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Catherine's command, four painting re- , dour, by whom be had been discharged presenting the principal feats of the war for a serious breach of duty. The desin the Morea, and particularly the burning tiny of this disgraced companion of maof the Turkisb fleet at Tchesme. Hackert dame Duhausset, who has lest no Mehaving declared that he did not know how moirs, was odd enough in its way; aster to express a ship blown up, Orloff fired having assisted at the petits soupers of the finest of his Deet, at the risk of des- Louis XV., he prepared the frugal repast troying the numerous and richly laden of the traveller, and he was recognised vessels in the road of Leghorn. These by the manners of Versailles which be four pictures are in the ball of audience retained. These hermits, like the pubof Petershoff; they are said not to exceed lican of Chamouny, have a book to remediocrily.
ceive the stray thoughts of travellers;
but Vesuvius, like Mount Blanc, has proCHAPTER IV.
duced scarcely anything but lrash. The
aspect of even the grandest reality is Vesuvius.-Road.-Hermits.- Eruptions. - Benefits most frequently sterile, if it be not comof Vesuvius.
pleted and embellished by imagination
and memory, and it requires, ere it can There are certain usages of travellers, yield inspiration, Ihal sort of distance. which, though long-established, are Before the eruption of the year 63, none the more reasonable on that ac which occurred sixteco years before the count. For instance, it is considered one consigned to everlasting rememindispensable for every man who goes to brance by the death of Pliny the elder Vesuvius to sacrifice his night's repose,
and the iwo letters of Pliny the younger set of at ten o'clock, and climb the 1o Tacitus, the eruptions of Vesuvius mountain with torches, for the purpose seem to have been less frequent and deof seeing the rising sun from the Hermi-structive. Under Augustus, the least tage. But Vesuvius is surrounded on elevated summit was covered with trees the east by lofty mountains which greatly and vines. The principal eruptions, since diminish the effect of this marvellous the last-mentioned, of which the Cay. suprise, as the sun cannot be seen till Arditi, in a dissertation read to the broad daylight. The selling, on the Borbonica Society, pretends to fix the contrary, is incomparably gorgeous; the hour, minute, and second, happened majestic orb embraces the whole unbrok- in 203, in 472, when the asbes were en horizon, and plunges into the sea with blown to Constantinople; in 512, 685, all his fires. By the reflected light of 993, 1036, the first of ihe modern erupthis declining sun, the huge mass of Vesu- lions accompanied with lava; in 1049, vius was tinted of a fine violet hue. The 1138, 1306, 1500, and in 1631, the most rising of the moon, which I enjoyed on violent since that of 79. Despite the my descent, completed this magnificent disasters of these different eruptions and spectacle; for I bad started righi simply the terror ibis volcanic earth, furrowed about the middle of a most genial day, with ligbining like the heavens, must and consequently lost the honours of inspire, the outbreakings of Vesuvius the nocturnal expedition of fashionable have not the ulterly destructive effects travellers.
of the inundations, avalanches, and ouber The pretended bermits are not worthy dreadful plagues of the North : the paveof all the respect with which they inspire ment of ihe city is supplied by the lava, some pensive travellers: their bospitality the brilliant scoriæ of wbich, tinted with is anything but gratuitous; they never azure, ultramarine, yellow, and orange, were priests, and are in fact nothing more are transformed into jewels and fancy than two interested peasants, with a boy, articles that are sold abroad. The asbes keeping a public house at the Three Elms. It has vomited forth produce excellent Their dwelling, let like any other tene fruit and the nice wine of Lacryma ment, has even in limes past been re- Christi, so ingeniously sung by Chiaputed one of those gallant and secret ren
brera : dezvous, in the vicinity of large towns. About fifty years since, one of these her
Chi fu de' contadini il si indiscreto, mils, who died at an advanced age, was
Ch'a sbigottir la gente
Diede nome dolente an old foolman of madame de Pompa Al vio, che sovra gli altri il cuor fa lieto?
