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olher tomb, too plainly marked by a tali, interred in this church, deserves brief inscriplion on the wall, is that of more noble monument than the marb) the great Castruccio Castracani degli slab that covers his bones. Antelminelli, sovereign of Lucca and Pisa, deceased in his forty-seventh year,

CHAPTER VI. the wonder and terror of Italy in the fourteenth century, one of the strongest Ducal palace.- Paintings.-Library.- Pretorio p moral characters lhat ever existed, aller

lace. - Roman theatre. - Lyceum.-Royal Ac whom the existence of his country, for a

demy.- Painting by Annibale Carraccio.-Colleg

-Public Library. - Ampbitheatre. - Public a moment so brilliant, seeins to disappear,

cbives.-Ramparts — Aqueducts. - Culture.and of whom Machiavel, in his romantic pulation.-Lucchese. and incomplete history of him, says that he would have surpassed Philip in Ma The piazza of the palace, which oug cedonia and Scipio at Rome.

to have been laid out on the other sid The Trinity bas two chefs-d'æuvre of was the cause of one of those unluc Lucchese artists : the Virgin suckling demolitions common in our time, a the infant Jesus, sculptured by Matteo occasioned the destruction of the fi Civitali, and the painting of the high- church of the Madonna grande, by 1 altar, by Paolini, which proves, despite Lucchese architect Gherardo Peneto Baldinucci, that this artist is not desti- of the sixteenth century. tute of grace.

The palace, begun by Ammanato, The beautiful old church of Santa though only half finished, one of the m Maria foris portam, rebuilt about 1515, extensive royal palaces even in Ita retains its front of the thirteenth cen The grand and regal staircase of Carr tury. Two paintings are by Guercino : marble was constructed by S. Nollol St. Lucy and the Virgin; St. Francis a Lucchese architect, who directed and St. Alexander. The death of the diferent works of the palace. The Virgin is by a clever Lucchese painter furniture is of bome manufacture; of the fourteenth century, Angelo Puc- it proves that the impetus given lo cinelli, and is dated 1386.

dustry by the French administration Santa Maria de Servi has three good been continued and encouraged. paintings by Matteo Rosselli: a pleasing two rooms devoted to the gallery | Presentation in the temple, the Ma sent chefs-d'œuvre by the first mast donna of Sorrows, greatly damaged, and viz. : by Raphael, his celebrated Mado a Nativity.

de' Candelabri, in his grand style At the principal allar of Saint Vincent Francia, a Virgin, St. Anne, two sa and Saint Anastasius is a Circumcision, and the little St. John, in his best s by Ligozzi, which in colouring and com with these modest words : Fran position resembles Paolo Veronese and aurifex Boloniensis p. (painted Titian. An illustrious Lucchese is buried Francia, goldsmith, of Bologna) a C in this church, Count Castruccio Buona- dead with the Virgin and two an mici, author of the books De Bello Italico superior to the former, and almost and the commentary De Rebus ad Veli- to Raphael; by Leonardo Vinci, a tras Geslis, a pure grave, and eloquent Virgin and infant Jesus; by Corre historian, who only wanted a grander a St. John with his lamb, a ma subject.

little half figure ; by Micbael Ang The Carmine has a Conception, by Christ on the cross, with the Vasari, which is meant to imitale Mi- and St. John, an expressive little chael Angelo ; and in the choir, a good | ing; by Guido, a St. Cecilia, a b picture by Perugino roughly handled gure in his powerful manner; the by a reloucher.

tyrdom of St. Appollina, in his The front of Saint Christopher is im- style; by Poussin, the Massacre portant for the history of art, as it exem Innocents, remarkable for compo plifies the transition from the first Gothic drawing, and expression; by Sass style to the second, as may be seen by rato, a little head of the Virgin, the door and round window in the his most graceful Virgins; by Dd middle, wbich are ingenious and fan-chino, three Saints below, and a lastic works, and by the sculptures of the Glory in which the Santa Casa little arcades. The great Malleo Civi-l rello is transported; by Baroccio,

