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therefore to be in the same proportion, and taken colle&tively it cannot be otherwise. If at any particular age the deaths of the males exceed those of the females in a greater proportion than 9 to 8, as, for example, 9 to 7, at another age the deaths of males to females must be less than the proportion of 9 to 7. This is evident from the consideration that all.muft die, males as well as females; therefore during the whole period of life, the proportion of the deaths of males to females must equal the proportion of the births of males to females.
Dr. Clark has given an extract from the registry kept at the lying-in hospital in Dublin from the year 1757 to 1784, by which it appears that 19,455 children were born, viz. 10,305 males and 9,150 females ; of these 2,903 died, viz. 1,656 males and 1,247 females ; but he has not mentioned at what age these children died, though we suppose, from an inference fubjoined, they all died under 16 days. The proportion of births being very nearly as 36 to 32, and of deaths as 36 to 27, excited the Doctor to enquire into the causes of the excess of male deaths above those of females.
Anatomy has not been able to discover any internal difference between the animal economy of males and females, which can account for their difference of mortality, more especially in early infancy. The principal cause of this difference, Dr, c. thinks, depends on the greater size of males, and the confequent greater difficulty and hardship attending their birth; we doubt whether practice and observation can confirm the opinion that male are more difficult than female births. Another cause is supposed to be, that males require a greater quantity or supply of nourishment than females, fince they are naturally of a more robuft frame, and that consequently a deficiency of fupport induces a weakness, which must prove more fatal to male children. These reasonings are rather too fine; they are ingenious, and may be founded in truth, but they want force of convidtion. The subject is rather curious than useful; and the reader will in this paper meet with many uncommon observations,
[To be concluded in our next. ] hos ART. IV. Ancient Scottish Poems, never before in Print; but now
published from the manuscript Collections of Sir Richard Mait. land of Lethington, Knight, Lord Privy Seal of Scotland, and a Senator of the College of Justice. Comprizing Pieces written from about 1420 till 1586. With large Notes, and a Gloflary, 2 Vols. Crown 8vo. 6s. Boards. Dilly. 1786.
HE Editor (Mr. Pinkerton) informs us, that the Maitland
two volumes, viz. a folio, begun, it is conje&tured, about 1555, and probably finilhed near the time of Sir Richard Maitland's
death, 1385. The other volume is in quarto, in the handwriting of Miss Mary Maitland, third daughter of Sir Richard.
These manuscripts were always preserved in the family of the original collector, till the Duke of Lauderdale presented them to Mr. Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, in the reigns of Charles II. and James II. ; who, at his death, bequeathed them, with his other curious manuscripts, to Magdalen College, Cambridge.
The Editor's curiosity having been excited by the accounts given of the Maitland Collection by several writers, and particularly by Dr. Percy, he went to Ca.nbridge, and obtained permission to copy any part of the manuscripts that he judged worthy of publication
Of the pieces now presented, for the first time, to the Public, we shall give a brief account in the Editor's own words.
The first is a long allegorical poem on human lite, called King Hart, and written by the celebrated Gawin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld. The poein deserves preservation as a curiosity, though it will not highly entertain the Reader.'.
The next piece is a Tale, by Dunbar. It is in a singular kind of blank verse, used by the old romancers, and after them by the author of Pierce Plowman's Visions. It is full of knowledge of life, and rich description; and is also much tin&tured with immodefty; which Fontaine, indeed, looks upon as essential to this kind of writing :'--and for which, we may add, our Editor scruples not to stand forward as an advocate ; pleading, for its excuse, that it must 'ever delight every mind that is not calJous to nature's best and fineft sensibilities ;' justifying it by the practice of the Greek and Roman writers, and, above all, by the conversation of the modern French ladies--who, it is said by Mr. Pinkerton, indulge themselves upon all occasions with every liberty of speech. Having confirmed bis argument by such truly respectable authorities, he concludes with observing that it is undoubtedly a false idea to look on immodefty as a mark of an unpolished age.'
