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separate sections, and, as far as the intricate nature of the fubject will admit, he considers them, as distinct and unconnected with each other. The appearances which are induced by their various combinations, can be known only from practice; but an accurate knowledge of them, as they occur in a separate and unconnected state, will contribute much in directing the proper treatment of them, under whatsoever form or combination they may appear.

The compression of the brain can only be caused by a depresfion of the skull, or an extravasation of Huids between it and the brain. In the former case, the elevating the depressed bone, and in the latter, the evacuation of the extravasated Auid, are in. dications for perforating the skull. The operation is accurately described, and several judicious remarks are added, which tend to render it much more fimple, safe, and successful, than we remember to have met with in any former work. The Trepan is, for evident reasons, preferred to the Trephine ; and the Levator of Monf. Petit is recommended before any other. Several useful observations concerning the propriety of performing the operation, or not, are here laid down, which merit peculiar attention.

The concussion and commotion are next considered. We ad. mire the Author's diagnostics; and though the event of his method of cure is not always attended with success, yet it is rational, and ought not to be neglected, especially since no other seems calculated to afford more relief.

An inflammation of the brain may arise from depressed portions of the cranium irritating the dura-mater, from contusion of the head, from simple fissures or fractures of the skull without depression. The first and last of these are removed by the trepan; in the treatment of contusions, the indications are, To employ those means which are known to prove most effectual in preventing inflammation; when this is found to be incffectual, To attempt the resolution of the inflammation by general remedies and topical applications; when the inflammation cannot be carried off by resolution, or when suppuration has taken place, a free vent ought to be procured for the matter.

The subject of the next chapter is the treatment of the eye, and the parts immediately connected with it; hence it comprehends the consideration of those affections to which the lachrymal passages are liable. Mr. Bell begins with an anatomical description of the eye and the parts adjacent; and, in order to render it more intelligible, he has added a very accurate delineation of the parts described. We have, on former occasions, had reason to mention the Edinburgh engravings in an unfavourable manner ; but we must in justice acknowledge, that these are executed by a masterly hand.

Inflammation

Inflammation of the eyes so frequently occurs, and is productive of so many disorders to which these organs are liable, that it cannot be too much infifted on. Our Author has therefore fully treated of it; pointing out its various causes, the indications of cure, and the most rational method of performing the various operations required. He afterward proceeds to the consideration of the following diseases and operations ; namely, Wounds of the eye-lids and eye-ball ;-Tumours of the eyelids, such as abscesses, melicerous and steatomatous collections, warts, &c. ;-Inversion of the eye-lids ;--Eversion of the eyelids ;-Concretion of the eye-lids ;-Fleshy excrescences on the cornea ;-Abscesses in the globe of the eye ;-Dropsical swellings of the eye-ball;-Blood effused in one or both of the chambers of the eye ; – Ulcers on the cornea ;- Specks or films on the transparent part of the eye ;-Protrusion of the globe from the locket ;-Cancerous affections of the eye, and the extirpation of the eye-ball;- Artificial eyes ;-Cataracts, and the treatment of them by the different methods of depression and extraction ;-Obliteration of the pupils by the concretion of its fides, and the adhesion of the iris to the capful of the crystalline and vitreous humours ;---and lastly, the Fifula lachrymalis. These are all fully explained, and the manner of operation requisite for curing them is accurately and minutely described. It would much exceed our limits, to follow the ingenious Author through the whole description ; we must, therefore, refer our Readers to the book; in which they will not fail to receive full satisfaction with respect to every particular relative to operations on the eyes. This volume abounds with inventions and judicious remarks, nor are the old methods of treatment rejected without shewing sufficient cause why other more rational ones are preferred.

The fourth volume begins thus : ? In the last volume of this work I treated fo fully of the diseases of the eyes, that it was not my intention to say any thing farther upon them : but, fince the publication of that volume, a foreign oculift, M. Jean François Pellier, having appeared in this country, where he has already acquired much reputation, I consider it as a necessary addition to the chapter on these diseases, to communicate such parts of M. Pellier's practice as appear to be of importance. Poffefsing the advantages of a liberal education, a sound judgment, and much experience, M. Pellier has been enabled to suggeft improvements in the treatment of almost every disease to which the eyes are liable; and an uncommon degree of steadiness, conjoined to a quick eye-sight, gives him a command of himself and a facility of operating, which is not often attained. I think it proper likewise to remark, that M. Pellier communicated his knowledge of the discases of the eyes in the most candid manner; which puts it in my power to lay his observations before the Public, he also having given

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me permission to do so. While, by giving an early account of his material improvements, I thus acquit myself of an obligation to the Public, I at the same time embrace, with much fatisfa&tion, the opportunity which it affords of announcing the merits of an operator, who, although a stranger, and as yet not much known in this country, is perhaps one of the best oculists in Europe.'

Such recommendations from a man of Mr. Bell's experience and judgment have great weight; and from the account he gives of M. Pellier's methods of extrading the cataract, and curing the fiftula lachrymalis, we see sufficient cause for bestowing praise on a man, who, if he has not brought these operations, especially that for the fiftula, to their utmost perfection, has at least greatly improved them. We ought, in justice to our Readers, to lay before them M. Pellier's method of operating for the fiftula; but as it, in a great measure, depends upon the new in vented apparatus be makes use of, we fear it would be unintelligible without the plates.

Mr. Bell next confiders the diseases of the nose and fauces, after having, as is usual with him, given an anatomical description of the parts. The subjects treated of in this chapter are, Hæmorrhages of the noftrils ;-the Ozana ;-Imperforated noftrils ;-Polypus's ;—Extirpation of the Amygdala and Uvula ;scarifying and fomenting the throat.

