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with the fabrics of France and England. The neighbouring small temple of The Venetians learnt the art of glass- Saint Fosca, a work of the ninth century, making from the Greeks, who were very whose malerials were taken from the jealous of their secret, wbich they bad pre- ruins of Roman edifices, is one of those served from antique tradition. The sand primitive monuments of barbarous times, of Tyre, which gave the transparency to imilated, renovated, and restored with the glass of the ancients, mighi also have elegance, like certain literary masterbeen employed by the Venetians when pieces of the epochs of civilisation. At they made the conquest of the same Saint Fosca is interred the skilful painter shores. The manufactories of large Cappuccino, who, having escaped from varnished pearls, to the number of three, | his convent, sound an asylum at Venice bave elosely preserved the secret of this against the pursuits of bis order. The cheap and sbowy fabrication, which tomb has for inscription these words: allows to the moderately rich the splen- Bernardus Strozzius, pictorum splendour and luxury of the wealthy. But dor, Liguriæ decus, a flattering eulothis frivolous industry, like that of works gium in the vicinity of the great Veneo fashion, cannot prove a sure resource lian inasters. for a state, since it does not provide for A writer of a lively imagination has Teal and durable wants. The exporla- given a poetical description of the Lido,, ticos of these articles are triling, and it would be hazardous to risk another berlain; nor has the trade been suffi- description after bis, that all the world Cill 10 prevent the ruin of Venęlian bas read. It is, however, to be regrelted

that it contains nothing on the castle of

Saint Andrew, a masterpiece of military CHAPTER XXIV.

architecture, by San Micheli, monument

of a victory, which, in its desolation, Isle of Torcello.-Salat Fosca.-Lido. breathes still the strength and ancient

warlike magnificence of Venice.3 The charming isle of Torcello is still It was upon the firm and solitary bank remarkable for its monuments. Thc of the Lido, that Byron took his daily Duomo bears the impress of the East and ride. Had he died at Venice, it was his of the middle ages: the front, the rouf, wish to have reposed there near a certain and the pavement are inlaid with precious stone, the limit of some field, not far nikaics representing symbols and cir- from the little fort, so as to escape, by a eenslances of sacred history; marble wild caprice, his native land, too heavy columns support the nave; the holy for his bones, and the abhorred funeral Saler vase appears to bave been a heathen obsequies of his relatives. aliar, and a marble pulpit rises behind the choir, in the midst of semi-circular

CHAPTER XXV. steps. The magnificence of this temple, founded in the year 1008, by bishop The isle of Saint Lazaro.- Armenian Convent.Orsa Orseolo, bears testimony to the an Mechitar.-Kover.-Moonlight at Venice. cient wealth of Venice and the splendour of its monuments even before the achieve

The little island of St. Lazaro, the Rest of its superb old basilic.

most graceful of those that rise out of The charebes of Saint Geminian and of Saint

* M. Charles Nodier, Jean Sbogar. lokalbe Almoner, by Sansovino and Scar pagnino,

3 The most remarkable monument of San MI*tre secording to the opinion of Cicognara, only

cheli's science, says M. Quatremère de Quincy, is alte tions of ibe squali temple of Saint Fosca. The

the fortress of Lido. It had been reckoned impos't ead curious work poblished in 1825 by Mr.

sible for bim to give a firm foundation to such an labert , superintendent of ibe Saint-Geneviève li

enormous mass in a marshy soil, continually asbrary , under tbe title of Fables inédiles des sile,

salled by the waves of tbe sea and the ebb and flow. tur* ft 118siecles, et Fables de La Fontaine, rap

fle effected his purpose, however, and with great bombes de celles de lous les auteurs qui avaient, success. In constructing it, be made use of the ba! (, traité les mêmes sujets, witboutdimioisb stone of Istria, so well adapted to resist the weatber. ling the glory of La Fontaine, indicates the obscure

The mass is so well Oxed ibat it might be taken for kiteks of the Fables choisies, mises en vers, as be has

a hewn rock. Histoire de la vie et des ouvrages weil entitled bis immortal collection. The prelly

des plus célèbres architecles, l. 1. 161. piece of Broers is only a feeble imitation of ibe anChest popular farce of Parclin, by Pierre Blanchet.

