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esteemed work of S. Rinaldo Rinaldi. | his group of the Japanese embracing

Santa Maria in via lata, gilded and Christianity; the second, in that of modernised, is said to occupy the spot Faith overthrowing Heresy, which, notwhere Saint Paul and Saint Peter lived. withstanding the defects of the period, The spring in the subterranean church has some well executed parts. Under served to baptise those whom the rude the altar, the richest allar in the world, eloquence of the latter apostle converted. the tomb of the saint, of gilt bronze, conThe portal, by Pietro da Cortona, was trasts with bis life spent in poverty, toil, reckoned by him as bis masterpiece of and sufferings; he reposes on a shroud architecture.

adorned with precious stones, and bis The antique church of Saint Mark, tall statue is of massive silver, partly several times renovated, has some good gilded, and further ornamented with works : the Battles, by P. Cosimo, a gems. The two little angels over a side Jesuit ; the Christ risen, by the younger door of this chapel are probably the Palma; the Adoration of the Magi, by least ridiculous sculptures of Rusconi, Carlo Maralla; St. Mark the pope and and of the eighteenth century. St. Mark the evangelist, by Perugino; The Gesù holds the tomb of Cardinal the latter saint, and some lateral cha- Bellarmin, the illustrious controversipels, by Bourguignon; and the tomb of alist, who blended the principles of the Leonardo Pesaro, a Venelian, by Ca- sovereignty of the people and the pope, nova.

revived in our days : his invectives The church of the Gesù, the professed against the temporal powers, and perhouse of the Jesuils, is of the architec- baps the naive vanity displayed in the lure of Vignola and his pupil Jacopo Memoirs of his life, have prevented his della Porta, who has not in every instance canonisation. The design is by Raivery scrupulously followed his master's naldi; the two figures of Religion and design, especially in the construction of Wisdom are by Bernini. the portal in travertine and too ornate decoration of the roof, which is not in

CHIAPTER XVI. keeping with its simple, pure, and elegani disposition. There is nearly al

Aracall.-Pietro della Valle.-Column of tbe apariways a strong breeze near the Gesù,

ment of the Emperors.-Mausoleum of the Savelli. owing to the elevation of Mount Capito -Epitaph of De' Fredis.—Tomb of Fra Matteo.line and the direction of the streets. Santissimo Bambino.-Mamertine prison.-Saint The Roman populace say that the Devil Luke.Academy of Saint Luke.-Virgin.- False was one day walking with the Wind, scull of Rapbael.-Alvarez, and when he reached this church he said lo bis companion : “I bave something

The church of Araceli probably oclo do in bere; wait for me a moment. cupies the site of the lemple of JuThe Devil never came out, and the piler Capitolinus; but its iwenly-lwo Wind is still waiting for bim at the door. columns of Egyptian granite cannot This splendid church presents good bave formed part of it, as, according works and a great number of very badlo Plutarch, the columns of that lemones. The St. Francis Xavier, by ple were Pentelic marble; differing in Carlo Maralla, in the false and easy style size and workmanship, they have been of Sacchi, and the Circumcision, pleas- taken where they could be found : the ing, by Muziano, have been praised. third, on entering, has this inscription The frescos of the roof of the gallery and in ill-shaped antique letters: A cubiof the great cupola pass for the best of culo Augustorum (from the bed-chamBaciccio, a painter of the Roman school, ber of the Cæsars on Mount Palatine ). the friend of Bernini, who aided hjm Wbat a strange destiny for this column, with his advice. The sumptuous chapel to have passed from the apartment of of Saint Ignatius, from the design of the emperors into a church of FranP. Pozzi, seems singularly formal : the ciscans ! The frescos of the Life of St. globe of lapis lazuli, held by the Eternal | Bernardin, the best being the Death of Father, is ihe largest in existence. Two the Saint, are good works by Pinturica of our compatriols, Théodon and Legros, chio; having been restored by S. Caseem there to dispute the mastery in re muccini, they present true attitudes, a finement and exaggeration : the first in simple and well-conceived expression,

though somewhat stiff and dry in the The paintings of the chapel of Saint drawing and execution.