Lacrima dunque appellerassi un riso, from Normandy seem strangely allied Parto di nobllissima vendemmia ?
with the splendid monuments of ancient It was remarked, after the eruptions calls one of the most terrible examples
and modern Italy. Herculaneum reof 1794, 1796, and 1822, that several of the abuse of erudition ; 1 allude to the spots previously barren had become ex
case of the Roman prelate Bajardi, a fatremely fertile from this shower of asbes.
mous antiquarian, who pretended to be A numerous population obtains the means of existence from Vesuvius; it may be
a descendant of Bayard : being called
upon by the king of Naples to give a calikened to an immense furnace created by nature on the shores of sea, which is talogue of the objects discovered and preits moving power: la montagna, there served at Portici, he obtained permission, fore, as it is commonly called at Naples, ings, to put at the beginning of the great
while they were waiting for ibe engraris more loved than dreaded by the Nea- commentary a preface, the beginning of politan; he makes it his pride and glory: which he published in seven thick quarlo it is the most majestic decoration of his volumes; and then, as the abbé Barthé6ne amphitheatre'; he would be grieved lemy informs us, he had not even entered if it could disappear, and the inhabilants
on the subject. of Resina, Torre del Greco, and La Nunziata, have rebuilt their houses on
Antiquity, at Pompeii, ceases to be the the identical spot from wbich they were
vague, remote, uncertain antiquity of
books, commentators, and antiquarians; swept away. In fine, Vesuvius, even in the midst of its greatest fury, seems to
it is real, living, antiquity in propria have engulfed Pompeii only to preserve it may be felt, seen, and touched. The
persona, il tbe expression be allowable : it miraculously for lhe curiosity and ad
new and learned barbarism of the mumiralion of posterity.
seums is here more offensive and fatal tban
elsewhere : had the discovered objects CHAPTER V.
been left in their places, and the simple
precautions necessary for preserving them Herculaneum.-Theatre.- Pompeil.- Excavallons. attended to, they would have formed the -Villa of Diomedes.-Road of the Tombs.-Walls.
most wonderful museum on earth. It -Streets. -- Acteon's Ilouse.- Shops. - The baker's,
may be further stated that only a fifth fans's, and the dramatic poet's bouse. - Thermæ. -Fullonica.-llouse of the Paun.- Great Caosaic.
part of the city is cleared, and it will be --Forum.-Public treasury.- Prisons.--Basilic. necessary, if all moveables continue to Pantheon.-Square of the Tragic theatre.-Tbea be taken away, to build another city lo lre.-Price of seats.-Amphitheatre.
contain them. However, if the excava
tions proceed at the present rale, there is Herculaneum, though on the road to time enougb on hand : from the most acPompeii, should be visited last; as it can curate calculations, it appears that the only be examined by torchlight, being complete exhumation would require an buried more than sixty feet under a very outlay of 694,589 ducats (115,7641.); and hard lava, without this precaution, one the local sum allowed every year for would hardly be able to comprehend ei- works and repairs is only 6000 ducats ther the form of the galleries in its theatre, (1,0001.). Thus, if it has already rethe least injured of antiquity, which quired a hundred and twenty years lo must have beld about ten thousand spec. eflect the discovery of the fifth we poslators, or the plan of its magnificent villa. sess, four hundred and eighty years must Without the prelude, the initiation of elapse before the whole of Pompeii can Pompeii, the black cavern of Herculaneuni be seen. would appear but a kind of deserted When Sulpitius, seeking to console mine, with no signs of living man. A Cicero for the death of his daughter Tulprince of Elbeuf, Emmanuel de Lorraine, lia by the example of human vicissitudes, who married at Naples and settled at speaks to him of those carcases of cities Portici, was the discoverer of Hercula- that he saw when returning from Asia, neum. We have seen that one of the how lillle did he imagine that his figufinest palaces in Italy, at Verona, was rative expression would one day be as built by a bishop of Bayeux;' these names justly applicable lo the town which was
the delight of his friend, Tusculanum See anle, book v. ch. xxv.