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# me tangere, well coloured; by Gherardo | Italian surgery. The royal academy, i delle Nolte, a Christ before Pilate, which formerly called degl'Oscuri, composed

bas a wonderful effect of light and is one of thirty-six members, with the duke for of the most remarkable paintings of this perpetual president, holds ils siltings kind; of the three Carracci, à Christ ihere every month, when every memrestoring sight to a blindman, by Lu- ber in his turn reads some piece of his dovico, in which the blindman is per- own composition. This academy has fect; Christ raising the widow's son, been publishing Transactions (Atti) since a work full of soul, and one of Agostino's 1817, of which seven octavo volumes most sublime; Christ and the Canaani- have already appeared. In an aparttish woman, by Annibale, valuable for ment of the Lyceum is an admirable paint. facility of design and boldness of pencil. ing by Anoibale Carraccio, which would

The library, modern, has already alone repay a journey to Lucca. It was twenty-five thousand volumes and some formerly at San Giovannetto, and is said rarities, the duke being an amateur of to have been carried away and conbooks. A Greek copy of the Gospels, cealed by a nun when the convent was apparently of the tenth century, bas suppressed: the city purchased it for some miniatures of a good style, aston- 2001., not one tenth of its value. ishing for the epoch. A barbarous Latin The college Carlo Lodovico, another version of the Psalms, from the Hebrew good foundation begun in 1807 and text, by an unknown translator, is of the finished in 1819, can accommodate eighty twelfth century. An autograph manu- students. The establishment is ball ecseript of Tasso contains some Latin verses clesiastical and half laic, as the professors, addressed to persons of bis day. The the rector, and vice-rector, are priests,

Libro di Locurioni, another autograph and the director, their superior, a layman. to manuscript, Inedited, of the learned Vin- The public library occupies a spacious

cenzo Borghini, of the sixteenth century, building. The librarian, s. Papi, de

one of the Roman deputies and censors ceased at the end of 1834, preceptor of const who corrected the Decameron,' is es- Prince Ferdinand Charles, was an enlight

teemed a valuable work on grammar. ened man, who had served as soldier Two editions of the fifteenth century are and general in the Rajab of Travancore's

curiousthe Trion, by Petrarch, a army, had visited Egypt and Greece on le little volume, the first book printed at his return; he also wrote the curious * Lucca, and by a Lucchese ( Bartolommeo Letters on the East Indies, translated * Civitali, 1477), and a Latin Grammar the Manual of Epictetus, Paradise Lost,

by Giovanni Pietro da Lavenza, a school- Armstrong's Art of Health, and com

master of Lucca, who is indebted for posed a great History of the French -> his reputation to the learned author of Revolution, for which his Eastern travels o the Literary History of Lucca, the mar- and residence at Lucca would scarcely quis Cesare Lucchesini..

seem to bave prepared him. At the The stern old Pretorio palace, now a library may now be seen the remains of * tribunal, of tbe end of the fifteenth cen- Paolini's immense painting of St. Gregory

tury and the beginning of the next, is a giving a dinner to poor pilgrims, with is misture of the Gothic and the style of Christ amongst them, a rich barmonious op the revival.

composition, with the variety of Paolo Some remains of a Roman theatre an- Veronese, which beretofore excited the gaie nounce an edifice of no great extent, but enthusiasm of a multitude of poets, and

of the best period; this theatre is still would be suflicient for the glory of that called Aringo and Parlascio, from which artist, the best painter of Lucca. it may be inferred that the citizens of The grand amphitheatre, encumbered

Lucca met there in the middle ages for within, but pretiy well preserved on the let the purpose of conversation also. outside, seems of the times of the first

The Lyceum, organised in 1819, com- Cesars. Like the theatre, it must have bines the different branches of public been used for political meetings, as it instruction, and has twenty-six profes- was also called il Parlascio.

sorships. S. Pacini, a clever professor, The palace of the marquises Bernar- has composed an estimable work on dini, in the piazza of Saini Benedict, not

See ante, book z. cb. v.