Margaret are among the best of the The famous Roman traveller and pil- unequal Benefial. The roof of the chapel grim, Pietro della Valle, cited also as an of Saint Anthony of Padua, by Nicolao elegant writer, is interred near his be- Pesaro, is esteemed. A Transfiguraloved wife, Sitti Maani Giærida, a young tion, by Sermonela, evinces a happy Assyrian Christian, whom he married imitator of Raphael. at Bagdad ; the companion of his travels Al the church of Aracæli is preserved and his combats in Persia against the the revered miraculous Santissimo Bam. Turks, she died near the gull of Ormuz, bino, which is carried to dying persons, a and in this sare church of Araceli he small wooden figure which, according to celebrated her funeral with great pomp the legend, was made out of a tree of the and delivered a funeral oralion. This Garden of Olives by a pilgrim of the sensible traveller, an acute observer, order of Saint Francis, and coloured and according to Gibbon, who had little varnished by Saint Loke, while the reason to censure bis vanity and pro- sculptor was asleep after a three days' Jixity, found the system of mutual in- fast. The pompous procession of the struction practiced by the Hindoos at the Bambino lakes place every year after beginning of the seventeenth century. vespers, at lbe seast of Epiphany. This

The celebrated mausoleum of the an infant Jesus, with its swaddling-clothes cient Roman family of the Savelli, of covered, perhaps, with millions worth the thirteenth century, presents an an of pearls and precious stones, is laken tique sarcophagus at its base, adorned from the crib where it had lain exposed with Bacchic emblems, which forms a in theatrical state between Augustus and singular contrast with the Gothic arcbi- lbe sibyl from Christmas; three times it tecture of ibe mausoleum, the work of is shown to the people from the top of Agostino and Angelo di Siena, though the majestic stairs of Aracæli, made of Vasari says the design was given them marble taken from the temple of Roby Giotto. The tomb, of another Giam- mulus, and covered with the prostrate battista Savelli, who died a cardinal in and excited multitude. 1498, is ofexcellent sculpture, and has been The little church of Saint Joseph, thought worthy of Sansovino's school.

which has a Nativity, Carlo Maratia's The epitaph of De' Fredis, who found best work, stands over the ancient and the Laocoon in his vineyard, shows the terrible Mamertine prison. This Roman honour which then attended such dis- dungeon, formed of enormous volcanic coveries, considered as public events, as

stones joined together without cement, really noble actions worthy of immorla a kind of Cyclopean construction of an lily: ....Qui ob proprias virtutes, et repertum Laocoontis divinum, quod in secrated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul,

aspect still fearful, is now a chapel conVaticano cernis, ferè respirans simu- who are said by a tradition to have been lachrum, immortalitatem meruit anno imprisoned there ; and the spring still Domini IDXXVIII.

seen there is taken for the miraculous The remarkable tomb of Fra Matteo fountain that they made to pour forth Acquasparta, general of the order, who died a cardinal in 1302, has no inscrip- and Martinian, with forly martyrs their

water for the baptism of saints Procelsus tion, a singular fact which did not escape companions. In the succession of moDante's ardent and minute investigation numents

at Rome there

is a kind of mo into the things of Italy, when he opposed rality that paints her history: the oldest the liberality and moderation of Fra Matteo d'Acquasparla 10 ihe absolute the tomb of the Scipios, the oldest mo

monument of the kings is a prison, while principles and rigour of Ubertino di Casal , another chief of the order of Saint glory and virtues of that epoch. It was in

nument of the republic, represents the Francis :

the Mamertine prison that Jugurtha died Ma non fa da Casal nè l' Acquasparta,

of shame and hunger, after entering il Là onde vegpon tali alla scrittura

with a jest; 3 there, too, Syphar, king Ch' uno la fugge e l'altro la cuarta."

of Numidia, and Perseus, the lasi king

! See ante, ch. v.

