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be the Saint Charles Borromeo of the which form a strange contrast with the toiddle ages.
holiness of the place and the modest air The curious mosaic of the choir, re- of the saint! One of these figures carries presenting the Saviour on a golden a lamb on its head, and in this whimsical throne embellished with precious stones, picture the lamb of the bacchanals may and beside him Saint Gervase and Saint have been often laken for the paschal Protase, appears to be the work of some lamb. Greek artists of the eleventh century. The chapel of Saint Bartholomew Another mosaie, of the ninth century, is bas that saint and St. John_before very curious : Saint Ambrose has fallen the Virgin, by Gaudenzio Ferrari. asleep while saying mass, and a sacristan Near them, the Dead Christ with the is striking him on the shoulder lo waken Virgin, the Magdalene weeping, and himn aod show bim the people waiting. other figures, is but a superb wreck of What a singular moment for the artist a painting by the same artist. In an to make choice of in the life of this great adjoining chapel, the Madonna dell' saint: It is known that Fenelon sell ajuto is a good painting of the Luini asleep duringibe sermon: Saint Ambrose school. At the entrance of the sacristy asleep standing before the allar is still are two remarkable frescos : Jesus disles edifying. On the external woll of puting with the doctors, by BorgoIbe cbeit, the Christ in his agony sup- gnone; the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, ported bytuo angels, an affecting fresco, St. Ambrose and St. Jerome, of the one of th best paintings of this basilic, old Milanese school. In the chapel thoorla alinbuted to both Luini, and beyond, a Nativity, by Duchino, is graLanino, appears to be by Ambrosio Bor- cious, well drawn, and full of morbia gognone.
dezza; the figures around and the roof 1 he chapel of Saint Satyr or of Saint are by Ercole Procaccini. On the allar Victor in ciel d'oro, thus called from the of the chapel of Saint Peter, the Christ anuque and brilliant gilt mosaic which giving the keys to the saint, is a dissur moones il, has some lively and spirited linguished work by the daughter of Cor. fres, representing the Shipwreck of nara. The paintings on the cupola of St. Satyr and the Martyrdom of si. the last mentioned chapel, by isodoro Victor, the work of Tiepolo, the last Bianchi, are line. of the great painters of ibe Venetian The Vissal preserved in the archives of #bil, to whom Bettinelli dedicated his the basilic of Saint Ambrose, a vellum quem op painting, in which he praises manuscript of the end of the fourteenth Jau for having revived the masterpieces century, is splendid and curious : the and the golden age of his art.
chiel ornament is a rich miniature reThe rub bapel near it has : St. Am- presenting the coronation of Giovanni brose recriting the riaticum, one of the Galeas Visconti, as first duke of Milan. Kostnuks of Andreo Lanzadi; tbe chapel Among the ambassadors and persons of of Saint Sebastian, the Saint unbound importance who attended Galeas in the from the stake. a beautiful production of procession and assisted at the ceremony, Ambrosio Becozzi.
inay be remarked a bishop of Meaux in Ib.eb.pei Marcellina, formerly Saint the quality of ambassador of the king of Ciberiar's has been since decorated i France. with all the plegance of modern art by The vast monastery built by Lewis the the Marquis Cagnola, ' a celebrated Mi-Moor from the platis of Bramante, an 'anese ar biteri, author of the arch of edifice of an architecture at once striking The Simplon ; the statue of the saint in and noble, a real monument, and one of morble is a beautiful work of Pacelti. the most splendid of its kind, is now a But has not the painter of the embellish- military bospital. In the resectory a mu uls thought proper to place large vast fresco representing the Marriage gures from Herculaneum on the roof, of Cana, is ibe masterpiece of Calisto Arnt Anvertus, nostre clarissimus urbis gotten in most of the historical dictionaries. It is de la roce, pudore, fide,
There remarked ibat be rebuilt the walls of the al « later torbæ prelaigus egenæ. town, and restored ibe anuque coluinns of Sains
Saint Victor.-Santa Varia delle Grazie.-Carnacu
Piazza, a clever imitator of Tiliad and the sacristy the anonymous paintings reprobably his pupil. This composition presenting subjects from ibe Old and New has however one strange peculiarity; the Testaments, are curious, and particularly artist has put six fingers to the hand of remarkable for the end of the fourteenth a woman on the right side of the century and the beginning of the filpainting.
