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without which, the large mass of anecdotes, &c, here collected, is of no use for occasional consultation, and can only be regarded as little better than-rudis indigestaque moles. A. B.

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Art. IV. Solomon's Song translated from the Hebrew. By the Rev.

Bernard Hodgson, LL.D. Principal of Hertford College. 4to. 55.
Printed at the Clarendon Press, Oxford. Sold by Rivington,
London. 1785
HE learned and ingenious work of the present Bishop of

Dromore may be fuppofed to have rendered Dr. Hodgson's attempt unnecessary; but whatever tends to illustrate the beauties, or explain the meaning, of a piece of such antiquity (10 say the least of it) as the composition entitled the Song of Solomon, deserves encouragement; and is but a few observations are more clearly unfolded than they have bitherto been, the design is laudable, and the end cannot be said to be useless.

Dr. Hodgson hesitates not to pronounce this antient and beau. tiful poem to have been an epithalamium, written by Solomon on his marriage; but mentions it as the supposition of others *, that it was penned on occasion of that monarch's marriage with the daughter of Pharoah.

The learned Principal is merely concerned to illustrate the literal meaning of this Song: he takes no part in the disputes which have been agitated respecting its mystical sense. It is one of those sublime controversies in which a prudent man would be cautious of engaging; and if fancy is once set a-flying in the airy regions of spiritual allegory, no one can circumscribe its progress, or say, “Hitherto thalt thou go and no farther;' for mystery and imagination know no end !

'We will point out some passages in which the present tranflation differs from that in common use; and that the reader may perceive the difference at one glance, we will place Dr. Hodgion's and the old version in opposite columns : Cap. i. 6. Hodgson. .

Bible. Regard it not that I am tawny, • Look not upon me because I That the sun hath looked upon am black; because the sun hath

looked upon me. 15. Thine eyes are like doves.

Thou haft dove's eyes.'

me.

* From the fourth verse of the third chapter (viz I would not let bim go till I had led him into the bouse of my mother) Dr. Hodgson would infer that this supposition is not well founded; for if (lays he) the bride had been Pharoah's daughter, her mother's house would have been in Egypt; whereas the scene lies at Jerusalem ; for in the next line the addrefies the daughters of Jerusalem, and defires them not to disturb her sleeping husband!'

In a note, Dr. Hodgson observes, that the word is in the plural number; and may be literally translated thine eyes doves, as is said in chap. vii. 5. Thine eyes, fishponds, which cannot mean

thou haft fish pond's eyes.' - Solomon seems to compare ber eyes, not to the eyes of doves, but to doves themselves--the emblems of love,' and it may be added, innocence also.

C. ii. 14.

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My dove is in the clefts of the "O my dove that art in the rock,

clifts of the rock, in the secret In a hollow of the precipice.

places of the stairs. v. 15. · Catch for us the foxes,

Take us the foxes, the little The little foxes that destroy the foxes that spoil the vines, for our vines,

vines have tender grapes. And our vines' young grapes. C. iv. v. 9. • Thou hast ravished my heart,

« Thou hast ravished my heart, O my fifter, O spouse, my sister, my spouse ; thou haft Thou hatt ravished it at once with ravished my heart with one of thy thine eyes,

eyes ; with one of the chains of Aconce with the chain round thy thy neck.'

neck.' Ia eighteen of the collated copies the Hebrew word fignifies ' at once.' A false reading indeed might naturally be suspected in the common text; for it conveys a very ludicrous idea to say, that she had ravilhed his heart with one eye.' C. vi. 12. Unexpectedly methought were • Or ever I was aware, my soul drawn out for me

made me like the chariots of AmThe chariots of my loyal people.' min adib.'

If Amminadib be considered as two words (which is justified by a great number of MSS.), the meaning is a willing,' or a

loyal people ;' and in the margin of the bible-translation this interpretation is inserted, though somewhat obscurely. Dr. Hodgson's idea of the passage is this :—Methought there were drawn out for me (or my soul placed for me,' or my fancy conceived), the chariots of my willing people, who, zealous to serve me, thus enabled me to fly with speed to the Shulamite.' C. vii. 5, 6, 7, 8. • The hair of thy head is like « The hair of thy head is like purple :

purple; the king is held in the The king is bound captive in its galleries. How fair and how flowing treflies.

pleasant art thou, O love, for de. How beautiful and how delight- lights ! This thy nature is like to some art thou,

a palm-tree; and thy breasts to O love, in thy charms !

clusters of grapes. I said, I will That thy ftature is like a palm- go up to the palm-tree. I will tree;

take hold of the boughs thereof: And

now

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,
which read

thee to go,

And thy breasts are as clusters of now also thy breasts shall be as grapes ;

clusters of the vine, and the smell I said, I will climb up into the of thy nose like apples.'

palm tree
And will take hold ofthe branches.
And now shall thy breasts
Be like bunches of the vine,
And the fragrance of thy face like

that of apples.' Substituting the face instead of the nose is not an arbitrary improvement of the allufion ; but is justified by several MSS. of

, . C. viii. 2. • I would lead thee, I would cause " I would lead thee and bring

thee into my mother's house, who To the house of Talmadui my would instruct me.'

mother. I would make thee drink of spiced

wine.' Dr. Hodgson supposes the word Talmadui to be a proper name ; and that the common cranNation of it, ' who would instruct me,' hath no connection with the subject, and encumbers the sense.