• Deci ased at the age of 75, May 18, 1832.

far from the spot where Castruccio's losophical improvement seems to ha lower and palace stood, is of the plain prevailed for a long time in this litt and solid architecture of Matteo Civitali. stale, which never had any Jesuits. T The old palace of the Guidiccioni is by | Encyclopedia was reprinted there his nephew Nicolao, likewise celebrated twenty-eight folio volumes (1758-71 as a military architect. This palace, ap- philanthropical institutions, such as i propriated in 1822 to the public arcbives, mad houses and mendicity asylun is one of the most remarkable in Lucca, though small, are numerous and w and displays little of the bad taste that managed ; and Lucca, which was prevailed at the epoch of its construction. first town in Ilaly that had the glory

The ramparts of Lucca, ancient forti- founding an hospital, as early as they fications which cost that petty stale the 718," was also the first in southern It sum of 955,162 crowns (220,4221 ), for- to introduce vaccination as a public m merly supplied with handsome and harm

sure. less cannon, never fired except for salutes,

CHAPTER VII. and taken away by the French in 1799– these ramparts form a long and charming Pietra Santa.—Massa.- Corrara.- Luni.–Sarzor promenade, well planted and fit for car

Sarzanello.-View. riages, ipfinitely preferable to most of the dull corsi of Italy, and from it the

Pietra Santa, a fine town, bas mountains that surround Lucca present church, Saint Martin, that might a fresh and pleasing amphitheatre.

for a cathedral. The architecture, off The aqueduct decreed by the French middle of the fourteenth century, administralion and finished in 1823, of good taste, and the front is decor great utility to Lucca, which lill then with several tolerable sculptures of had only unwholesome well water, is a jects taken from the saint's history. grand copstruction of four hundred and columns of the naves, half of peachbl fifty-nine arcades with semicircular coloured breccio, are of extraordi arches, an honour to the talents of S. beauty; the ancient octagonal bapti Noltolini.

of white marble, is ornamented The traveller passing through the elegant basso-relievos, duchy of Lucca must be struck with the Massa, near the sea, encircled pleasing variety of the sites, the richness mountains, seemed to me of a charı of the hills covered with vines, olives, effect. The public square, in partic and chesnuls, and must in particular I cannot forget ; il is planted with or admire the laborious intelligence of the trees in quincuns, which were Lucchese, an acute and subtle people, | loaded with their golden fruit. good farmers, who may be called the In the square is the marble stat Normans of Italy. This astonishing the last sovereign of Massa, Maria agricultural prosperity, this population trice d'Este, married to the arc! which, in proportion with the superficies Ferdinand of Austria, union Ibat a of the soil, is one of the most numerous to have been rather singularly ro on the earth, proves the advantage of by Tasso, when he represents God sinall estales, for nearly all even the duke of Lorrain, as being apprise. mountaineers are landowners ; every dream of the alliance of his hous year, during the winter months wben that of Rinaldo : ihe labours of husbandry are suspended, the hundred and lisielh part of this

Sarà il tuo sangue al suo coninzisto; e

Progenie uscirë gloriosa e chiara. population emigrates, and finds employ in the hard but lucrative labours of the I went to the famous quarries maremme of Tuscany or the islands of rara in the mountain; the mar! Corsica and Sardinia, whence it brings we are accustomed to find in th back additional capital to increase the of the wonders of art or of natu public weal. A certain social and phi- livaled and adorned is here to be