The Cænaculum, by Leonardo Vinci, CHAPTER VI.
placed in the resectory of the old monastry of Santa Maria delle Grazie, is
not so difficult to be recognised as I lumn. - Saint Angelo. - Cognt Firmian. - Saict
should have thought ; through the mists Mark.- Church of the Garden.--Saint Fidelis.
of ruin ihal envelope it, and the bungSaint Victor al corpo, a fine majestic ling retouching it has undergone, one church, is of the architecture of Galeas may still discover the spirit, expression, Alessi. On the cupola St. John and variety, and life of this admirable compo St. Luke are superb compositions by sition. The enthusiasm that it caused Bernardino Luini; the roof of the choir in the victorious Francis I., may easily is by Ambrosio Figini, who has also be conceived, who, as he could not carry painied a beautiful St. Benedict, in a it to France, took the author with him chapel; the roof of the centre and a and cultivated his friendship, though at St. Bernard, on the door, are by that period he was advanced in years. Ercole Procaccini; a good Saint Peter Parini, an ingenious and elegant Italian is by Gnocchi. Io the splendid chapel contemporary poet, would have himself of Aresi, from the designs of Quadri, ihe carried in his latter days, before ibe Cestatue of the Virgin and the prophets, naculum; he said that a man capable of by Vismara, are esteemed. The last such a conception could have produced chapel on the right has three fine paint- a poent; ibe sight of these fine paintings, ings by Camillo Procaccini, representing in spite of their damaged condition, excertain scenes in the life of Saint Gre cited and fed the pious musings which gory; the Virgin, and St. Francis, alleviated his sorrows, and, if death had by Zoppo, a painter correct in colour- not intervened, he would have described ing, but too imaginative; St. Paul the and explained them. A mosaic of the Hermit, by Daniel Crespi; St. Ber- Last Supper, after an oil copy by Bossi, nard Tolomei, by Pompe Baloni, a placed in the pinacotheca of Brera, alRoman painter of the last century. Though executed in 1809 at the expense who contributed to the reformation of of the Italian government, has been sent taste; St. Benedict, St. Bernard, St. to Vienna : 1 S. Gagoa, an esteemed Francis, and St. Dominick, near the painter, made a new copy of it, in 1827, entrance, pass for the best works of the for the king of Sardinia. This tardy Cavaliero del Cairo. Santa Maria delle homage of kings, conquerors, and enGrazie scarcely retains the shadow of perors, seems some reparation for the her primitive beauty. The majestic cu- barbarous abandonment in which the pola, the choir, and the semicircular | Dominicans had formerly left the Canachapels of the sides are by Bramante. culum, of which the great Cardinal FeThe remains of the Flagellation, and of Jerico Borromeo already regretted that other paintings of Gaudenzio Ferrari, he had only found some slight remains still bear witness of their ancient per- which he endeavoured to save ;' and of fection; a St. John the Baptist is al- revolutionary outrages ipficted in 1797 tributed to Count Francesco d'Adda, a on this masterpiece of Leonardo, when noble amateur of the sixteenth century, the apartment which contains il served who initated Leonardo Vinci; the fine as a stable and granary. frescos on the cupola of the choir belong Saint Thomas in terra amara, an into the school of this great master. In auspicious surnan:e of doubiful origin,' has been recently embellished with an cient in laste. The illustrious Firmian, ebreant pronaos. The fine St. Charles who for twenty-three years conducted the keith angels is by Cesare Procaccini. government of Lombardy in so wise and
' The faishfulness of tbis copy bas been much 3 It is supposed by some to be derived from the disputed. The clever Roman mosaist, Rafaelli, has punishment inflicted by Giovanni Maria Visconti ve had the good sense to approach nearer the original. a priest of this church, whom be had interred alive
* Cardinal Frederick covtided its preservation to for refusing to bury a person whose famliy were a pupil of Giulio Cesare Procaceioi, Avdrea Biancbi. not able to pay the expenses. However, ibe name surname) Tespino.
appears to be of older dale.
