« ZurückWeiter »
E dove la sua gatta in secca spoglia
greatest literary character of modern Guarda dai topi ancor la dotta soglia.
times; courted by kings and republics, A questa Apollo già fe' privilegi,
popes and universities, a friend of lhe Che rimanesse incontro al tempo intatta, E che la fama sua con varj (regi
cardinals, great lords, and the sham chi
merical tribune of modern Rome, he beld Eterna fosse in mille carnii fatta : Onde i sepolcri de' superbi regi
absolute sway over that empire of lellers Vince di gloria un' iusepolta gatta.
which he båd in a manner sounded,
whilst Voltaire extended and renewed it. A register (codice) is kept in the house If Petrarch had already the vanities and to receive the names of visiiors, and their weaknesses of a man of letters properly thoughts, if they happen to have any speaking, he raises himself by bis aliachThis volume has even been printed; but ment, bis enthusiasm for his country, by I doubt whether the desire of creating the profound pity be felt for ils misforenthusiasm ever prompted a less selicitous tunes, and his affecting friendsbip for expedient. Ourgrenadiers and voltigeurs Boccaccio; Voltaire, on the contrary, was have also been to write their names in the enemy of Jean-Jacques; he threw this book, but they are neither fools not ridicule on his country as on every thing ridiculous. Granting that they did nor else, and made a jest of its reverses.* exactly know what Petrarch was, it is really resembling each other in their evident that they were impelled by a kind manner of lise, both guests of a philosoof instinctive passion for glory, though pbical king (Petrarch of the good Robert their comprehension of it was not very of Naples, a somewhat freer liver than complete this sentiment is touching Frederick), beloved by illustrious women, because it is true, and in it lies the secret tormented by the spleen of critics, boldof their victories.
ing with their contemporaries, even the I confess, however, that I am no great most eminent, an immense corresponpartisan of those eternal inscriptions dence which makes their letters like which so many travellers seem to think annals of their day, transporting their almost obligatory. It appears to me that widespread fame to a thousand different the multitude of vulgar names, wbich places, their death presents a singular crowd around the tomb of a great man, contrast : Voltaire espires in the middle or on the walls of bis dwelling, intrude of Paris, overwhelmed with glory, suron the calm of the grave and ibe silence rounded by the homage of the Academy, of the retreat where he lived. It is, amid the clamour of iheatrical applause besides, a want of respect in mediocrity and the acclamations of the people; thus to assume familiarity with genius, Petrarch died peacefully in his asylum and rush into its very sanctuary. Such at Arquà, the gis of the Paduan tyrant, bomage is offensive, almost sacrilegious; which he preferred to the lumultuous the worshipper at this shrine must not life of a citizen of Florence. be too far below the divinity, nor make Pelrarch's real or metaphysical love with it a 100 striking contrast. This for Laura is perhaps one of the most coninscribing vanily, like that of the world, troverted and least explained questions has ils selfishness and vandalism; the in history. Professor Marsand, or Padua, lodges of Raphael, the frescos of Giulio editor of the best edition of Petrarch, and Roinano at Mantua, and of other great collector of a curious library of nine masters, already so much injured by age, bundred volumes about that celebraled are still farther spoiled and disfigured by man (which in 1830 was added to the the list of all these proper names.
king's privale library at the Louvre), after Petrarch's tomb, erected to his memory making the life of Petrarcb his study for by his son-in-law Brossano, is on the iwenty years, has re-adopted the opinion oiher side of Arquà facing the church. of Laura's celibacy; he pretends, nol. Petrarch is perhaps, with Voltaire, the withstanding the imposing authority of See his Canzoni, 2 and 4.
"I fremble like our regiments at Rosbach." Ang
in another place : "They fed ilke ibe French beSpirio gen til cbe quelle inembra reggi. fore your majesty."... "I wanted," said be again lialia mia, benché 'I pariar sia iudarno. to Frederick, the king of Prussia for my master,
and ibe English people for my fellow-citizens," and 1 " Whenever I address your majesty ou affairs many other such espressions.-Correspond. of ibe partaking of the serious," he writes to Frederick, bing of Prussia. Lel. LII, LSIINI, CIIF, CIIII, CISII.
