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called roetel; but it has since appeared to be the same fish with our gilt charr, which is bred in Winander-Meer, in the county of Westmoreland. It is proportionably broader than the trout, and the belly is more prominent; but its length, when greatest, never exceeds twelve inches: the scales are small, the colour of the back is more lively than that of a trout, and is beautified with black spots, the belly and sides, beneath the lateral line, are of a bright silver colour; the skull is transparent, and the snou blueish: it has teeth in the lower jaw, on the palate, and the tongue; the swimming-bladder is extended the whole length of the back, and the gall-bladder is large. The flesh of the gilt charr is red, and is accounted so very delicious amongst the Italians, that they say it excels all other pond and sea fish whatever; and they esteem the nature of it so wholesome, that they allow sick persons to eat it.
Some have doubted whether the Welch and English fish, are of the same kind or not; but Mr. Ray thinks there is no room to inake a doubt of it. The Welch name torgoch, signifies a red belly, which distinguishes the red charr properly enough: the gilt charr is, indeed, quite a different species, and is about twice as sınall as the red; the belly of the former is red, the flesh white, and the spots on the back white likewise ; whereas the belly of the latter is of a silver colour, the flesh red, and the back is spotted with black.
•The charr and guinniad never change their sbires,
The most scientific method of making Fish-Ponds,
Stews, &c. to which is added several Arcána in the Art of Angling.
is agreed, that those grounds are best that are
one breeds them well, and the other preserves them from being stolen.
The situation of the pond is also to be considered, and the nature of the currents that fall into it; likewise that it be refreshed with a little brook, or with rain-water that falls from the alljacent hilly ground. And that those ponds which receive the stale and dung of horses, breed the largest and fattest fishes.
In making the pond, observe that the head be at the lowest part of the ground; and the trench of the flood-gate, or sluice, has a good swift fall, that it may not be long in emptying.
If the pond carries six feet of water it is enough; but it must be eight feet deep, to receive the freshes and rains that should fall into it.
It would be also advantageous to have shoals on the sides, for the fishes to sun themselves in, and lay their spawn on; besides in other places certain holes, hollow banks, shelves, roots of trees, islands, &c. to serve as their retiring places. Consider further, whether your pond be a breeder; if never expect any large carps from thence;
the greatness of the number of spawn overstocking the pond.
Mr. Tull, in order to prevent the excessive increase of fish in his ponds, first practised castration on them, which made them grow larger than their usual size. But I think the operation peculiarly cruel, and the purpose of it only a detestable piece of Apician refinement.
For large carps a store-pond is ever accounted the best; and to make a breeding-pond become a store-pond, see what quantity of carps it will contain: then put in all milters or all spawners : whereby in a little time you may
that are both large and exceedingly fat. Thus by putting in one sex, there is an impossibility of the increase of them; yet the roaches, notwithstanding this precaution, will multiply. Reserve some great waters for the head quarters of the fishes whence you may take, or wherein you may put, any quantity thereof. And be sure to have stews and other auxiliary waters, so as you may convey any part of the stock from one to the other; so to lose no time in the growth of the fishes, but employ your water as you do your land, to the best advantage. View the grounds, and find out some fall between the bills, as near a flat as may
so as to leave a proper current for the water. If there be any difficulty of judging of such, take an opportunity, after some sudden rain, or breaking up of a great snow in winter, and you will plainly see which way the ground casts, for the water will take the true fall, and run accordingly.
The condition of the place must determine the quantity of the ground to be covered with water. For example, I may propose in all fifteen acres in three ponds, or eight acres in two, and not less;
and these ponds should be placed one above another, so as the point of the lower
almost reach the head or bank of the upper, which contrivance is no less beautiful than advantageous.
The head, or bank, which by stopping the current, is to raise the water, and so make a pond, must be built with the clay or earth taken out of the pan or hollow, dug in the lowest ground above the bank: the shape of the pan to be a half oval, whereof the flat to come to the bank, and the longer diameter to run square from it.
For two large ponds of three or four acresiapiece, it is advisable to have four stews, each two rods wide, and three long. The stews are usually in gardens, or near the house, to be more handy and better looked to. The method of making them, is to carry the bottom in a continual decline from one end, with a mouth to favour the drawing them with a net.
THE ART OF ANGLING:
TO CATCH FISHES.
VAKE Coculus Indicus, which is a poisonous
narcotie, called also bacce piscatoria, fisher's berries, and pound them in a mortar, then make balls of the paste which will be produced (by adding a sufficient quantity of water) about the size of a pea, and through them into a standing-water; the fish that taste of it will be very soon intoxicated, and will rise and lie on the surface of the water; put your landing-net under them, and take them out.
Coculus Indicus is a little berry, about as big as a bay-berry, but more of a kidney-shape, having a wrinkled outside, with a seam running lengthways from the back to the navel: it is of a bitterish taste, being the fruit of a tree described in the seventh volume of the Hortus Malabaricus, under the name of Naslatum, bearing leaves in the shape of a heart, and bunches of five-leaved white flowers, which are succeeded by their berries. They grow in Malabar in the East Indies. They are seldom used in physic, being accounted to be of a hurtful and pernicious nature, but their principal use is for catching fishes :- the famous Cardan's celebrated receipt for this purpose, runs thus : take of the berries of the Oriental Co