M. Adrien Balbi, in his Balance politique du hundred and afty-six persons to each sqy Globe for 1828, places before Lucca for population ? It was established near the church only Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfort, Lubeck, in Silvester ; a second was created in 721, a which cases the territory consists of little but the Michael, and two others in 757 a ud 790. town. The population of Lucca amounts to four


the bosom of savage nature. Limpid | marble quarries of Corsica, it was wrongly streams ripple along or form cascades pretended that they would advantaamong these blocks of dazzling whiteness; geously replace those of Carrara and for the noble mineral, like some cha- Tuscany, then less productive. An unracters, has all its brightness in the mine, dertaking begun by Michael Angelo at and does not require, as gold does, to be Carrara, and completed in 1827, had just purified and polished cre it shine. It then opened a new quarry; marble was seems as if all these waste fragments that never more abundant ; the yearly exports strew and embarrass the road might be amount to 70,000 cubic palms (nearly ground and made into stucco no less 16,000 yards), and artists now require solid or elegant than the marble itself. nothing but genius and great men. The view of this mountain of roarble, When Michael Angelo drew from Carwbich bears the fine name of Monte rara the marble intended for the vast Sacro, and which the shining moon mausoleum of Julius II., he conceived rendered still more resplendent, made the idea of culting a colossus out of the a singular impression. I called to mind peak of these mountains that advanced all the busts and statues of emperors in iarthest into the sea for a kind of landthe museums and palaces of Rome; I felt mark for mariners. It is a matter of that art had shown but little dignity in regret that one of the peripelia of the ibas indifferently perpeluating the like-funeral tragedy, as Michael Angelo callness of so many monsters. In contem- ed it, prevented the execution of this plating the enormous block ibat lay project. Such a monument would now before me, I preferred its rough and be very curious, and form a savage con. primitive innocence to the splendid pro- trast with the cupola of Saint Peter's, a stilution of the staluary, and I wished it chef-d'æuvre of art and antique imimight ever remain as it was, than be talion. used to perpetuate the features and Nothing remains of the celebrated Lumemory of the wicked.

di but the ruins of two towers, of a vast This romantic nocturnal ramble to amphitheatre, and traces of a church said Carrara scarcely permitted me to visit its to have been dedicated to Saint Peter. Academy, a perpetual popular school of There are different opinions as to the sculpture, where children are instructed destruction of this ancient capital of Lugratuitously from the most tender age,' nigiana; by some historians it is altrinor to observe certain very curious geo-buled to Alaric, who thereby avenged a logical phenomena in the quarries, such rape committed on a young girl of his as that first noticed in 1819, of a kind nation by one of the chief inhabitants of son and transparent jelly which on of Luni. Dante, who in his exile bad exposure to the air suddenly becomes twice taken refuge in the environs of opaque, hard, and like chalcedony or Luni, pretends that it perished through fine porcelain. I especially regret that civil discord; it is more probable, as I was unable to penetrale to ibe sub-Villani supposes, that it was abandoned terranean labyrinth of the grollo del as unhealthy. Tanone, so well described by Spallan- Sarzana, a clean, pretty little town, zani, which is more than a mile in length, has a fine cathedral, which has the Sts. and even surpasses in extent and magni- Eutychianus, Philip, and Genesius, by ficence the grotto of Antiparos; or lo Solimene, and two good luneltes in Guithat of Salla Mattana, less known and do's style by its excellent painter Fialess accessible, but said to be still more sella, called Sarzana. extensive and interesting.

Sarzana, tbe native place of the wise, lo announcing the working of the wbile learned, and great pope Nicholas V.,

* It is not surprising that Carrara bas produced minary of artists; and several statues and groups so great a number of sculplors, among whom we by the Canon Primicer lus cibey, are cited at CarGay Boilce Baratta, who distinguisbed himsell at rara and in the environs. bome, Giollano Finelli at Naples, Pietro and Fer. • Parad. can. 191. 73. It was during Dante's renando Tocca at Florence, Danese Cattaneo at Venice. sidence with the Marquis Morello Malespina, lor Obe of the best living sculptors of Italy, s. Tenereol, of that country, that the long-lost seven urss cantos is of Carrara. The noblllis even aod tle clergy olibe Inferno mere found and restored to him, practised sculpture there; the house of Count Gio- which guve him courage to continue bls poem. aual Baratta was, at the close of last century, a se