Tiraboschi, Baldelli, Ginguené, and the some learned student of the German acthor of the remarkable article on Laura universities, on passing through Rovigo, io tbe Biographie universelle, lhat no au was indignant at finding the tomb of so thentic proof of her marriage with Hugues great a scholar without inscription, and de Sade can be adduced. I own that I drawing his sword, be traced with its would willingly yield to an opinion so point these admiring words : Hic jacet much in conformiiy with the spirit and li- | tantus vir! This would have been still terary manners of the time, and that I more natural in one of our countrymen, should rejoice to see such a poetical cha for Rhodiginus was always a very deracter delivered from those eleven chil voted partisan of the French. I did not dren so indelicately bestowed on her by see the slalue which it had been prothe vanity of the abbé de Sade. Despite posed to raise in his honour at Rovigo, her high birth so much boasted by Pe- and of which this laborious scholar was trarcb, Laura may very well have been no worthy. extraordinary person; he even tells us The library of the academy de' Conthat she was so much occupied in bouse cordi of Rovigo, was augmented in 1832 bold affairs as never lo pay any attention by the precious library of the abbé Goocto poelry or literature :
chi, a donation from that erudite gentleman, when he became librarian of the
Concordi. This library, with the addiE non curd giammai rime në versi.
tion of the fine pinacoteca of Count
Casilini, presents a whole that would not Petrarch, from his labours, discoveries, disgrace a metropolis. encouragements, and sacrifices, must be The Po is the limit of the Papal states; regarded as the real creator of letters in it is passed at Ponte di Lagoscuro, where Europe. When I contemplated on the ihere is only a simple ferry-boat (a trifling bill of Arquà the vast sepulchre of red fact that may enable one io form an opimarble, supported by four columns, in nion of the accuracy of Italian designawhich his ashes repose, I faucied it less lions, as well as of ihe prosperity of the the receptacle of mortal remains tban a
country). monument erected to the intellectual On the frontiers of the Papal states, powers, a trophy allesting the triumph of the restrictions and annoyances respectcivilisation and learning over barbarism ing the entrance of books are extreme: and ignorance.
a prelate even did not escape wben I
underwent them a second time in 1827. CHAPTER IX.
One of the officers with whom I had to do was, however, very kind and polite,
and felt that species of embarrassment origa - bodiginus. - Ponte di Lagoscuro.- Cus
which a reasonable man must feel when tom-bogse.-Custoin-house criticism.
engaged in a ridiculous business, ren
dered necessary by superior orders; for Rovigo is a small and rather noisy he was watched by other persons far town, with a great square in which stand inserior to himself. A very severe edict several tall red masis. One of ihe first of the legate of Ferrara was placarded men of the revival, the celebrated Cælius in the custom office, where the lamp of Rhodigious, whose Italian name The Madonna was burning amid weights, Ludovico Celio Richerio, his Lalin name scales, punches, stamps, and all the imbeing derived from that of his country plements of the trade; a singular and Rhodigium), is interred in the cloister offensive mixture of devotional practices of Saini Francis. Rhodiginus was called and fiscal proceedings. The literary the Varro of his time by Julius Cæsar baggage thai I look with me, for my reScaliger, wbom he bad the honour of searches, was sealed, preparatory to an calling his disciple; bis Antique lec- examination by the censors at Bologna. fiones, printed by Aldus (1576) frst | This custom-house criticism must after made him known ibroughout Europe : all be of little service; it was not, indeed, he was patrooised by Francis I., and very easy to explain to the officers what died of grief at the age of seventy-five florace, Virgil. Dante, Petrarch, and on learning his deseai and capture at other great authors were ; I found noPavia. AD Austrian officer, perhaps thing beller to say of ther than that,
being compatriots, they ought to be gold ground; Noah's Ark, by Dosso treated accordingly.'