et Pompejanum valde me delectant,
whose house, notwithstanding the good hardly to quit the earth; they inhabit will of the abbé Romanelli, has not yet the most frequented places, beside the been found—a magnificent house, for highways, and seem less lo die than to which he ran into debt, where he re remove from one house to another. The ceived Octavius, and wbich, of all the most remarkable of these lombs are: the one and lwenty villas discovered for him monument erected by Alleja Decimilla, by the eccentric abbé Chaupy, was one priestess of Ceres, to ber husband Marof the greatest favourites.
cus Allejus Lucius Libella, and to ber The villa of Diomedes in the suburbs, son, on a piece of ground given by the ibe finest in Pompeii, shows the double people; ibat erected by Nevoleja Tycbe life of the Romans, at once public and to her husband Caius Munatius, hersell, private. The public part is composed of and their freedmen and women; she had ihe vestibule and the atrium, which sculptured thereon her own portrait, the comprehended nearly always in the same bisellium, a seat of honour,' which the order the cavædium (court), the tabli- decurions and the people had decreed to num (audience chamber), ibe wings, the Munalius, a funeral ceremony and a corridors (fuuces). The private part con vessel enlering port, perbaps the emblem tained the bed-rooms (cubicula), the of the repose of ibe tomb after the storms dining-room (triclinium), the sitting- of life; the cenotaph of C. Calvenrooms (æci), the picture gallery (pina- tius Quietus, whose munificence procotheca). The library, the baths, the cured bim also the honour of the biselexedra or parlour, the wystum, or gal- lium, reckoned the most elegant and best lery sel oui with flowers and shrubs; all preserved of the sepulchral monuments these apartments were ranged round the of antiquity; the tomb of Scaurus, cuperistyle. The public life is full of gran- rious for its stucco basso-relievos, repre. deur; most of the small rooms for pri- senting hunting scenes, gladiatorial convale use receive no light bul through the tests, in which the combatants have door, have no fireplaces, and are far from helmets with the visors down, and are being comfortable, notwithstanding the protected with cuissarts and arm-pieces mosaics and brilliant paintings that de- like the old knights, and for its explacorate them. It is evident from the in- natory inscriptions traced with a pencil. convenience of these rooms that the life The ramparts of Pompeii, discovered of the Romans was chiefly out-of-doors from 1812 to 1814, which may now be and public, and that except at night and followed all round, show the extent and their principal meal, which was towards plan of the town; these ramparts, in evening, they passed nearly all their lime great mcasure buill of enormous blocks of at the Forum, or under the porticos. slone, had dared the fortune of Sylia, who The atrium even of the house was a subdued Pompeii without attacking it. kind of inner Forum in which they re The streets of Pompeii are narrow and ceived their guests, dependants, friends, crooked; but as chariots bad then only and where they continued to live in the a four feet way (as may be seen from the open air. The home of the English, or marks of the wheels), a grealer width the coin du feu of the French, was totally was not necessary. The ancients moreunknown to them, as to the Italians of over imagined that narrow and winding the present day, who have no public life. streets were more salubrious, as the sun The house of Diomedes had three stories, had less power in them. a rare thing; for most of the other houses The public house of Julius Polybius had only iwo surmounted by a terrace has a vast subterranean cave, the best ornamented with a kind of trellis. As cellar in Pompeii. in the East, the women's apartment was The house of the Vestals, brilliant with lowards the garden.
paintings and mosaics, has almost the The road of ihe Tombs (ria Domitia- form of a temple; the whimsical capitals na), with causeways, lined on each side of the columns are far from Greek purity. with high mausoleums occupied by whole The house of the dancing girls retains families and their dependants, is a real its gay air, in the variety, grace, and vostreet. In polytheism the dead seem luptuousness of its figures.