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the bosom of the lagoon, is inhabited by for ever the isle of St. Lazaro for a rethe Armenian monks, an assable and la treat. borious sect, who publish, in the Arme In the sacristy is the tomb of Count nian tongue, good editions of the most Stephen Aconz Kover, a noble Bungauseful and esteemed books, and devole rian, archbishop of Sionia, and the third themselves to the education of their abbot-general, who resided sixty-seven youthful compatriots.' With its convent, years at the monastery and died in 1824, lyceum, and printing-oslice, this house after having enlarged and perfected the might reclaim ibe most passionale enemy Armenian instirution, at this day a triof monastic institutions. The abbot-ge- bunal of language. This illustrious ? neral and archbishop, Placidus Sukias abbot, poet, and scholar, author of a good Somel, of Constantinople, is an accom universal geography of which cleven voplished prelate whose manners possess a lumes have appeared, the two others kind of oriental dignity not destitule of having perished in a fire at Constantigrace or mildness. The library, to which nople, laught his dialect to the French has been added a cabinet of natural phi- orientalist Lourdet, who died in 1785, losophy, counts about ten thousand vo whilst on his return from Venice to Paris lumes and four hundred oriental manu wbere Kover was also called, and where scripts, principally Armenian; like every he would have professed but for the trouthing else, it is in perfect order. Lord bles of the revolution. Byron, during the winter, went there It is through error that an esteemed for some hours every morning, in order historian and a celebrated traveller: have to take Armenian lessons of Dom Pas- regarded the Armenian monks as berequale the librarian ; Byron, dissatisfied, lics; they have always been good cathotired of the world, and satiated with lics, and only deviated from the Roman most things of this lise, sought to pene-church in a small number of rites. Des ? trate the difficulties of an Eastern idiom; pite ils religious liberties and ils comhe found no interest but in difficulties, mercial spirit, Venice never admilled 10and this impeluous poet studied a grave, leration, and Comines had already recold, and historical literature of transla- marked and praised, the reverence which tions and polemics.'

the Venetians bore to the service of the The Armenian monks called Mecbita- | Church. rists take this name from their founder, The return to Venice at night, by the abbot Mechitar of Petro, born at Se- moonlight, is one of the finest scenes of baste in Armenia, who, in the year 1700, Italy. The silence of the city and the assembled at Constantinople several oriental aspect of Saint Mark and the monks his compatriols, after which be Ducal palace, have at this hour something established himself at Modon, whence he enchanting and mysterious, and the passed with his congregation to Venice pale splendour reflected on the sea and after the loss of the Murea by the repub- ihe inarble palaces contrast with the lic, wbich generously accorded to him black gondola gliding solitarily over the

! Two first-rate editions of the Chronicle of Eu have written from the fourth century to the comsebius have been given after the Armenian manu mencement of the eleventh. But sucb ap uoderscript in tbe library of the coovent of the isle of taking silil requires much time, labour, research, Saint Lazaro; one at Milan, ia 1818, a quarto vo auc outlay, which do not permit ibe hope that lume, by S. Mal, and P. Zohrab, an Armenian who ile publication will soon take place. Three votreacherously separated himself from the other lumes of a small portable collection of the selected monks : the eullion printed the same year at the works, executed with much care, appeared in 1826, coovent, two volumes follo, and published by P. 1827, and 1828, as II to give, remarked M. SaintJ. B. Aucher, is indoitely preferable; the monks Marulo (Journal des Savanis, July 1829), a forebad sent one of ibeir body as far as Constantinople, taste of the grand collection. P. Clakdak has rein order to compare afresh their Eusebius with cently published a second edition of his Armenian ibe manuscript of which it was a copy. The Ar and Italian Dictionary, which bas been bigbly menian mooks bave also conceived the project of spoken of by orientalists. giving a complete collection and critical editions of * For want, said be, of something Dinly to break the writers of ibeir nation from the fourth cen bis tbougbis against, be tortured bimsell witb Artury, tbe most brilliant epoch and Augustan age of menian. Byron laboured at the English part of 80 Armenian Illerature, to the ofteenth century. Since Englisb-Armenian grammar publisbed at the conthis time there appears to have been no original vent of Saint Lazara. Mem., vol. III, chap. vill productions. These monks have already prepared and is, and vol. IV., chap. VI. for the press all that remains of the authors wbo 3 M. Daru, Lady Morgan.