Dossi; four pictures in clare-obscure,
representing divers incidents in the life CHAPTER X.
of Pope Saint Silvester; the Twelve Apostles, the Prayer in the Garden,
the Resurrection of Christ, the Descent Ferrara.--Castle.--Palace del Magistrato.- Inlrepidi of the Holy Ghost, by Garofolo, the - Renee of France.-Reform in Italy.
friend of Ariosto, the Raphael of Fer
rara, and one of that great master's best Ferrara is dull, solitary, and deserted, pupils; two famous ovals present the but still breathes a kind of courtly gran Martyrdom of St. Maurelius, by Cosmè, deur and magnificence; · the castle a Ferrarese artist of the fifteenth cenespecially, occupied by the legate, with lury, painter at the court of Borso d'Este; its bridges, towers, and elegant balustra- a st. Bruno, by Guercino; the Manna des, retains in its exterior a fairylike air in the desert; the Wedding feast, by in accordance with its poetical recollec- Agostino Carraccio; a Manger, by Ortotions; I was much struck by its aspect on lado, of Ferrara, an imitator of Raphael; the evening of my arrival, as I contem- the Nativity of the Virgin; thal of plated it by moonlight, wbich was re- Christ; an Åssumption, by Bastianino, Dected in its broad and brimming moat. also of Ferrara, a pupil and imitator of My visit to the apartments on the morrow Michael Angelo, for whom he fled his completely dissipated the illusion : they
paternal home at the age of fifteen. had been fresh painted by an artist and The ancient academy degli Intrepidi, dilettante of Ferrara; and as I looked which in 1803, alter existing two cenaround inquisitively for some traces of turies, became ibe Ariostea academy, the sojourn of the princely house of Este, and in 1814 the scientific and literary the custode apprised me with an air of academy degli Ariostei, holds its sittings self-complacency that there was not a in tbe palace del Magistrato. The last single corner left untouched by his High transformation of the intrepidi seems an ness. Could I have suspected such a improvement; the scientific researches disappointment, I think I should have of provincial academies, as that of Ferdespised the castle like Michael Angelo. rara may now be called, must be prewhen, as he passed incognito to Ferrara ferable io their poetry, as they collect during the siege of Florence, on being and publish facts. invited by Duke Alfonso to lodge in the Near the Ariostean hall is a small palace, he proudly chose to remain at
room, and three others looking into the his inn.3 Some remnants of fine paint-garden, in which, according to the learned ings still subsist, however, on the ceilings guide of Ferrara, Doctor Antonio Frizzi, of the antichamber and the saloon of Calvin was concealed, when in his wanAurora; they are by Dosso Dossi, a great derings he found an asylum with the painter of Ferrara in the sixteenth cen duchess Renée, wife of Ercole 11., the tury, celebrated by Ariosto in bis Or- protectrix of the literary men and scholars lando, as one of ihe first painters in of her day. It was there that he secretly Italy.
expounded bis doctrines to this princess, The palace del Magistrato, the resi- the beretical daughter of Louis XII. and dence of the gonfalonier, or holy stan the stern Anne of Brillany, to the learned dard-bearer, has some admirable paint and beautiful Olimpia Fulvia Morata, ings : arabesques and small figures on a Francesco Porto Centese, and other cour
See on the same subject, book Xili, chap. i. * The decay of Ferrara has, however, been exag. gerated by some recent travellers. The trade in corn is pretty considerable; and if it be no longer precisely la citla bene avventurosa of Ariosto (01. cant. IlIll. st. 55), it is still in some degree la gran donna del Po of Tassoni (Sicch, rap.capt. v. st. 37); the population, which under the French government was twenty-three thousand seven bundred, is now pearly thirty-two thousand, including the suburbs. Under Ibe dules of the house of Este, it
amounted to sixty thousand. The Jews form about a third of the present inbabitants; they are compelled to live in a separate quarter: but it is the finest, and not in tbe least like the infected Ghetto o Rome.