'The bisellium was a kiod of bench covered with fringed cusbions, on wbich one person only
sat at the forum and in public sbows, though there was room for two.
The house said to be Sallust's or Acc | Pansa also let a great number of shops teon's, is one of the most elegant and and an oven. Over this last is the celerefined in the town; its atrium passes for brated inscription Hic habitat felicitas, the best preserved. An oven, like ours, and its obscene emblem, a small bassoseems quite new and fit for use. A shop relievo of stone painted red, an allusion, communicated with Sallust's apartment: according to some learned and antiquawe see by this example and many others, rians, to abundant harvests, or perhaps that the ricbest palricians were not above to the shape of the small bread of antirelailing the wine, oil, and provisions of quity. This emblem was also used by their own growth or the produce of their the ancients as an amulet to prevent industry; a custom still subsisting in some certain evils, and S. Arditi supposed that Jlalian provinces, and practised by the the baker had employed it as a means of ihrilly Florentines.' Shops were a lu- securing his establishment. crative property; Cicero knew how to The lillle house of the tragic poet, with make the best of his as well as the builder its noled but inferior mosaic of a great of a new passage. : At Pompeii, near black dog chained and the inscription the amphitheatre, was found a written cave canem (beware of the dog), is one notice by which Julia Felix, daughter of of the prettiest private monuments of Spurnius, a man of great possessions, antiquity. Frescos of divers mythological offered to lease for five years a vast edi or dramatic subjects, and of numerous lice containing a bath, a venereum (its figures of Genii, Victories, with arausual concomitant), and nine hundred besques and mosaics of beller taste shops with their appurtenances. The embellish it. In the library, a small room Tusury of our fashionable warehouses ornamented with views, landscapes, existed in these shops, which formed the marine pieces, the papyri covered with front of ibe houses in most cases; they | Greek characters are also painted on the were noored with mosaic, and had their wall, a coarse factitious means of posLuseum in the open air ; an ox was sessing books, which would not have painted on the shop of a butcher, and the been adopted by the two great tragic group of vintagers represented on a Wi-poets of France and Italy, Racine and Deshop, has been imilated by Poussin. Alfieri, the former when he so diligently The mysterious venereum, decorated annoled the Sophocles, Euripides, and with tbe great fresco of Acteon, must other works left by his son to our royal have appeared less scandalous with the library, as well as those given to the religion, the poetry, and the manners of library of Toulouse by Lefranc de Pomthe Pompeians.
pignan; the second, when he so belaboured The house of Modestus, as it is called, his copies of the Greek tragics and Arisbelonged to a dealer in liquors. The tophanes, now at the Laurentian. The sign is a passably poetical representation fine mosaic in the floor of the receivingof[lysses refusingibe perfidious beverage room, composed of seven figures, called presented to him by Circe.
the Dramatical Concert, is a curious The baker's house is well disposed. The picture of a rehearsal and the stage oven and mills are curious. The two scenes of antiquity. only comic Latin poets, Plautus and
The thermæ, or an elegant simplicity, Tereace, were condemned, when en
would not hold more than twenty persons; slaved, to do the work of asses in turning it is probable that they were not the only The stone of these lillle mills resembling ones in Pompeii. The ladies' side is the à coffee mill in form. Cato extolled the most ornamented. The first room was skilful millers of Pompeii.3
used for undressing; at the farther end The babitation of the edile Pansa is is a little oval closet (frigidarium) which the largest and most regular in Pompeii. has a basin sunk in the ground (piscina) See ante, book 1. ch. XV.