Venice.

waters. These palaces are no longer sion to money, like that of the Simplon, is brilliantly illumined, as heretofore, in not very noble. After all, the famous inlbe days of pleasure, sports, and dissipa- scription was perhaps only proposed, for tions of Ibis brilliant city, and the moon, it is impossible to discover it. The most called by artists the sun of ruins, is parti- ancient of the thirty-eight inscriptions incularly suited 10 the grand ruin of Ve- dicating the epoch when the different Dice.

parts were successively executed, though

simple, is not the less imposing, since it CHAPTER XXVI.

proves the fourteen centuries of free ex

istence enjoyed by the republic : Ut sacra Iste et Saint Clement.- Malamocco.- Republican estuaria urbis et libertatis sedes perpekatride - Hurazi.–Chioggia.-Origin and end of

tuum conserventur colosseas moles ex solido marmore contra mare posuere

curatores aquarum. An. Sal. MDCCLI. It requires a day to see the Murazzi, ab urbe con. MCCCXXX. The Musituated about eighteen miles from Ve- razzi, formed of enormous blocks and bice. At the isle of St. Clement there supported on piles, rise ten feet above was formerly a convent of Camaldules, high-water mark, for the length of 5,267 shose stali detached houses, with a metres; the construction occupied thirtyfarden, are yet to be seen. These pious nine years, and the outlay was 6,952,440 fr. Deo, surrounded by the waves, were

In some places the marble,polished, worn, dably anchorets. A Madonna, with and wasted by the waves, becomes someher lighted lamp, as in the cross-road of what spongy, and its brilliant whiteness a long, was fixed upon one of the posts gives it the appearance of petrified froth. that marked the route across the canals, Never was there an example of restraint and her pious glimmering light almost more striking for meditation : on this louched the sea, in the midst of which side of the Murazzi is a tranquil lake: It was thrown. We pass before the isle of on the other, is the sea, whose long rei. Malamocco, that illustrious shore wbich terated billows roll up and break themSitnessed the heroic efforts of the Vene- selves against the foot of their steps. The lians in the war of Chiozza, when, in one Murazzi are only of the middle and end of those fits of hatred peculiar to repub- of the last century; it is difficult to belies

, tnore implacable and more violent lieve that a State capable of such gigantic Iban the enmity of kings, as being the works could so soon be annihilated : it is Datoal abborrence of one people for an easier to curb the fury of the waves other

, Genoa thought it possible to anni- than to arrest the machinations of the bilate ber rival. Venice, like Rome wicked. when Hannibal was at its gates, displayed The smiling coast of Chioggia dethat aristocratic patriotism, the most

serves to be visited for the character of constant and firmest of all, which will its lively, original, laborious, and numenever super a country to be degraded by rous population, whence Titian derived shameful treaties, and whose proud bear his expressive but not too ideal heads ; ing is doble and glorious, as it is displayed Goldoni, the sallies of the wrangling and in the midst of dangers and sacrifices.