Michael Angelo consented, bowever, to accom pany tbe duke, who wished to show bim bis paint ings, and it was then, on seeing ibe paintings of 1 tlan, that be uttered these memorable words : "CO non avea creduto che l'arte polesse giungere a tanic e cbe solo Tiziano era degno del pone di pittore
liers, wbo, being one day surprised by the free discussion of Fra Paolo, but they the duke, look flight with their apostle. could never have conformed in practice Some months after Calvin, Marot, like- to the dull austerity of the reformed wise banished from France, came to doctrines, which are allogether opposed Ferrara; and be, too, in bis turn was to the manners, custoins, and spirit of espelled by the duke, a singularly jealous that nation, husband, whose wife never gave a rendezvous to any but sectarians. Renée
CHAPTER XI. was an bercine,' and could not be persuaded to reembrace the Roman faith by Cathedral.- Madoona.- Pilgrim.- Lilio Giraldi... the inquisitor sent from France for that Saint Francis.--Echo.-House of Este.-Pigna.purpose, notwithstanding all the perse
Saint Benedict-Saint Dominick.-Celio Calcacutions she suffered, lamented by Marot
gnini.--Santa Maria del Vado.-Ferrarese school. in bis fine verses to Margaret of Navarre,
--Saint Andrew.- Capuchins. --Gesù. - The du
chess Barbara.--Pericolaoli. her sister :
The cathedral, of the twelfth century,
has been renovated within, but still retains
the Gothic character of its exterior : its When we consider the religious deter- front is covered with uninjured bassomination of the duchess of Ferrara and relievos representing the life of Jesus her domestic martyrdom (she having been Christ, the Last Judgment, the seven paried from her children by her husband),
mortal sins, with numberless emblems, the Calvinism of the women and the men sacred, profane, grotesque, and even of talent in this liule court, the ardour something more; over the left-hand door of their proselytism (Renée had con
is a colossal antique bust of Greek marverted the French general of Henry II.'s ble, venerated as the Madonna of Ferarmy, in the war with Tuscany, Jean de rara, one of the Madonnas of Italy celeParthenai, lord of Soubise), it is impos
brated in the old chronicles of the town; 3 sible not to believe that the reformation and on the same side is the statue of Alcarried its attacks against Rome into the bert d'Este, in a pilgrim's dress, who Very heart of Italy.. In France, at that returned from Rome in 1390 and eporh, a part of the princes of the blood and the nobility had embraced protes
Rapporta de son auguste enceinte
Non des lauriers cueillis au champ de Mars, tantism ; il therefore appears to have bad
Mais des agous avec des lodulgences, Dany chances of success. However, Et des pardons et de belles dispenses, even if the inquisition had not so violently sappressed it in Italy, I do not deeds and bulls that are seen in sculpture think it would ever have been firmly there. established. The Italians might applaud The paintings are fine and curious : the pretical invectives of Danie and the Apostles Peter and Paul; a Virgin, Petraret against the Roman court, the full of majesty, on a throne surrounded tritunitian declamations of Savonarola, with sainis; an Assumption, are by
10a the death of ber busband, Renée bastened ber departure from Italy to revisit ber country; she displayed a high character during our civil wars, ber base was an asylumn for tbe proscribed, and this former mistress of the castle of Ferrara died to the golbie maoorhouse of Montargis. Ginguene la ia error when, speaking of Renée's Calvinistic opinions (Bist. litt. d'il. IV. 97). he regrets that those coldtelligible doctrines carried trouble into a Deseable court and rendered miserable the end of
* na Osefully empored in the cultivation and emragepent of learuing : at ibe period of CalForbit and preaching at Ferrara, in 1535, Renée ** only twenty-five; she returned to France ha a, aud Ilved Ull 1575.
be the curious work already cited, book v. ebap 1. listory of the progress and suppression of Ine deformation in llary. According to M'Cric,
The reformation bad spread even into Calabria and Sicily, whither some refugees from the country of Vaud had retired. The new opinions found pariisans at that time among a great number of literati and even Itallap divines. L. Bossi (notes to the Translation of the Lile of Leo X. t. I, p. 246-7) meniloos twenty of them, some of which the English author does not cite, as : Jacopo Broccardo of Venice, Glan Leone Nardi of Florence, Simone SImoni of Lucca, Jacopo Acconzio of Trent. Francesco Calvi, a learned bookseller of Pavia, eulogised by Erasmus and Andrea Alciat, seems to bave been chiefly instrumental in disseminating protestant books in Italy.