O Socrates, et Socratici vivi! Dunquam vobis gra"See tbts bumorcus possage of a letter to Atticus,
tiam referam. Dit immortales, quam mihi ista ki mbich Cicero makes such a strange ostentallon pro nibilo! Sed tamen ea rativ ædificandi ipitur, of pollssophy : “Sed quod quæris, quid arcessierim consiliario quidem et auctore Vestoriu, ut hoc Croslppum; tabernæ mihi duæ corruerunt, re damnum quæstuosum sit." Lib. xiv, 9. Chrysippus lifurque rimas agunt. Itaque non solum Inquiliui, was Cicero's architect; he had anoiber called sed mures etiam migraverunt. Hanc ceteri cala Cluatlus. Ibid., lib. XII, 18. dialem vocant; ego ue locommodum quidem. 3 De re rust. cap. XXII.
on Italian imagination amalgamate well, there at night with his soldiers ; on the and have already produced more than morrow be was very ill, and his men one amiable model.
loo, many of whom died. The grotto of Farther on is the fine avenue leading to Lautrec is still shown, where he was the old Champ de Mars created by the obscurely interred in 1528, until the duke French, which was a suitable adjunct for of Sessa, having discovered bis corpse, a great and frequently agitated capital, erected to him the noble mausoleum in but it has unfortunately been reduced, the church of Santa Maria la Nova, a under the pretext of restoring the land 10 Between the bills of Capo di Monte and cultivation, as if that were scarce in such Capo di Chino is a secluded valley, in a country.
which, on a rising ground and amidst On this side is the bill of Santa pines, stands the picturesque convent of Maria del Pianto, called also the Mount Santa Maria de' Monti, with its oriental of Lautrec, because that general once dome. But the principal ornament of encamped there. Historians slate that this vale is the wreck of the superb our army perished from privations, ex- aqueduct reddened by time, and called cessive heat and the plague, without from its colour Ponti rossi(red bridges). mentioning the exhalations of the soil, a work of Augustus, which carried the which perhaps contributed more to its waters of the Lebeto lo the port of Midestruction, if we_may judge by a con senum, a distance of thirty-five miles temporary fact. The French soldier who from Naples ; though shattered by earthoccupied the throne of Naples, a brave quakes, crowded, overtopped, enveloped compatriot of Lautrec, and greatly re- by vegetation, and ils arcades are the sembling him,' after reviewing his troops resort of the goatherd and his flock, it on this side, was so charmed with the still attests the power of the imperial situation, that be determined to encamp | people.
BOOK THE FOURTEENTH.
ENVIRONS.-ROAD TO ROME.
one of the finest views in the world,
commanding the gulfs of Naples and Vomero.-Camaldulites.- Lake d’Agpano.-Grotta Pozzuoli, with their islands, the extinct del Cane.- Solfatara.- Pozzuoli.- Cathedral. - craters of the Solfatara and Astrumi, the Temple of Serapis.--Port.--Amphitbeatre.-Tombs. lake of Agnano, Cape Misenum, the castle - Cicero's Villa.-Lakes Lucrious and Avernus.
of Baiæ and the boundless sea. There is Temples of Venus, Mercury, Diana.-Nero's Baths.
no place more suitable for a 'contem-Piscina Mirabile.-Cento Camerelle.-Cumæ.Balæ.- Baull.– Agrippina's sepulchre.-Coast of plative life, and the monks, with their Misenum.-Grotta della Dragonaria.
long beards, their gowns and hoods of
white woollen, are themselves pictuThe Vomero, over which the road to resque. It is true that they seem to have the Camaldulite convent passes, seems to little suspicion of it, and the traveller, be the crater of an ancient volcano in struck with what is poetical in their which arise several small hills covered | institution, is sometimes grievously diswith the strongest, most varied, and appointed on conversing with them. confused vegetation, presenting a singular The church has a few good paintings, and enchanting aspect. The couvent has among them a Last Supper, by Slan
I "Lautrec," says Brauiome, “étoit brare, bardi, frapper comme sourd; mais pour gouverner un valllant, et excellent pour combattre en guerre et élat Il n'y éloit bou."
* See ante, ch. ii.