noisy personages of bis Gare chiozzotte; The Murazzi are not a simple military and the unfortunate Leopold Robert, the Causeway, like the jelly of Alexander or

melancholy scene of bis Fishermen of the of Richelieu, much more celebrated, as

Adriatic. are the works of conquerors or of despols; When I returned from the Murazzi to they form the rampart of a great city: Venice, in the autumn of 1827, there la debis marble bank the polders, of wood, the lazarelio. This vast deserted enclofascines, and clay, of Holland, which

must sure, no longer

animated by commerce alber resemble the palisade of beavers,

or war as in the time of the republic, tan the magnificent

work or the Vene- recalled the menaces of the prophets liers. The so much admired inscription against Tyrc: "How art thou destroyed cusu romano, ære veneto, did not appear that wast inhabited of sea-faring men, i me deserving its reputation; indepen- the renowned city, which

was strong in dently of the vicious mixture of the plain and the figurative, ibis vain-glorious allu

" See book J., cbop. IV.

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the sea ?.... The isles that are in the sea centuries, was born and expired in the shall be troubled at thy departure.": midst of storms more violent than those Venice began with Attila and ended of the sea which encompassed her, and the with Bonaparte; this queen of the Adri- terror of the two conquerors respectively alic, whose empire Nourished fourteen | produced her origin and her fall."

BOOK THE SEVENTH.

PADUA.-FERRARA.

CHAPTER I.

muffins that surrounded him. This town,

however, is every day gaining what VeBanks of the Brenta.-Foscari palace.-Padua..

nice loses; the population amounts to Its extension.

forty-four thousand; but, with the single

exception of the Pedrocchi coffeehouse, 3 I will confess that the banks of the its prosperity is plain and without display. Brenta, before reaching Padua, seemed to me far from deserving the praise

CHAPTER II. lavished on them. Near tbe viceroy's palace they are disfigured by a long em University.- Vertebra of Galileo.-Library.-Chapter bankment or towing path supported by a library.-Botanical garden.--Academy of Sciences, great wall of brick; in other parts the Letters, and Arts.-Ladies of the Academy. gardens wbich border them, with their yoke-elm bedges, well-trimmed trees, The organisation of the university of and symmetrical alleys, are real parson Padua is ibe same as that of the univerage gardens. It is true that many fine sity of Pavia (except that the latter has palaces bave already disappeared, and no faculty of theology ), and the profesihe destruction now prevailing at Venice, sorsbips are : theology for the use of began long since on the borders of the parish priests ( pastorale); ecclesiastical Brenta. In their actual state, I think history; moral iheology; biblical archeoibem altogether inferior to the banks of logy; introduction to the books of the the Seine near Suresne, or on the Saint Old Testament ; Hebrew exegesis and Germain road.

language, and oriental tongues; biblical? The Foscari palace, near the little in bermeneutics; introduction to the books salubrious village of Malconlenta, has of the New Testament; Greek language; hitherto escaped the ravages of time and exegesis of the New Testament; doctrinal man; it is one of Palladio's most elegant theology. This ancient university, which chefs-d'æuvre.

arose in the beginning of the thirteenth Padua appeared to me a great, long, century, and had as many as six thousand melancholy-luoking town, although I students in the sixteenth and seventeenth, arrived first there in June, during the numbered no more than fourteen huncelebration of a kind of Olympic games dred and thirty-seven in 1832; it is still in honour of Saint Anthony, and even distinguished, however, by able profesmet the bronzed triumpbal car of the sors. For instance, Rachelli, professor victorious jockey, who was parading the of law; Santini (like Michael Angelo, streets amid the shouts of all the raga born at Capresa, a village near Arezzo),

" Ezekiel, cap. sivi., 17, 18.

· The free port, decreed the 20th of February, 1829, and opened the 1st of February, 1830, bas somewbat reanimated the languishing remains of Venetian commerce, wbich attained its greatest developement in the fourteenth and afteenth cen

turles, and began to decline with the seventeentb; this free port, without arresting ibe destiny of Fenice, has nevertheless bad ibe advantage of preserving to the people of the lagoons their ancient maritime and manufacturing character.