The ancient gothic church of Santa paternal a manner, reposes in this church; Maria del Carmine, has a portal of rich ihe mausoleum of this friend of letters, composition, altributed to Ricchini. Jo arts, sciences, and humanity, is a supethe first chapel, the Virgin with the rior production of the sculptor Franchi. Infant Jesus and several saints is by Saint Mark is superb. Several of its Camillo Procaccini. The slalue of the paintings have great reputation : the Virgin, with the angels, is an excellent Virgin, and the Infant Jesus who is work of Volpi. In the chapel of Saint presenting the keys to Saint Peter with Aube, a fiue fresco by Bernardino Luini a politeness somewhat singular, is by represents the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, | Lomazzo: a St. Barbe, the colouring of and some saints.
which is beautiful, by Scaramuccia. Saint Simplician, Gothic, bas an An- The chapel of the Crucifix bas some nunciation, by Bernardo da Trevilio, esteemed frescos by Ercole Procaccini, the friend of Leonardo, the architecture Montalto, and Busca; a Crucifixion, by and perspective of which are clever, but the last-named, with the Virgin, Magibe tigures and drapery of a miserable dalene, and St. John, weeping, is very Laste; St. Benedict is by Talpino ; moving. At the Trolly chapel are å two subjects from the Old Testament, St. Augustine, by Talpino, and some in the chapel of the Corpus Domini, are fine frescos, by Stefano Legnani. The by Camillo Procacrini. "The paintings of rich high-altar has been tastefully emibe dome are admired; the two great bellished by professor Jocondo Alberpaintings of the cbancel, by Francesco lolli. The two great pictures by CaTerri
, a Bergamese artist of the sixteenib millo Procaccini and Cerano, placed in century, though somewbat dry in the the choir, opposite each other, are very designing, are eflective in the colouring. beautiful; the one by the latter artist is The Crowning of the Virgin, in the generally preferred, ihe Baptism of St. choir, is an excellent fresco by Am-Augustine. In the sacristy the Virgin, brusto Borgognone.
the Infant Jesus, St. Syrus, and st. Santa Maria incoronata, composed Joseph, an excellent production of Anof iwo cburrbes, has some fine basso- tonio Campi, bears the date of 1569. relievos of the fifteenth and sixteenth The little church of Saint Joseph, in a centuries; the frescos of the roof are by plain but good style of architecture, by Ludovico Scaramuccia ; ibe lateral fres- Ricchini, has the Death of the Virgin ro*, by Ercole l'rocaccini and Montalto. by Cesare Procaccini; a Holy Family, There is a fine mausoleum of Giovanni by Lanzani; St. John the Baptist, by Tolentino, who died in 1517; it bears a Jiontalto. The church of Saini Mary of tourbing epitaph, expressing his fare- the Garden, now turned into a storchouse well to his sise and children.'
for the city, is famous for the bright and Saint Angelo, a majestic church, which reputed wonders of the arches supportwas for a time convered into an hospital, ing the roof, a singular structure of the #ill bias some good paintings: the Mar- lifteenth century, but extolled beyond ils nage of the Firgin, by Camillo Procac- merils. cias, bo has also done the ceiling of Saint John alle case rotte (of the dethe choir and ibe three paintings which molished houses) occupies the site of the adorn n; the side frescos are by Barab-palace of the Della Torre family, forInno; the Virgin surrounded by sajuts, merly popular chiefs of the Milanese, de. by Caravaggi no ; the Christ between the magogues who grew into despols, whose fro theres, by Bramantino; a head of residence was pulled down in a riot in the Sor tour, a small fresco, from ils 1311. The present building is by Ricchini, branty asin buted to Bernardino Luini. and the roof in compartments is very fine.