long called Nicholas of Sarzana, was at century, Bartolommeo Fazio, of the Nea the beginning of the seventeenth century politan academy, is a flourishing and po the residence of Louis-Marie-Fortune pulous town. Its admirable gull, on Buonaparte, the head of Napoleon's fa- of the most extensive and safest in Eu mily, who went over to Corsica in 1612, rope, was called under the French ad during the war against the Genoese, and ministration to a high destiny. But the settled at Ajaccio. He himself asserted his vast military and naval establishment o Italian and Florentine origin,' honoured this Antwerp of the Mediterranean pro by two literary compositions of a very jected by Napoleon could not be create different kind, the narrative of the sack at Spezia itself, the depth of water o of Rome in 1527, by Jacopo Buonaparte, its shore having been greatly diminishe and the pleasing comedy of La Vedova, by sandbanks. The heighi ibat com by Nicolao.

mands the creeks of Castagno, Porto V Above Sarzana, the old castle called nere, Varignano, and degli Grazie, woul Sarzanello, erected in 1321 by Castruccio be a superb position.3 Castracani when he attacked the place, On the coast of Marsola, sixty-five se and now the quarters of the veterans, from the land, is a submarine fountai presents an immense and varied view, of fresh water, which bubbles up to th which embraces at once bills and valleys, surface ; it seemed to me salt, but it the course of the Magra, the ruins of light and fresh il drunk from nearer t1 Luni, the fort of Lavenza, ibe beach of bottom by means of a tube-an unknow Viareggio, the city of Pisa, the port of Arethusa, because discovered by scienc Leghorn, and the islands of Capraja and and not alluded to by the poets. Gorgona,

Sestri di Levante, a charming pla The new road from Sarzana to Genoa, noted for its war, pasles, and shells, so sweetly varied and picturesque, recalls in ils parish church the recent tomb at every step the remark of Plularch, a Maria Brignole Balbi, with an express moralist who loved to select his images | basso-relievo of Friendship, weep srom navigation, that the most agreeable over her ashes, by S. Gaggini, a go journeys by land were those along the Genoese sculptor, and a touching i seaside, and when we embark at Lerici, scription by the clever Ragosan Latin that the pleasantest sea voyages were Gagliusli, who died in February 18: those made along the coast.

Sestri is perhaps the spot whence The world is indebted to the tardy ar- gull of Rapallo, interspersed with roc rival of the relucca from Lerici for one formed by the mountain of Portofi of Alfieri's finest and most Roman tra that juts out into the sea, and borde gedies, bis Virginia, with which the ac with pines, olives, cypresses, and ch cidental perusal of a Livy, belonging to nuts, appears the most magnifice a priest, brother to the post-master of This superb gulf of Rapallo seems to Sarzana, inspired him, and with such neighbour the gull of Genoa whal fervour ihat, but for his impatience at of Salerno is to the gulf of Naples, the delay of the cursed felucca, he would is to say, superior, but less famous, have completed the piece at once, e l'a cause it has no great city to give it vrei stesa d'un fiato.


Chiavari, of eight thousand int CHAPTER VIII.

tants, situated in a fertile plain

crowned with bills covered with La Spezia.-Gull. - Fountain.-Sestrl.-Galf of Ra

and olives, is a well-built, indust! pallo.-Chiavari.-Bridge.-- Rapallo.--Nostra Si and trading town. Its cloths meet gnora of Monte Allegro.-Recco.-Nervi.-S. Cor extensive sale, and its solid elegar

lante cbairs reach the saloons of Par

are exported to America. This La Spezia, the native place of the ele- | town seeins to have a louch of I gant scholar and historian of the fifteenth civilisation; it has public schools,

Missiriml. Della Vita di Anl, Canova, p. 256. la Spezi,, by Count de Chabrol, t. 11, p. 478 Sce also ante, book . ch. xll.

Statistique de l'ancien département de Mon * $ce Voyages en Corse, a l'ile d'Elbe et en Sar The first project, which would have cost daigne, book 1. cb. lxix.

million sterling, was reduced to one fourth 3 See the excellent little Mémoire sur le golfe de amount.



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