. Parad. can. Xul. 124. s "By Hercules ! ' exclaimed the African cbiel

when thrown almost naked into his prison, " thicf. mæ are cold at Rome !"

1

of Macedon, were confined ; and after- | volent deeds of that excellent man. It wards the accomplices of Catiline, who is by the clever Spanish sculptor Alvacould hear the voice of Cicero accusing rez, who, being without resources them in the temple of Concord, were bere during the French occupation of Madrid, strangled without a trial; different vic- had offered to sell some of bis works to lims that all contributed to the grandeur the viceroy of Italy. Canova, being of Rome.

privately consulted as to their merit, The church of Saint Luke was rebuilt answered : “ The sculptures of Alvarez by Pietro da Cortona, who was so pleas- remain on sale in his studio because they ed with its architecture, though in-are not in mine." Alvarez, allerwards ferior, that he called it his daughter. informed of this generous conduct and The front is so lofty that it masks the 'worthy to feel it, obtained permission of cupola, which is in tolerably good style. the Academy of Saint Luke to execute The rich subterranean chapel in which gratuitously the statue it had decreed to the body of Saint Martina reposes, the Canova. ancient patroness of the church, was erected by the same artist at his own

CHAPTER XVII. cost, and he left bis fortune to Saint Luke, amounting to 100,000 crowns. Saint Theodore.- Saint Gregory.- Frescos of DomeThe Assumption, by Sebastiano Conca, picbino and Guido.-Imperia.-Navicella-Saint though highly extolled, is ordinary, like

Stephen II Rotondo.-Saint Clement. the other paintings of the church. The Academy of Saint Luke, the in

The church of Saint Theodore is reared signe pontificia accademia romana di

on the site of the ancient temple of Robelle arti di San Luca, a veritable Romulus, on the very spot where he was man Academy of fine arts, created in suckled by the wolr.' The first Christhe year 1588 by Sixtus V., adjoins the tians, who had great taci in turning pochurch. Its apartments present many pular traditions and prejudices to adworks by the great Italian masters aud vantage, consecrated the temple to Saint living professors. The patron of pain-Theodore, like Romulus, a warrior; ters and of the Academy making the with this view they also frequently portrait of the Virgin with the infant changed the temples of the mother of Jesus, by Raphael, who has painted the gods into churches dedicated to the himself iherein, has all his admirable Madonna. The people of Rome, who qualities. The skull, so long shown

are apt to mix their anlique reminisas Raphael's, near which was written

cences with their Christian creed, bave Bembo's celebrated and elaborated dis- corrupted Saint Theodore into San Toto; tích,

and mothers present their sick children

at bis allar, that they may be cured, and Ille bic est Raphael, dimult quo sospite vinci

perhaps one day have the vigour of the Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori,'

Orst founder of their city.

The antique church of Santa Franwhich young artists used formerly lo cesca Romana, repaired in bad taste looch, in great ceremony, once a year in 1615, has the rich tomb of the saint, with their pencils, this relic of painting, by Bernini, and that of the French pope, since the discovery of the body of the Gregory XI. (Pierre Roger), erecied in immortal arlist, has sunk into that of 1382 by the senate and people of Rome: the canon don Desiderio de' Adjutori, lhe esteemed basso-reliero of Olivieri, a the obscure founder of the society of the Roman sculptor and architect of the last Virtuosi of the Pantheon,

,-a narrow century, though not free from the deskull, unworthy of the honours it re fects of the lime, represents the Return ceived and the pious veneration it so of the Holy See lo Rome in 1377. We long inspired.

There see the desolation and ruin of the The statue of Canova, who had been eternal city, then reduced to seventeen named perpetual president of the aca- thousand inhabitants, and more dedemy, commemorates one of the bene- graded, more fallen through the absence This distich has been happily translated into Esser temea natura, e morto, estiota.

