul, not their largeness. They There is a quaint anecdote preserved, showing sought the American wilderness not to indulge the continuance of the Quaker feud in full vigour the wbims of others, but their own. They said as lately as 1705. A youth among the Friends to the Quakers, “We seek not your death, but wished to espouse a fair Puritan maiden ; but your absence." All their persecution, after all, the Quakers disapproved his marrying out of was an alternative sentence; all they asked of their society, and the Congregationalists his the Quakers was to keep out of their settlements marrying into theirs; so in despair he thus adand let them alone. Moreover, their worst dressed her :-" Ruth, let us break from this penalties were borrowed from the English laws, unreasonable bondage. I will give up my reliand only four offenders were put to death from gion, and thou shalt give up thine; and we will the beginning ;--of course, four too many. marry and go into the Church of England, and
Again, it is to be remembered that the Quaker go to the Devil together.” And they fulfilled peculiarities were not theological only, but poli- the resolution, the Puritan historian says, so far tical and social also. Everything that the as going into the Church, and marrying, and Puritan system of goverment asserted the Qua- staying there for life. kers denied ; they rendered no allegiance, owned With the same careful discrimination we no laws, paid no taxes, bore no arms. With must try to study the astonishing part played the best possible intentions, they subverted all by the ministers in the witchcraft delusions. It established order. Then their modes of action must be remembered that the belief in this visi. were very often intemperate and violent. One tation was no new or peculiar thing in New can hardly approve the condemnation pronounced England. The Church, the Scriptures, the by Cotton Mather upon a certain Rarey among mediæval laws, had all made it a capital crime. the Friends in those days, who could control a There had been laws against it in England for mad bull that would rend any other man. But a hundred years. Bishop Jewel had complained it was oftener the Quakers who needed the Ra- | to Queen Elizabeth of the alarming increase of reys. Running naked through the public streets, witches and sorcerers. Sir Thomas Browne --coming into meeting dressed in sackcloth, had pronounced it flat atheism to doubt them, with ashes on their heads and nothing on their High legal and judicial authorities, as Dalton, feet,-or sitting there with their hats on, groan- Keeble, Sir Matthew Hale, bad described this ing and rocking to and fro, in spite of elders, , crime as definitely and seriously as any other. deacons, and tithing men : these were the vaga- | In Scotland four thousand had suffered death ries of the zealots, though always repudiated for it in ten years ; Cologne, Nuremberg, Geneva, by the main body. The Puritans found them- | Paris, were executing hundreds every year; selves reproached with permitting these things, even in 1749 a girl was burnt alive in Würtzand so took refuge in outrageous persecutions, burg ; and is it strange, if, during all that wild which doubled them. Indeed, the Quakers excitement, Massachusetts put to death twenty? themselves began to persecute, on no greater | The only wonder is in the independence of the provocation, in Philadelphia, thirty years after- | Rhode Island people, who declared that “there wards,-playing over again vpon George Keith were no witches on the earth, nor devils,-exand his followers the same deluded policy of cept” (as they profanely added) “the New-Eng. fines and imprisonment from which they had land ministers, and such as they." just escaped ;-as minorities have persecuted John Higginson sum it up best:" They subminorities ever since intolerance began. proceeded in their integrity with a zeal of God
Indeed, so far as mere language went, the against sin, according to their best light and
law and evidence." “ But there is a question," on each sleeve and one in the back. Men also he wisely adds, “whether some of the laws, must be prohibited from shoulder-bands of uncustoms, and privileges used by judges and due width, double ruffs and cuffs, and “immodjuries in England, which were followed as pat- erate great breeches." Part of the solicitude terns here, were pot insufficient.”