3 See posl, chap. sil.

professor of astronomy, and his very able | rini, the mathematician Vivorio of Vio deputy Conti; Catullo, professor of na- cenza, and lastly to doctor Thiene, his tural bistory. Under the marble peristyle, physician, who presented it to the uniDow dreadfully damaged, are the armo-versity of Padua. The finger of Galileo, rial bearings of many professors and obtained in a similar fraudulent manner, students; this elegant peristyle has been is exhibited at the Laurentian.-How included in Palladio's unpublished works. singular was the destiny of this great but incorrectly; it may more safely be man's body! imprisoned by envy while attributed to Sansovino: 10 judge from living, and torn in pieces through admithe exterior, this university would appear ration when dead. The Italians from the most aristocratic in ihe world. In enthusiasm practise a kind of burglary the vestibule is a good marble statue of Towards the remains of the illustrious; the celebrated Heiena Lucrezia Cornaro- and at Arquà, near Padua, the place of Piscopia, who died in 1684 aged thirty- Petrarch's burial, may still be seen the eight: an illustrious lady learned in the rent in his tomb made by the Florentine Spanish, French, Lalin, Greek, Hebrew, who succeeded in tearing off one arm. and Arabic languages, who sang her own The vertebra of Galileo is not however verses with an accompaniment by hersell, ill placed at the university of Padua. lectured on theology, astronomy, mathe- | For eighteen years he held the profesmalies, and received the degree of doctor sorship of pbilosophy there, and to retain in philosophy from the university. He his services the Venetian senate had lena Piscopia was very handsome; she tripled bis salary; it was in presence of wore the habit of the Benedictine order, the dogc and the chiefs of the state that, the severe rules of which she always in 1609, he made his first experiments followed, although her parents had, with the telescope and pendulum. How without her knowledge, procured a dis- much, rightly remarks Mr. Daru,must be pensation from a vow of virginity which not have regrelled that hospitable land sbe had rashly made at the age of eleven, where the inquisition would not have aod potwithstanding the offers of mar- exlorled a disavowal of the new truths of riage from several of the highest pobles. which he was the declared advocate ! »

la the cabinet of natural bistory is a The theatre of anatomy was erected in vertebra of Galileo enclosed in a mean- 1596, when Fabricius d'Acquapendente looking little pedestal of varoished wood, occupied that chair. The first idea of it eieruted at the expense of the abbé Me- seems to belong to the celebrated Fra brgbelli, under whose rectorship ils Paolo, who was both architect and analoinstallation took place;' in the account mist, and made the important discovery published concerning it by the worthy of the venal valvules. In the vestibule is pertorhe ingenuously Natters bimself the bust of Morgagni, consecrated to him Viih not having been able to find a better while living by the German nation. medel for his pedestal, surmounted with There is a collection of extraordinary the buit of the immortal astronomer, ralus, which were prepared and classed than that on which the divine Canova by this great anatomisi. placed the lyre of Terpsichore. The ver- The cabinet of natural history is a fine iebra is the finblumbar; it was purloined creation of great utility due to the French by tbe Florentine physician Cocchi, who administration. in 1737 was charged with the translation Among the presents made to this ca. of Galileo's bones to the church of Santa binet by the learned Acerbi, formerly Crore in Florence ; alter becoming by Austrian consul in Egypt, is a fine mumInberitance the property of Cocchi's son, my unwrapped, with a bieroglyphical it belonged to the patrician Angelo Qui. inscription, proceeding from the necro

* The rectors of the university, chosen from who were great ticklers for tbe doctrine of ArisIng the professors, are only appointed for a tolle and the Peripatetics, were oppused to Galileo, New This rustom was established during ibe re- at the university of Padua, respecting tbe spots in Dublue and has dever been tolerrupted.

the sun; " so that," he adds, "lo the sbome of • 2 al Venice, book 11. Darii, who had sp- feeble humanity, It is not impossible that o phillosen Niet tim vil during the last year of his life to phical party spirit might contribute as much as tabonas researches respecting Gallleo and his con- religious Intolerance to the persecution the philoGranation states in a note to bis poem entitled sopter experienced at betr bands." See book ». At vaeny the Istb of canio iv.) Alsat the Jesuils,

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