- 6. Merciless as the grave is jealousy; • Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The coals thereof are coals of fire; the coals thereof are coals of fire, the flame of God.'

which hath a most vehement 8.

flame.' " We have a sister who is little • We have a little sister, and And hath not breasts.

she hath no breasts. What shall What shall we do for our sister we do for our filter in the day In the day when it shall be spoken when she shall be spoken for?'

of concerning her?' Dr. Hodgson illustrates several passages in this song by quotations from Anacreon; and, from the fimilarity of allusion so very characteristic and exact in the following, he would ic. fer marks of imitation ; observing that, as this Song was written between four and five hundred years hefore the time of Anacreon, it was posible that he might have seen and copied from it. Cap. v. 2. The voice of my beloved knocking!

Open to me my filter,
My friend, my dove, my perfect one :
For my head is covered with dew,

My hair with the drops of night, &c. &c. &e. Anacreon (Ode III.) represents Cupid as coming to his gate at night, soliciting entrance, because he was cold and wet.

ο δ' Ερως, ανοιγε, φησι,

Βρεφος ειμί.
• Said Cupid, fear not, 'tis a child

Who having loft his way,
Has wander'd much, is cold and wet,
O let me in, I pray.

o I role

κ. τ. λ.

• I rose and gave him entrance, mov'd

To pity by his pray’r :
Warm'd his cold hands in mine, and squeez'd

The dew-drops from his hair.' The similarity in this, and in a few other passages referred to by the translator, is not, in our opinion, so strongly characteristic as he imagines. If love be personified (and Anacreon was not indebted for this idea to Solomon), it might be represented as wet and cold and wandering, by a natural train of metaphor, without having recourse, either for the original thought, or the embellishment and improvement of it, to any poets out of Anacreon's own country.

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ART. V. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society

of London. Vol. LXXVI. for the Year 1786. 4to. Part I. 75. 6d. Davis.

MATHEMATICAL PAPERS.
Art. 1. Observations on the Graduation of Astronomical Instruments;

with an Explanation of the Method invented by the late Mr. Henry
Hindly of York, Clocknaker, to divide Circles into any given
Number of Parts. By John Smeaton, F.R. S.
HE accuracy of quadrants, and other astronomical instru-

menis, is a matter of the utmost consequence to the practical astronomer and navigator. When altronomy was revived in Europe, the necessity of having inftruments properly adapted for the observacions that were requisite for determining the relative fituations, &c, of the heavenly bodies, obliged astronomers to become instrument-makers, in order to furnish themselves with a necessary apparatus : thus we find Tycho Brahe, and others, in his time, applying themselves to the construction of quadrants, theodolites, &c. In later times, when navigation became more extensive, the demand for instruments was increased ; and since their perfection depends chieAy on the accuracy with which they are graduated, ingenious artists were encouraged both to contrive and execute instruments of several kinds. It was long, however, before the division of circles, or quadran's, was brought to the perfection required. In the paper before us, Mr. Smeaton gives a short account of the labours of our molt able artists, in improving these instruments, and then describes a method of dividing a circle into a given number of paris (ve should have said equal parts), which in his opinion is more accurate than any thing that has hitherto been proposed.

The method is, to drill a number of equidistant holes in a long brass bar; the bar is then to be bent into the form of a hoop, and fitted, right, on a cylindrical block of wood ready turned to receive ir, by means of which a circle is formed, whole periphery is divided into a certain number of equal parts. From

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this original circle the divisions are to be transferred to the plate of a dividing engine. The directions for all these operations are minute and plain, and Mr. Smeaton's style, abounding with the proper technical terms, seems admirably adapted to the capacity of the working mechanic, for whom, differtations of this kind are chiefly intended.

As to the practicability of the plan, we, who are not workmen, can say little about it: the idea is certainly an ingenious one, but we doubt the posibility of executing it without error.

We cannot conclude, without observing, that in quadrants, and other instruments for measuring angles without telescopes, there is so occasion for carrying the divisions farther than La minute,' for an angle less than 27 seconds is evanescent to the naked eye*. Whence Mr. Smeaton's quadrant, divided in the manner he describes, so as to read off an observation to 2 seconds, must be furnished with a telescope that magnifies a Jine at least 14 times, or a superfice 230 times. Art. 2. A Series of Observations on, and a Discovery of the Period

of the Variation of the Light of the Star marked d by Bayer, near the Head of Cepheus. In a Letter from John Goodricke, Esq.

From there observations Mr. Goodricke has determined that this ftar has a periodical variation in its brightness of 5 days 8 hours 374 minutes, during which time it undergoes the following chanyes.

ift, It is at its greatest brightness about 1 day and 13 hours. 2d, Its diminution is performed in about 1 day and 18 hours. 3d, Ic is at its greatest obscuration about i day and 12 hours. 4ch, It increases about us hours.

In its greatest brightness it appears to be between the 3d and 4th magnitude, and in its least near the fifth.

To this paper Mr. Goodricke has added a number of observations made on the same star, by Mr. E. Pigott, from O&t. 25th, 1784, to May 23d, 1785, which confirm the period determined by our Author from the observations he made from Oct. 19, 1784, to June 26, 1985. Art. 4. On Infinite Series. By Edward Waring, M.D.F.R.S.

Lucajian Profesor of Mathematics at Cambridge. The great use of inhnite series in calculating logarithms, areas of curves, tangents, &c. &c. is a fufficient inducement to engage the attention of the mathematician, independent of the pleasure and satisfaction which the contemplation of these abstruse sub

* From this we must except luminous bodies, which are visible to the naked eye, though less than the subtense of the angle here mentioned. Yet the distinces between luminous bodies is not visible when that distance subtends a small angle, witness Dr. Herschel's observations on double fars, &c. the angular distance between which appeared greater, and was measured by a greater quantity of a circle, in proportion as his magnifying power was increased,

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