was for modesty, part for gravity, part for ecoBut what were the authorities to do, when, in nomy: none must dress above their condition. addition to all legal and Scriptural precedents, | In 1652, three men and a woman were fined the prisoners insisted on entering a plea often shillings each and costs for wearing silverguilty ? When Goody E- testified that she lace, another for broad bone-lace, another for and two others rode from Andover to a witch- tiffany, and another for a silk hood. Alice meeting on a broomstick, and the stick broke Flynt was accused of a silk hood, but, proving and she fell and was still lame from it,—when herself worth more than two hundred pounds, her daughter testified that she rode on the same escaped uupunished. Jonas Fairbanks, about stick, and confirmed all the details of the casu the same time, was charged with “great boots," alty,—when the grand-daughter confirmed them | and the evidence went hard against him ; but also, and added, that she rode on another stick, he was fortunately acquitted, and the credit of and they all signed Satan's book together, the family saved. wben W. B— , aged forty, testified that Satan | The question of veils seems to have rocked assembled a hundred fine blades near Salem the Massachusetts Colony to its foundations, Meeting House, and the trumpet sounded, and and was fully discussed at Thursday Lecture, bread and wine were carried round, and Satan March 7th, 1634. Holy Mr. Cotton was utterly was like a black sheep, and wished them to and unalterably opposed to veils, regarding them destroy the minister's house, (by thunder prob- | as a token of submission to husbands in an ably,) and set up his kingdom, and “then all | unscriptural degree. It is pleasant to think would be well,” –when one woman summoned that there could be an unscriptural extent of her three children and some neighbours and a such submission, in those times. But Governor sister and a domestic, who all testified that she Endicott and Rev. Mr. Williams resisted stoutly, was a witch and so were they all,—what could quoting Paul, as usual in such cases; so Paul, be done with such prisoners by judge or jury, veils, and vanity carried the day. But afterward in an age which held witchcraft à certainty ? It | Mr. Cotton came to Salem, to preach for Mr. was only the rapid rate of increase which finally | Skelton, and did not miss his chance to put in stopped the convictions.
his solemn protest against veils; he said they One thing is certain, that this strange delusion, were a custom not to be tolerated; and so the a semi-comedy to us,—though part of the phe- ladies all came to meeting without their veils nomena may find their solution in laws not yet in the afternoon-probably the most astoundunfolded, was the sternest of tragedies to those ing visible result from a single sermon within who lived in it. Conceive, for an instant, of the memory of map. believing in the visible presence and labours of Beginning with the veils, the eye of authority the arch-fiend in a peaceful community! Yet was next turned on what was under them. In from the bottom of their souls these strong men 1675 it was decided, that, as the Indians had held to it, and they waged a hand-to-hand fight done much harm of late, and the Deity was with Satan all their days. Very inconveniently | evidently displeased with something, the General the opponent sometimes dealt his blows, withal. | Court should publish a list of the evils of the Surely it could not be a pleasant thing to a time. And among the twelve items of contrition sound divine, just launched upon his seventeen- stood this: “ Long hair like women's hair is headed discourse, to have a girl with wild eyes worn by some men, either their own or others' and her hair about her ears start up and exclaim, hair made into periwigs;-and by some women "Parson, your text is too long,"-or worse yet, wearing borders of hair, and their cutting, curl"Parson, your sermon is too long,"-or mosting, and immodest Jaying out of their hair," embarrassing of all, “There's a great yellow bird (does this hint at chignons ?) “which practice sitting on the parson's hat in the pulpit.” But doth increase, especially among the younger these formidable interruptions veritably hap. sort.” Not much was effected, however, pened, and received the stern discipline in such “ divers of the elders' wives," as Winthrop lets cases made and provided.
out, “ being in some measure partners in this But besides Quakers and witches, the minis- disorder." The use of wigs also, at first deters had other female tormentors to deal with. nounced by the clergy, was at last countenanced There was the perpetual anxiety of the unregen- / by them : in portraits later than 1700 they erated toilet. «Immodest apparel, laying out usually replace the black skull-cap of earlier of hair, borders, naked necks and arms, or, as pictures, and in 1752 the tables had so far it were, pinioned with superfluous ribbons,”- turned that a church-member in Newbury rethese were the things which tried men's souls infused communion because “the pastor wears a those days, and the statute-books and private wig." Yet Increase Mather tbought they played journals are full of such plaintive inventories no small part in producing the Boston Fire. of the implements of sin. Things known as “Monstrous Periwigs, such as some of our "slash apparel” seem to have been an infinite church-members indulge in, which make them source of anxiety, there must be only one slash resemble the Locusts that came out of ye Bot. tomless Pit (Rev. ix. 7, 8)-and, as an eminent | some village in Rhode Island. Thither went Divine calls them, Horrid Bushes of Vanity, | Roger Williams and his Baptists; thither went such strange apparel as is contrary to the light Quakers and Ranters; thither went And Hutch. of Nature and to express Scripture (1 Cor. | inson, that extraordinary woman, who divided xi, 14, 15); such pride is enough to provoke the whole politics of the country by her Antipo. the Lord to kindle fires in all the towns in the mian doctrines, denouncing the formalisms country.”