* See post, cb. Ixili, Questi e quel Raffael, col vivo, vinta

į

Italian :

nio Micheli of Grolla Ferrala, of Decem

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and to the banker Ghigi, he followed il

into a house of ill fame, by Cardinal Pewbicb Saint Gregory had no right to and fell dead at the feet of her infamous much poise at Rome, Constantinople, her unhappy fate in a leiter to Marcanto.

of the popes than the inroad of the bar It was at Saint Gregory that the celebarians. Under the vestibule is the brated Roman courtesan Jinperia, the mausoleum, in tolerably good style, of | Aspasia of the age of Leo X., the friend Antonio Rido of Padua, governor of the of Beroald, Sadolet, Campani, and Cocastle of Saint Angelo, deceased in 1475, locci, obtained the honour of a public on which he is represented on horse- monument and strange epitaph: Imperia back and in arms.

cortisana Romana, quæ digna tanto The solitary church of Saint Gregory nomine, raræ inter homines forme sul monte Celio, built on the site of the specimen dedit; viril annos savi dies monastery founded by this Roman patri- XII, obiit 1511 die 15 augusti. Both mocian, who became a great pope and a nument and inscription were destroyed singing master, is served by the Camal: | in the last century, not for scruple or dulite mooks. The front and double decency, but by inadvertence during cerportico are elegant, airy works by Soria, tain repairs. The existence of Imperia, an architect of the seventeenth century, and the kind of dignity of a Roman who resisted the progress of bad taste courtesan), are features characteristic of for a considerable period. This church the pagan manners, if we may say so, is principally indebted for its celebrity of the literali at the revival. Imperia to the rival frescos of Domenichino and was sung by her learned friends in Latin Guido in the chapel of Saint Andrew. and Italian verse. Bandello relates that The Scourging of the saint, by the for- such was the luxury of her apartments, mer, is a chef-d'æuvre for elevation, that the ambassador of Spain repeated force of design and expression, and there the insolence of Diogenes, by spilbeauty of composition; the nlogger, with ling into the face of a servant, saying he his back towards the beholder, is admi- could find no other place for it. Imrably drawn. The fresco of Guido, St. peria seems also to have been very eruAndrew adoring the cross before his dite, as we see in Bandello's description, martyrdom, richer and more vigorous that beside her music books, her lute

, in colouring than Domenichino's, is after and other instruments, there lay several all inferior. At the bottom of the cha- richly ornamented works in Latin and pel is a statue of St. Gregory sitting the vernacular tongue: Parecchi libretti which was rough-hewo with genius by volgari e latini riccamente adornati

. Michael Angelo, and finished by his In the fifth chapter of Paolo Giovio's treapupil, the sculptor Lorrain Cordier, tise de Romanis piscibus (Basil

, 1531); called Franciosino. The Concert of there is a very amusing story of an old Angels, by Guido, on the roof of the Roman parasite, Tilus Tamisius, who gallery of the chapel of Saint Silvia, sent his valet to the market to ascertain mother of Saint Gregory, though much where the best fish went to. Being in praised, is not one of his best works. formed that the head of an umbra was The view of the ruins of the Cæsars' pa- sent to one of the Conservators (according lace is wonderfully picturesque from this

lo an old usage that allowed ihese offichapel. The chapel of the Saint has a cials the head of fishes of extraordinary painting by Annibale Carraccio, superb-size), then presented no two cardinals, religious zeal, was as much the enemy of last went to Imperia, lo whom Ghigi sent the fine arts as is falsely pretended," he il crowned with flowers in a gold dish, and did not deserve to be so magnificently with whom the impudent Tamisius sue: accusation of having destroyed ancient peria, married ai siena, was a model of monuments and thrown stalues into the Chastity; being entrapped, like Clarissa

, Tiber, is an undoubled calumny, as no contemporary writer relates this action, trucci, rather than yield she look poisos

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and throughout the Roman empire.

See posl, cb. will.