The other piece in this collection is entitled, “The Friars of Berwick, a Tale.' This is only supposed to be written by Dunbar. It is in his manner; and worthy of his immodest Muse. The Editor discovers more wit and beauty in it, than we have the good fortune of finding out. For nature,' says he, it is admirable; but for contrivance, the rareft quality of this species of writing, it is the first that I have ever read; and very few ancient or modern Tales have escaped my reading.' Perhaps we may, in some measure, account for the Editor's peculiar tafte and judgment, from the manner in which he hath employed his
Such Such are the larger pieces in this collection. Those which follow are of less bulk, of various measures, on a great variety of subjects, and written by different hands. They are also of various merits. A few are very beautiful ; and we observe, here and there, an elegance of sentiment and expression, rarely to be met with in writings of that period.
The smaller poems of Dunbar follow the Tales. “They begin with his youthful and light pieces, and end with those written in his old age. The sole merit of some is their curiosity; but others in the Editor's opinion] “ have every intrinsic merit.'
The next division is of Poems by various Authors; viz. Quintin Schaw, Arbuthnot, Lord Thilftane, James VI. &c. &c.
Then follow Poems by unknown Authors; which form the most numerous assortment, amounting to upwards of thirty.
The colleaion ends with Poems by Sir Richard Maitland. • They bave,' says the Editor, é considerable merit in every view, and thew him to have been a good man, as well as a great ftatesman. His lighter pieces have a delightful gaiety and garrulicy of old age, for he doth not seem to have written a line of poetry till he had reached his fixtieth year.'
We have no doubt of the authenticity of these Poems, and of the fidelity of the Editor ; and we have better proof of it than the Editor's word-which, by his own confeffion, in a former instance, was a voucher not to be depended on. His confeffion, however, would better have entitled him to forgiveness, if he had not lessened its merits by an apology which almost amounts to a juftification of the crime. In the year 1781, he published a Collection of Scottish Tragic Ballads * To these Ballads he prefixed two differtations ; and toward the conclufion of the second, he afferts that he was indebted for most of the stanzas now recovered' (viz. in the 2d Part of Hardyknute, then firf published and declared to be original] to the memory of a lady in Lanerkshire. He attempted to colour the deception Atill more by afferring in a note, that the common people in Lanerkshire can repeat scraps of both the Parts.' And is the credit of Scotch poetry ever to be propt up by falsehood ? Yes-till vanity dismantles what impofture hath erected.
• Of the second part of Hardyknute the Editor muft now confess himself guilty. As for bis secret, he barb observed the Horatian precept he at first laid down to himself, Nonum prematur in annum.' This is a very curious application of the Horatian precept! publish a falsehood, but don't confess it, till the world hath been deceived by it nine years. But this is not the only instance in which the Editor bath Mewn his dexterity in * See Review, vol. Ixvi. p. 292.
applying the maxims of Horace to a literary imposition ; for having asked pardon both of his friends and the Public, for "keeping the secret to himself for nine years,' he quotes Horace to justify him, not in confefling, but in committing the fraud ; and the maxim, as he applies it, would have fully justified him in keeping the secret to himself nine years longer. Perhaps, like a very young man as he was, he had pushed one or two points of the deception a little too far.'-Very gentle indeed! only
perhaps'-and a little too far!' But he always thought that novel and poetry had NO BOUNDS of fiction. Horace says
pictoribus atque poetis QUIDLIBET AUDENDI femper fuit æqua poteftas.' And left the Editor's 'no bounds,' and Horace's 'quidlibet audendi, Thould not carry sufficient emphasis in small characters, they are printed in bold capitals : and, STICK AT NOTHING, seems the literal English.