The architecture of the church of Saint The church of Saint Fidelis, untiBartolomew is magnificent, bul deli- nished, is a splendid monument of Pelle
Torna armis vale Treea confur, valete Illeri, 1241, seems to bave been really loved by the Mila
to deinceps <ubjar ber os eritis ilber i Joaquis nese, who erected blin a lomb in tbe cemetery of fallimetoals tonat cum eq. 9. MDXVII.
the convent of Chiaravalle. See post, boud is.ch. ii, . 004 of them, Pagano della Torre, s ho died In
gripi. With an architectural extrava- Saint Peter of Rome, and other basilics. gance altogether Italian, the richness of This regulation of closing the churches ibc front is continued with even greater has something of protestantism about it; splendour along the lateral wall of the it seems opposed to the religious manners edifice. The St. Ignatius is by Ce- of the Italians as well as to catholic rano; a Transfiguralion, by Bernardino usages; il is, moreover, inconvenient to Campi; a Piety, by Peterzano, one of travellers, who frequently have but little Titian's pupils, as his signature proudly lime to visit these churches, partly temtestifies (Titiani discipulus). The paiul- ples, partly museums. The entrance of ings of the choir are great and good works strangers is annoying to the worshippers, ofibe brothers Santi-Agostini. The ma- and not less disagreeable and painful to jestic columns of polished, red granite ihemselves. One feels uncomfortable from the quarries of Baveno, like ihe two and confused at finding oneself standing gigantic pillars of the done, are of a alone, guide-book in hand, in the midsi single stone : Milan is one of the richest of a crowd of persons kneeling and prayof the Italian cities in this kind of mag-ing. occupied in counting the columns of nificent rarities.
vert antique, Carrara marble, and lapis
Jazuli, surrounded by half naked beggars. CHAPTER VII.
If you enter in the middle of a sermon,
the embarrassment is not less; the fire Splendour of the Altars.-Closing of the churcbes in of the orator, the echoing bursts of his Italy.--Benches.-Langlogs.
voice amid the silence of his auditory.
The fierce and animated expression of his The sumptuousness of the Italian countenance, contrast strangely with the churches, uolil one becomes used to it, cool indifference and somewhat awkward appears truly wonderful. The altar and
air peculiar to persons who are gazing even the pulpit are sometimes set with around as if seeking for sometbiog. agates and other precious stones. It
How many times has the piety and must be difficult to speak in the midst servour of the worshippers appeared to of all these riches, and eloquent words me the better part! And how vain the must be requisite to louch an audience
restless curiosity of the traveller beside thus dazzled. I much fear that the pre
The sublime simplicity of the believer! It cept of Horace may be often applied to would be adviseable to leave the morning the sermons delivered in these pulpits, to the services of worship; for noon, the Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem,
time of closing, is the precise moment Quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus. when the light is the most favourable for
the paintings. Despite Italian indoNevertheless, I bave never shared the pre- lence, a more serious consideration aught judices of the economists against sump- !o put an end to this injudicious practice; iuousness in allars. Tbis sumptuousness independently of the frequent need of teods to beii her corruption nor dissipa- prayer that ihe soul experiences, how tion like that of the world, but it is con- many faulis, crimes even, have been preservative and useful. There are some vented by fortuitously entering a church! ornaments also which can be appro- It is said that every body sleeps at that priated to no other purpose, such as hour, but the unhappy and evil-doers precious stones; it would be difficult to sleep not, and ibe passions do not know put these objects of national pride in a siesta. circulation; then, is it not beller lo place At a period when there has been so them on an altar, where they add to the much talk of ultramontanism, our clergy majesty of religion and excite neither envy would not do amiss to copy the Italians nor hatred, than to make them ornaments in the benches and the cleanliness of their for the forchead of a courtisan or the churches ; France is the country perhaps sword of a despot?