Diseases of the lips are few : the Hare-lip, and cancerous affections, being the only ones described by our Author. In the operation of the former, he juftly rejects the new merbod of using the uniting bandage, and recommends the old and sure method of sutures; the successful event of the operation being certain by this means, while by the other it is frequently doubtful; and, in many instances, the surgeon, after having failed by the bandage, has been obliged to perform afresh, making use of sucures at Jaft.

Our Author next proceeds to the confideration of the discafes of the mouth; and, after some useful anatomical remarks, explains Dentition, and treats fully of the causes producing a derangement of the teeth, lhewing at the same time how they may be either prevented or removed. Gum-boils, Excrescences on the gums, and Abscesses in the Antrum Maxillare, are particularly attended to; the proper method of treating ulcers of the mouth or toogue is also laid down. But the greatest part of this chapter is employed on the diseases of the teeth, and the different operations that are necessary to be performed on them. Here the Surgeon will meet with a number of judicious observations and useful directions concerning the Tooth-ach, and the various methods of extracting, fastening, cleaning, and transplanting the teeth. This laft operation, however, is not admiffible in every cale; yet the advantages of a round set of teeth are so confiderable, both with respect to beauty and utility, that it ought

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not to be neglected where it is necessary;' but various circumstances must concur to render it practicable and insure success. The risk, with which this operation is attended, of communicating diseases, is an important and very material obje&tion to the indiscriminate practice of it, and seems to over balance any advantage that can be obtained by it. It is practised, in general, more with a view to obviate deformity, than to be productive of any real advantage; and we think a beautiful set of teeth dearly bought at the expence of a venereal taint, or even the infection of a less dreadful malady.

The diseases of the ear form the subject of the next chapter, in wbich Mr. Bell considers deafness as arising from an imper. forated meatus auditoriųs; from extraneous bodies impacted in the ear; from excrescences in the meatus; or from wax collected in the ear. The various operations for removing these are described, and in such cases as cannot be cured by any manual operation, palliative remedies are recommended.

This volume concludes with the wry-neck, the diseases of the nipples, issues, and inoculating for the small-pox.

The art of Surgery is much indebted to the ingenious and judicious Author of these volumes, for what he hath already done toward the advancement and improvement of it, and we hope he will not long keep us in expectation of that pleasure which we promise ourselves in a review of his future labours. Run ART. VIII. Annals of Agriculture, and other useful Arts. Collected

and published by Arthur Young, Esq. F. R. S. &c. &c. &c. Vals. I. II. III. IV. and V. 8vo. 15. 3d. each. Goldney, HOUGH this work hath made its appearance in detached

numbers, and though it is not our custom to take notice of periodical produ&tions, yet as this undertaking is of a peculiar nature, approaching to the memoirs of particular focieties, which are often published periodically, we have thought ourselves obliged, in some measure, to take notice of it.

In a preface to the first volume, Mr. Young explains the de. sign of this publication, and points out its utility.

At the end of a war which not only left the nation despoiled of a large territory, but deeply involved in debt, he concludes, that nothing remains for extricating ourselves from our difficul. ties but a redoubled attention to our domestic concerns; and, in that view, nothing, he thinks, could prove more useful than a performance naturally calculated to turn the attention of mankind to the important concerns of agriculture. These confiderations gave rise to the present work: and he professes to beftow, freely, his own labour, without any prospect of pecuniary emolument.

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The plan of the work differs little from several other periodical productions on agriculture that have appeared, except that it is published by an editor well known for his labours in that line, and that no anonymous papers are admitted.

At first it was proposed to vary the size of the numbers, as matter might prove more or less abundant, and also not to be limited to any regular time of publication ; but now, we think, the numbers are pretty uniform, and that the time of publication is also tolerably regular,

Mr. Young appears here in two characters, that of an author (for he has contributed pretty largely to the work himself), and that of an editor. In his original essays we perceive the fame vivacity of thought, the fame quickness of imagination, the same avidity for seizing doubtful facts, the same facility of rearing, upon whatever foundation, ftru&tures of ftupendous magnificence; the same bias to calculation, the same fondness for political speculations, which diftinguish all his other performances, and which render them peculiarly entertaining to those who ftudy agriculture for amusement and recreation. It appears that to his other acquirements Mr. Young has now added a degree of knowledge in chemistry, which opens as good a field for his imagination to sport in as any other branch of science that he could have thought of. Accordingly, we find that in the hands of the adventurous Tyro, the words PHLOGISTON, AIR, and GAS, are nearly as omnipotent as the SALT, SULPHUR, and MERCURY of the ancient chemists, or the acute and obtuse spicule of the mechanical chemifts. A Bacon or a Boyle might see room for caution or scepticism, in respect to the application of theo ries that are imperfectly understood : caution and circumspection, however, are but disagreeable inmates with those impatient geniuses who delight in indulging the agreeable reveries, into which an uncurbed imagination fo readily falls.

As an editor, Mr. Young appears in a less advantageous point of view than as an Author, his natural talents being little calculated for discharging the duties of that office, either with pleasure to himself or with satisfaction to his readers. Instead of those lively rallies which enchant his own mind, and delight for a time the readers of his original productions, be is called upon, as an editor, to advance with a calm, steady, rigid cautiousness; to probe every system with that penetrating carefulness which a long and attentive experience only can fuggest as useful ; to fift every fact with the most scrupulous nicety ; to point out circumftances that may have been overlooked in the ardour of the experimenter, or his incautious precipitancy; and to trace out those nice particulars that require to be adverced to, and fully ascertained, before the facts, often seemingly proved to

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