But rather than lose the applause which was bestowed on his ingenuity, the Editor is content to incur a censure on his integrity. He informs us, that the Public had been pleased to judge favourably of it; though he hath not told us, that a very acute (though perhaps too caustic) writer dete&ted the imposition, and exposed it in its true colours, in the Gentleman's Magazine, very soon after its original publication. Thus, it seems that Mr. Pinkerton hath only the merit of confefling what the world knew before !
The Preface to this fele&tion of Scottish poems is followed by an Ejay on the Origin of Scottish Poetry, in which the Writer difcovers a considerable degree of historical knowledge, mixed with affectation, and disgraced by infidelity; of which the following Specimen will be a sufficient proof. By analogy and actual observation we know, that, fo far from all nations being descended of one man, there are many races of men, of quite different forms and attributes. Let look on man from the extremity of Asia, round to the extremity of America. Are these all from one parent ? See where they pass in review the oblique-eyed, Mat-favoured Chinese ; the olive-coloured, lank haired' East Indian; the large-Jimbed, dusky Turk; the elegant Gréck; the scowling Hungarian ; the large, blue-eyed German ; the squat Dutch, the forid Hibernian. Are there one race with the curlpated, black Æthiop, or with the copper-faced American? with the bear-like Laplander, the bestial Zamoide or Esquimaux ? Has the lovely Circaffian girl the fingular natural fig leaf of the Hottentot wench? Has the Egyptian the monkey-Ihaped head of the Negro ?'-And thus Mofes, and his system of the creation, is borne down by a tremendous confluence of epithets !-those "welling wards of .vanity," which have been long in use, and
may be easily collected to supply the place of reason and argument.
When the Author confines himself to hiftory, he is much more fortunate than when his wayward fancy tempts him to Tove in the wild regions of speculation. His remarks on the origin of the Britons, Pics, and Scots, are ingenious and instructive ; and his account of poetry in Scotland, under its difa ferent periods, and in its different languages and dialects, is particularly entertaining, as well as full of curious information.
Our Readers will be pleased with the following extracts, which may be considered as a brief analyfis of the whole Eflay :
Mr. Pinkerton brings the most ancient Britons from the Cimbric Chersonesus (now Denmark); and supposes, that they were afterwards fupplanted by the Belgic Gauls, who inhabited the iland at the time of Cæsar's invafion. The Cimbro-Celtic Britons (or those we now call Welsh) never appear to have extended their possessions beyond the Forth and Clyde. All the northern tract beyond these sivers was called Caledonia by the Romans, on account of its vast woods, from Kaled, a Britith word, fignifying a wood, the plural of which is Kaledon. Calydon in Etolia of Greece, and the famous Calydonian forest there, seem to be of the fame Celtic origin; for the Celtic language was the original speech of all Europe. - This is Mr. Whitaker's ingenious conjecture,
The Picts inhabited Caledonia, or the provinces beyond Clyde and Forth. These barbarous people came originally from Scandinavia. According to Scandinavian antiquaries, the Goths were led into the northern parts of Europe from Asia by Odin and his heroes, thence called Afæ, many centuries before Christ. From their new settlements, they afterwards spread over great part of Europe ; and Scandinavia became the grand storehouse of nations. But from Scandinavia to the ifles between it and Scotland, and thence to the north of Scotland, was the easiest and nearest of their colonizations: and we may therefore luppose it one of the first. Samuel Infans (frequently confounded with Nennius) informs us, that the Picts were settled in the Orkneys about 200 years before Chrift; and Eumenius says, that in the time of Julius Cæsar, 53 years before Christ, they had bezn the accuftomed enemies of Britain. About the Chriftian epoch they seem to have seized on the northern parts of Cale. donia ; and in less than a century to have peopled the whole spaces, then free from woods, down to the Firths of Forth and Clyde, either driving the first inhabitants before them, or, what is more probable, finding the country uninhabited.Thus it is manifest that the Caledonians were of a distinct race from the other Britons. Tacitus says, that their red hair and large joints