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a careless observer, can be in any sort relied upon. Mr. Young, as might have been naturally expected, enters little into this view of the matter. His observations on the productions of his correspondents are few, and in these it seems that he would rather run before his friends than Aay to accompany them, or to moderate their ardour, if they happen to be in too much hurry: and though we believe that he has a mind far above the meanness of knowingly becoming the panegyrist of high rank or great names, yet he has, on several occasions, inadvertently we presume, fallen into a tone that an ill-natured critic might easily conftrue to his disadvantage. The dignity of science requires chat a man of character should be equally above offering incense to the great, or unjustly degrading the humble; and, if we are not mistaken, our editor will readily agree with us in this sentiment.

It will not be expected that all the papers in a work of this nature can be of equal merit, or that an editor can have it in his power to reject all those which his own judgment might disapprove, when he and the correspondents are mutually known to each other ; for politeness, humanity, gratitude, and 'benevolence sometimes forbid this. A considerate reader will therefore be disposed to make allowances on these accounts, and will not harshly refuse to forgive bim for admitting a few trifliog and infignificant effays, when the bulk of those he meets with have merit. Of this last class there are not a few ; but to no one person has this work been so much indebted for original and useful communications, as to John Symonds, LL. D. profesor of modern history in the University of Cambridge ; who has given, in several long and interesting papers, a better account of the present ftate of agriculture in Italy, than we recollect to have ever seen of any other country on the globe : it would form a very interesting work by itself. Many other valuable communications occur; but we are not allowed room to particularize them.

The greatest defect we have remarked in the work is, that pera petual tendency which the Author thews to run into long and intricate digressions on political subjects. We call them digreffions, for though the editor has endeavoured to pave the way for Tuch anomalies by inserting, in the title-page, the words other useful arts, as well as agriculture, yet we presume every reader would expect that the work should be aloolt wholly appropriated to agriculture. For our own part, we have been disgusted by having our attention so often diverted from the subject we expected to find treated exclusively of all others, and called away by long digressions on the colonies, the Welt Indies, the Irish propofitions, and other similar subjects, which are treated with all the ardour and enthusiasm of a professed party-writer. This disappointed ms; and we are persuaded it must have a still greater


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tendency to offend the sober-minded farmer, who, chiefly attentive to his own business, takes little concern in those warm contests which fo ftrongly intereft our political partizans. This, we doubt, may have tended much to retard the sale of our Author's annals, of which he bitterly complains, among that truly valuable class of citizens. In its present state, the work can neither be adapted to the tafte of the practical farmer, nor that of the Speculative politician, as it contains a great mixture of extraneous matter, about which neither of them are much concerned. It would be well, therefore, if Mr. Young would lay himself under a little restraint in this respect, and either resolve to abftain from one of these kinds of speculation, or make two separate publications of it. Our desire to see a successful work on the fubject of experimental agriculture, which we think is much wanted, has produced these remarks.

N. B. This publication hath proceeded as far as the 30th No.
ART. IX. Two Discourses, delivered at the public Meetings of the

Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres at Berlin, in the
Years 1785 and 1786. I. On the Population of States in general,
and that of the Prullian Dominions in particular. II. On the
true Riches of States and Nations, the Balance of Commerce and
that of Power. By the Baron de Hertzberg, Minister of State,
and Member of the Academy. Translated from the French. Svo.
25. 6d. Dilly. 1786.
HESE discourses are two of those which the Baron an-

nually delivers before the Royal Academy at Berlin, on the birth-day of the Pruffian monarch.

We gave a particular account of the first of these pieces in the Appendix to the 73d volume of our Review, from the French; we shall therefore proceed to the second.

The Baron begins with thewing that the prosperity, happiness, and riches of a state, confift in the variety and goodness of the means by which it can procure for itself, first, the neceffaries, and afterward, the conveniencies or elegancies of life. He proves, by many ingenious arguments and observations, that the firft, principal, and essential basis of the prosperity of a state, confifts in good agriculture, and in the abundance of natural productions ; and that the second basis is national industry, whicb, by giving perfection to the produce of the soil, introduces various kinds of manufactures, and thus gives value to the artificial productions of a country. He concludes that the balance of commerce will always be in favour of that nation whose commodities, whether natural or artificial, are necessaries of life, as corn, linen, wool, timber, &c. and this balance will always be againft a nation whose different kinds of merchandice consist only of articles of luxury, and consequently are not essential to life. He conliders the balance of commerce to have an essential and decifive 9


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influence on the balance of power; and the proof of this assertion is confirmed by an historical account of the exiftence of a political balance in all ages. In this part of his work he thews himself to be a profound politician, and a well-informed historian.

After mentioning the great work which the King had lately completed, of establidhing the general repose and security of Germany, the Baron proceeds to enumerate the many important political occupations which engaged the attention of that great monarch. It appears that he has, at his own expence, eređed a great number of public and private buildings at Berlin and Potr. dam,- that he has rebuilt whole towns which have been confumed by fire, ---erected new churches, and repaired old ones, that he has expended great sums in the construction of fortresses and barracks, that he has established new manufactures and Supported old ones,--that he has given confiderable fums to gentlemen and other possessors of lands for the advancement of agriculture and the improvement of their eftates, for the clearing of lands and the draining of marshes, and that he has made the greatest efforts for repairing the damages and misfortunes occasioned by extraordinary inundations, in caufing the banks that were broken down to be restored without loss of time, in fure nishing to the unfortunate inhabitants feed for sowing, and corn for their sustenance, and in fupplying their various other neceffities. The whole fum which the King has expended during the course of the year 1785, in extraordinary benefa&ions and gratuities, for the benefit of his subjects, appears to be 2,901,000 crowns.