| around her, and converting the strongest men, Another vexation was the occasional arrival like Cotton and Vane, to her opinions. Thither of false prophets in a community where every went also Samuel Gorton, a man of no ordinary man was expected to have a current supply of power, who proclaimed a mystical union with religious experiences always ready for circulation. God in love, thought that heaven and hell were There was a certain hypocritical Dick Swayn, in the mind alone, but esteemed little the clergy for instance, a seafaring man, who gave much and the ordinances. The colony was protected trouble ; and E. F.,--for they mostly appear by also by the thoughtful and chivalrous Vane, initials,-who, coming to New Haven one Satur- who held that water baptism had had its day, day evening, and being dressed in black, was and that the Jewish Sabbath should give place taken for a minister, and asked to preach: he to the modern Sunday. All these, and such as was apparently a little insane, and at first talked these, were called generally “Seekers" by the " demurely," hut at last “railed like Rabsha- | Puritans,—who claimed for themselves that they keb,” Cotton Mather says. There was also M. had found that which they sought. It is the old J., á Welsh tanner, who finally stole his employ. | distinction; but for which is the ship built, to er's leather breeches and set up for a preacher, be afloat or to be at anchor? less innocently apparelled than George Fox, Such were those pious worthies, the men But the worst of all was one bearing the since whose names are identified with the leadership sainted name of Samuel May. This vessel of of the New England colonies,-Cotton, Hooker, wrath appeared in 1699, indorsed as a man of Norton, Shepard, the Higginsons, the Mathers. a sweet gospel spirit,—though, indeed, one of To these might be added many an obscurer his indorsers had himself been “a scandalous name, preserved in the quaint epitaphs of the fire-ship among the churches." Mather declares “Magnalia :"-Blackman, " in spite of his that every one went a-Maying after this man, name, a Nazarene wbiter than snow;" —Partwhom he maintains to have been a barber pre-ridge, “a hunted partridge," yet “both a dore viously, and who knew no Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and an eagle ;"—Ezekiel Rogers, "a tree of nor even English,- for (as he indignantly knowledge, whose apples the very children asserts) “there were eighteen horrid false spells, might pluck;"—Nathaniel Rogers," "a very and not one point, in one very short note I re- / lively preacher and a very preaching liver, he ceived from him." This doubtful personage loved his church as if it had been his family copied his sermons from a volume by his name and he taught his family as if it had been bis sake, Dr. Samuel Bolton, -"Sam the Doctor church; " Warham, the first who preached and Sam the Dunce," Mather calls them. Fic with notes, and who suffered agonies of doubt nally, “this eminent worthy stranger," Sam, respecting the Lord's Supper ;-Stone,“ both who was no dunce, after all, quarrelled with his a loadstone and a flint stone," and who set the parish for their slow payments, and “flew out like self-sacrificing example of preaching only one a dragon, spitting this among other fire at them: hour. - I shall no longer pipe, no longerdance,'--s0 These men had mingled traits of good and that they came to fear he was a cheat, and wish evil, like all mankind, -nobler than their de. they had never seen him." Then “the guilty scendants in some attributes, less noble in fellow, having bubbled the silly neighbours of others. The most strait-laced Massachusette an incredible number of pounds, on a sudden Calvinist of these days would have been disci. was gone," and Cotton Mather sent a letter af- plined by them for insufferable laxity, and yet ter him, which he declares to have been the their modern successor would count it utter worst penalty the man suffered.
shame, perhaps, to own a slave in his family It is safer to say little of the theological scheme or to drink rum-punch at an ordination,-which of the Puritan ministers, lest the present writer | Puritan divines might do without rebuke. Not be pronounced a Wanton Gospeller, and have one of them has left on record a statement no tithingman to take his part. But however broad and noble as that of Roger Williams :it may be with the regular standards of theology “ To be content with food and raiment, to of that period, every one could find a sufficient mind, not our own, but every man the things variety to suit him among its heresies. Eighty- of another,-yea, and to suffer wrong, and to two “pestilent heresies” were counted as part with what we judge to be right, yea, our having already sprung up in 1637 ; others say own lives, and, as poor women martyrs bare one hundred and six; others, two hundred and said, as many as there be hairs upon our heads, ten, The Puritans kept Rhode Island for what for the name of God and for the Son of God's housekeepers call an "odd drawer," into which sake,-this is humanity, this is Christianity; the to crowd all these eccentricities. It was said rest is but formality and picture-courteou! that, if any man happened to lose his religious | idolatry, and Jewish and Popish blasphemy opinion, he might be sure to find it again at against the Christian religion,” And yet the