where the Deity is worst templed, and The churches of Italy are generally our negligence on that point is a disshut for some hours in the middle of the credit to our high civilisation. day, namely, from twelve 10 four or But there is one excess of zealous atfive. 'I here are none open during the lintions that I will take care not to prewhole day but the cathedrals, such as the scribe, since it is one of the greatest veraDuomo of Milan, Saint Mark of Venice, Lions for the traveller. I allude to the mania which possesses the Italians for suitable to the marvellous histories of the hanging their churches on holydays. On greater part of the saints of both sexes. the eve of such days, the upholsterer, Besides, the end of the preaching in the armed with his hammer and ladders, two countries is essentially different; in takes possession of the monument; curi- Italy faith and errors in conduct are comous inscriptions, tombs of great men, all mon: there are but few properly called disappear under his hangings: magnifi- libertins (freethinkers), and the Confecent columns of granite and Carrara rences of M. Frayssinous, although transmarble are smothered under his linselry; Tated, will be less serviceable than at and there may be seen hanging on the Paris. The preacher must combat the front or to the vaulted roof of some old passions and Irailies of the upper classes, basilic, or elegant temple of Bramante, and the excesses, and the impetuous, Palladio. or Michael Angelo, long strips degraded appetites of the populace; while of various stuffs, yellow, white, pink, etc., argumentative preachers are necessary us at the shop fronts of our linendrapers for the more moral, but more incredulous, This ludicrous embellishment, applied population of France. with such bad laste, is the same lo archi- The reformer of the Italian pulpit was lecture as paint is to the human face. I the father Segneri, a Jesuit and contembare even seen Saint Peter's decked out porary of Bourdaloue; but this Roman to this showy manner; it is true that the missionary, who was so powerful over the vastness of its vaults made the uphols- people of ihe provincial towns and villaterer's task difficult enough, and that ges, when named theologian of the palace the little square bils of crimson cloth and preaching at the Vatican, fell short that he had put up against the walls were of himself, and regretted his former prohardly perceptible. The noisy labours miscuous audience, nor has he impressed of this artisan sometimes not being com- on his reform the correct literary iasle of pleled when the fête begins, are an- our orators of the age of Louis XIV., boyingly continued during the services, addressing an elegant and polished court. while on other occasions, he is in such The genius of the Italian language, being haste that he begins to take down his less precise, less didactic, less regular, finery before they are concluded, lest the and far more metaphorical than the brilliancy of such fine colours should be French, must always be better adapted lost.
for popular eloquence. I have heard some CHAPTER VIII.
very good judges criticise the purism on
which some of the modern Italian preaPreacblog.
chers pride themselves, who, instead of
modulating harmonious and frigid serThe jests of some travellers on the moons, would have done better bad they grimaces, craggerations, and busooneries remained missionaries. of the Italian preachers appeared to me The natural simplicity and unrestrainunmerited. With the exception, perhaps, edoess of the Italian character may be of some popular ser mous, iheir preaching found even in their sermons; the auis in general quirt and familiar; but, dience, potwithstanding the solemnity of though inclining to a species of gossip, the place, hears without surprise effusions, It has at least the merit of being applicable avowals, and confidences, all personal to and practical. Notwithstanding the great the oralor; and this description of symcrucifix in the pulpit, these sermons are pathy produces in men of talent the effects but little less colu ihan our own; but the ora new and moving eloquence. A young musical language and animaled phy- preacher, Fra Scarpa, of Padua, after siognomy of the speaker give ihem having with success preached at Rome an appearance of warmih and vivacity. | during Lent some years ago, entreated It among the orators of the Italian pulpit
, his audience to join their prayers to his there is gone to oppose to the four emi- for the welfare of his mother : that was Deal ones of France. the style of their the only reward he asked for his labours, panegyrics seems preferable to ours: they nor was it the only lime that he had inbare neither the same dryness por mo- troduced the subject of his beloved monotony : they are more ornate and ther in the pulpii. After one discourse poetic, like their other sacred harangues; by this true orator, a collection was made and thus kiod of embellisbinent is not un- 1 for the poor, and, as it frequently hap