The Baron, after this warm eulogy on his illustrious monarch, returns to the principal subject of his discourse, and shews that Pruffia may be considered as a powerful and rich state, because it enjoys an improved Itate of agriculture, great national industry, an advantageous inland and foreign commerce, and an extensive navigation.

This great and learned politician has afforded us much pleasure, whenever we have had occafion to peruse his productions; and we think our countrymen are obliged to Dr. Towers for giving them a good translation of the present ingenious and animated discourses.

Rm. Art. X. An Attempt towards an improved Verfion, a metrical Ar

rangement, and an Explanation of the Twelve Miror Prophets. By · William Newcome, D.D. Bishop of Waterford. 4to. 1os. 6d.

Boards. Johnson, &c. 1785.
F the diffufion of learning, in general, affords matter of de-

light and satisfaction to liberal and philosophic minds, the progress which has been made in biblical criticism, in particulas, under the auspices of civil and religious liberty, in our own


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country, must be contemplated by every friend to truth, and Christianity, with a pleasure still more interesting and exalted.

The Hebrew and other Oriental languages have lately been cultivated by scholars, whose taste is equal to their erudition, and who, to the labour of patient and minute inveftigation, bave joined that accuracy of judgment, and chafiry of ornament, without which, diligence is often misapplied, and learning itself disgusting. Should the example of such critics excite the emuJation of others, equally qualified to engage in similar pursuits, theology would no longer open to the fteps of the young Atudent those intricate and thorny paths, which few have courage to tread, and in which even those who have explored them, have rarely gathered a single Rower, to cheer them on their way.

But while we are thus taught how the brow of criticism may be smoothed, while the facred pages are gradually exhibited to us in a form which attracts our curiosity by its novelty, and challenges our admiration by its elegance, there is reason to apprehend that these advantages, however subftantial they may be to the learned reader, and however plaufible some persons may deem them in every instance, will, if caution be not used, produce effects the most injurious to religion. There would be no cause, indeed, to dread these effects, if the writers here alluded to, addressed their criticisms only to speculative men; if they were content to hold up that light to scholars only, the blaze of which, instead of directing the illiterate, will but dazzle and mislead them. The contrary, however and we fay it with the most serious concern, is unhappily the case. To speak plainly, we think the frequent recommendations of a new translation of the Scriptures the more alarming, as they come from persons whose talents derive additional respectability from the purity of their intentions, and whose reputation confers authority, as well as splendour, on the highest stations in the church,

The probable, not to say the necessary confequences, of this meafure, are dangerous in the extreme. It would tend to take the faith of thousands, to whom it were impossible to demonstrate the necessity of a change, or the principles on which it was conducted. These would lose their veneration for the old version, without acquiring fufficient confidence in the new. They would even expeå stille farther alterations, in what they have hitherto received as the infallible oracles of heaven; and thus, being incapable of inquiry themselves, and suspicious of their instructors, might they be abandoned at length, either to doubts that admit of no solution, or to Atheism, which mocks conviction. Great indeed muft be the benefits, that can compensate even for the remotest probability of fuch an evil. Yet we might ask the most zealous advocate for a new version, whether the present does not convey every instruction to Chriftians of the lower ranks which they are capable of receiving? Is their view


of the great outlines of religion intercepted, or obscured, because some of the minuter touches, which their situation could never have enabled them to perceive, are copied with a less faithful pencil? Will the peasant, who has already learnt from his Bible, that there is one God, the punisher of the wicked, and the rewarder of the righteous, reap any necessary, or useful inftruction, from being told, that the words which originally recorded these awful principles of religion were arranged in metrical order? In passages relating to ancient customs, of which he is necessarily ignorant, will he feel the superior force of a tranllation, that marks such allusions with greater exactness and propriety? In the selection of corresponding idioms, by means of which a good version refleas the beauties of the original language, what charms Mall he be able to discover, who, inheriting only a mechanical use of his own tongue, is equally ignorant of universal grammar, and of the peculiar force of idiomatical expressions?

It were easy to multiply arguments to the same purpose ; nor would these obvious remarks have found a place in our Review, had it not been the professed design of the work before us to recommend and facilitate an improved English versisn of the Scriptures. In the opinion of the learned Prelare, nothing could be more beneficial to the cause of religion, or more honourable to the reign and age, in which it was patronized and executed.'

The reasons for its expediency,' says he,' are the mistakes, imperfections, and invincible obscurities, of our present version, the accelfion of various helps, fince the execution of that work, ihe advanced fate of learning, and our emancipation from lavery to the Maforetic points, and 10 ihe Hebrew text, as absolutely uncorrupt?

Without pursuing a subject which would lead us beyond the limits prescribed to this article, it may be sufficient to remark, in general, that these reasons do not seem to us sufficiently cogent. We have already observed that the imperfections complained of, seldom affe&t either the faith or practice of illiterate persons; and that, in many instances, even a more accurate verfion would to them be attended with equal obscurity. At the same time, every pious and inquisitive scholar is under the higheft obligations to such critics as Bifhop Newcome. To men of this description, therefore, let him present the fruits of his theological speculations, since they only can derive those advantages from his labours, which his mistaken zeal would extend to all. In them he will find no innocent prejudices, which it may be dangerous to remove, and from them he will certainly receive that meed of honest and well-earned fame, which in every good man's eftimation is inferior only to the filent praise of his own heart.

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