3. Verona and Manlua bave also their madonnas, which are said in their fabulous bistory to have founded them : Memorie per la Storia di Ferrara, raccolle da Antonio Frizzi, 11, 142.
Garofolo. The picture at the altar of the St. Catherine, at the fifth altar, is anHoly Sacrament is by Parolini, an artist other of Bastianino's works. of some merit who died in 1733, the last The inscription belonging to the tomb painter of Ferrara; the angels of this of Lilio Giraldi, the celebrated mytholochapel and several other stalues of an- gist, remains in the cathedral, though the gels, saints, and seraphim in the church monument bas been transferred to the are by Andrea Ferreri, a sculptor of the Campo Santo : this inscription, written last century, elaborate, but occasionally by himself, alludes to his wretchedness : graceful. In the choir, the Last Judgment, a fresco by Bastianino, the best of the Last Judgments after that in the Six
Opus ferente Apolline, tine chapel, of which it is an able and superb imitation, bas been impaired by says be, in his pagan language, which a late bungling restoration. The artisi, seems rather strange in a church. Monlike Dante and Michael Angelo, has put i laigne does himself honour by the feeling his friends in heaven and his enemies in mapper in which he speaks of Giraldi's hell; a young woman is even to be seen end : “I hear, with great shame at our there who had refused his hand, while age, that two persons most eminent in the one who consented to espouse him, learning have died before our eyes in a placed among the elect, is malignly gaz state of starvation, namely Lilius Gregoing at her. An Annunciation, a St. rius Giraldus in Italy, and Sebastianus George, are by Cosmè; as well as some Castalio in Germany; and I think there are admirable miniatures which embellish a thousand men who would bave offered the twenty-three volumes of cboir books, them most advantageous conditions, or presented by the bishop Bartolommeo assisted them where they were, bad of Rovera ; large and brilliant volumes their necessities been knowo. The world compared, and even preferred to those of is not 80 generally corrupted, that I Siena, an elogium sufficient to give an should not know a man who would most idea of their magnificence. Near there anxiously wish to employ the means that is the sepulchral stone of Urban III, have fallen lo his share, as long as who occupied the throne of Saint Peter fortune grants him their enjoyment, but for a moment, and died of grief on in putling beyond the reach of want learning the disasters of the second cru rare and remarkable men, in any kind sade.
of excellence, whom fortune sometimes The five bronze stalues of an antique pushes to extremities."3 Tbis page may allar, the Christ on the cross, the Vir- be adduced in contradiction of Montaigin, St. John, St. George, and St. Maure- gne's reputed selfishness; and his implied lius, seemed the work of Bindelli, of Ve- regret at not having been able to sucrona, and of Marescotti, a clever artist cour merit is both noble and affecting. of the close of the fifteenth century, The celebrated echo of the church o whose works are very few in number, Saint Francis repeats sounds as many as but highly esteemed; Marescotti was a sixteen limes, and from every part of the monk or ihe Gesuali order, founded in building. There are admired painting 1367 by Saint Giovanni Colombini of by Garofolo; the Apprehension of Christ Siena, and suppressed in 1668 by Cle- very much injured; the Virgin, The In ment Ix. Donatello, when summoned fant Jesus, St. John Bapiist, and St from Venice lo estiinale the value of the Jerome, divine in espression; a Hol statues, found them very valuable, and Family in repose, natural and elegant fixed the price at 1641 golden ducals. A a superb Resurrection of Lazarus ; tb
1 Tbe news of the taking of Jerusalem could not have caused Ibe death of Urban II., as some bave said : his death took place on the 20th of October, and Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin on the 1200 only. There can be no doubt ibat be died on learoing the loss of the battle wbich preceded that closing catastrophe.
* The inscription is dated 1550, which explains the mistake of those who make Giraldi die tbat very year, whereas, according to De Thou, be did
not die till 1552; It is not improbable that Girale composed It two years before his death.
* Ch. (XIV, On a defect in our police. Voc taigne, as well as De Thon, who states Giraldi bave died very poor, does not appear well inform on this subject; Giraldi received assistance in E latter days from the ducbess Renée, and, accordi to Tiraboscbi, he left at bis death a sum of abo ten thousand crowos.