Part, Illa, nov. 42.

ber 19, 1522: Questo caso tanto più è de- , the same name, which fell to ruin and gno di esser celebrato, e quasi preposto was demolished by Pope Adrian I., about al fatto di Lucrezia, quanto, che questa the close of the eighth century. The donna fu figlia di una pubblica e fa- present church is of the ninth century, mosa meretrice, che fu l' Imperia, cor- and it manifests the extent to which most tigiana nobile in Roma, come sapete.' of the traditions and practices employed

The ancient church Santa Maria in in Roman buildings were perpetuated in Dominica, called della Navicella, from the west, especially in Italy. The gracea little vessel put in front by Leo X., was sul frescos of the chapel of Saint Catbecleverly renovated on Raphael's desigus. rine, of Masaccio's youth, though badly The portico is by Michael Angelo, and relouched, still prove, after little less the frieze painted in clare-obscure, by than four centuries, the talent of that Giulio Romano and Perino del Vaga. great painter. The most remarkable

Saint Stephen il Rotondo, which is lomb is cardinal Roverella's, an elegant only open early on Sunday mornings, is work of the fifteenth century. an instance of an antique edifice (perhaps a temple dedicated to Claudius) con

CILAPTER XVIII. verted into a church about the fifth or sixth century: ils successive repairs show

Saint John In Laterano.- Piazza -Obe!lsk.-Baptisthe retrogression of art. The numerous try.--Scala Santa.-Sancta Sanctorum.-Front.paintings of Pomarancio and Tempesta, Apostles.- Corsioi chapel. --Agrippa's urn.-Marrepresenting different Martyrdoms of tin V.-Heads of Saints l'eter and Paul.- Mosaics. Saints, bad enough, are the most hideous --Pointing of Grotto.—Abbé Cancellieri. On the and complete collection of executions that

cultivation of letters in Italy.-Door.- Santa Crore can be imagined.

in Gerusalemme.-Convent library.- Porla Mag

giore.- Basilic of Saint Laurence --Salut Bibiana. The aplique church of Saint Clement

-Bernini's statue.-Saint Eusebius. presents the best preserved model of the disposition of the first basilics. How

The piazza of Saint John in Laterano grand and popular does Christianity ap- presents the most colossal and finest of pear at its birth froin this solemn ar known obelisks, erected at Thebes by the rangement, presenting a double pulpit illustrious Thoutmosis II., the same as for ihe public reading of the Epistle and King Maris, the enterprising creator the Gospel! We feel it a moral, posi- or the lake; this obelisk, respected by live, instructive religion, whose precepts Cambyses, who mutilated and threw are binding on all mankind without dis- down all besides, was carried off by Continction. Some traces of this primitive stantine, and exhumed in a broken state religious equality seem perpetuated at from the ruins of the Circus Major by Rome in the practices of the public ser Sixtus V., under the direction of Fonvices: every body kneels on the bare lana, who re-erected it. This superb pavement of the temples, and we see no obelisk, a single block of red granite, thing of the devotional comforts of our ninety-nine feet high without the pedestal, parish churches to mark a distinction of covered with hieroglyphics most perfectly rank. The different compartments of the sculptured, has been sung by Tasso : aisles also show the various grades, the boly hierarchy of the catechumens; the L'obelisco di note impresso intorno, Church was then a militant body which had ils degrees of advancement, and vir so much was the poet's imagination intue alone produced the distance. It is spired by the apparition of these old and ho unreasonable supposition that in the mystic monuments. All history is found centre of the atrium formerly stood the at Rome, from that of Egypt to the latest founlain in which the pagans purified times, from the Pharaohs down to the themselves, probably the origin of the kings and princes of Napoleon's family. Christian holy-water vase. The foun- | This admirable city assembles the mysdation of the church of Saint Clement, terious monuments of Egypt, the poetic with all its antiquity, is not so old as the chefs-d'æuvre of the Greeks, and her fifth century, as some persons have stated, own grand monuments. who confound it with another basilic of The Baptistry of Constantine, Ibe

1

Lettere de' Principi. Venice, 1562, 1, 1, p. 81.

· Rime. Part. II. 345. See ante, ch. i.

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