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The accession of the
Gentiles to the church.
A. M. 2962. 30 Rebuke 14 the company of spear- || thou the people that delight in war. A. M. 2962. B. C. 1042.
B. C. 1042. men, 'the multitude of the bulls, with 31 Princes shall come out of Egypt; the calves of the people, till every one 'sub-Ethiopia shall soon * stretch out her hands mit himself with pieces of silver : 15 scatter unto God.
14 Or, the beasts of the reeds, Jer. li. 32, 33. - Psa. xxii. 12. u Psa. Ixxii.9; Isa. xlv. 14; Zechariah ii. 10; Acts viii. 27. $ 2 Samuel viii. 2, 6.- 16 Or, he scattereth.- Isa. xix. 19, 21. * Psalm xliv, 20.
iii. 1, and had built a better temple instead of it, even Chandler, Lowth, Dodd, and Horne. Which interthe Christian Church, to which it was foretold, in pretations it would require more room to state than many prophecies of the Old Testament, that the kings can be spared in this work. Scatter—Hebrew, 773, and nations of the earth would flow in great abund- bizzar, he hath scattered; that is, according to the
prophetic style, He will certainly scatter; the people Verse 30. Rebuke, &c.—Chastise those that will that delight in war—That without any necessity or not bring presents unto thee till they see their error provocation, and merely out of love of mischief and and submit themselves. It is a prophetical prayer spoil, make war upon others, and particularly upon against the enemies of the Israelitish Church. The The sense of the verse upon the whole is, Now company of spearmen—The reading in the margin, that thou hast given thy people rest, and settled the The beasts of the reeds ; or, as pnn, chajath ark in its place, O Lord, rebuke all our malicious kaneh, is still more literally rendered, the beast, or and bloody enemies, and give us assured peace, that wild beast of the reed, seems preferable here to this we may worship thee without disturbance. Thus which our translators have placed in the text. For the Christian Church,” says Dr. Horne, “through although the word n'n, rendered congregation, verse faith in the power of her Lord, risen from the dead, 10, may signify a company, (see the note there,) it and ascended into heaven, prays for the confusion does not appear that there is any sufficient authority of her implacable enemies, who delight in opposing for translating nap, spearmen, the word properly the kingdom of Messiah.” signifying a reed. The LXX. render the clause, Verse 31. Princes shall come out of Egypt—The ET LT INOMv rois Unploeg 78 kahaug, rebuke the beasts of word d'vn,chashmannim, here rendered princes, the reed. “By the wild beast (or beasts) of the is not found elsewhere in the Scriptures, and therereeds," says Dr. Horne, after Poole, Chandler, fore its precise meaning is not certainly known. Elias, Lowth, and several other learned men, "is to be a Jewish rabbi, observes that the Jews call cardinals understood the Egyptian power, described by its by this name in Italy: and the term is thought to emblem, the crocodile, or river-horse, creatures liv- signisy a princely person accompanied by a numering among the reeds of the Nile.” In consistency ous attendance. The Seventy render it mpeoßers, elwith this interpretation, by the calves of the people, || ders, senators, or ambassadors.
It does not appear or of the nations, as he translates it, he understands from Scripture, whether any of the great men of the objects of worship among the Egyptians, their Egypt came up to worship the true God at JeruApis, Osiris, &c., around which the congregation of salem, while the temple was standing, or not. But it the mighty (Hebrew, O'Yux 1770, gnadath abbi- || is certain that, in after ages, a great number of the rim, rendered in our text, the multitude of the bulls) || inhabitants of Egypt were Jews, whether it was that assembled to worship. There is, however, one con- | they were of Jewish original, and whose ancestors siderable objection to this interpretation. As David had betaken themselves thither, or whether they was not now attacked by the Egyptians, nor about were originally Egyptians who had embraced the to make war upon them, it does not seeni likely that Jewish religion. The Prophet Isaiah foretold, that he should so particularly advert to them, or pray so it should come to pass that five cities in the land of pointedly against them, on this occasion. Some Egypt should speak the language of Canaan, and enemy, however, of great power, and fierce as a wild swear to the Lord of hosts, that is, worship him. beast, was, no doubt, intended. Bishop Patrick, who | Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God refers us to 2 Sam. viii. 3, evidently thought that |-Either in the way of humble supplication and subHadadezer, king of Zobah, and the Syrians were mission, begging mercy of him, or to offer up the meant. His paraphrase on the clause is, “ Destroy presents expressed verse 29. He only mentions that fierce prince, who, like a wild beast out of the Egypt and Ethiopia, as having been the great and forest, comes against us, with a great number of cap- | ancient enemies of God and of his church, and as a tains as furious as bulls, and of soldiers as insolent | most wicked and idolatrous people; but by them he as young heifers." Till every one submit himself | understands all other nations of a like character. -Hebrew, dowa, mithrappes, literally, casts him- | And he here expresses his hope, that the victories self down, or offers himself to be trod upon. The which he and the Israelites should gain over the same word bears the same sense Prov. vi. 3. With neighbouring nations would induce even those which pieces of silver-Bringing pieces of silver by way were more remote, and most addicted to idolatry, to of tribute, or in token of subjection. This sense of come to Jerusalem, and join themselves to the worthe clause seems to connect best with the context, shippers of the true God. And his hopes were so although, it must be acknowledged, the original text far realized, that when, through the instrumentality is very obscure, and is capable of several different of David, the surrounding "hostile powers were interpretations, as learned men have shown: see | overthrown, and the church of Israel was fully estabAn acknowledgment of the
glory and grace of God.
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32 Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of | 34 · Ascribe ye strength unto God: A. M. 2962.
the earth ; O sing praises unto the his excellency is over Israel, and his LORD; Selah :
strength is in the 17 clouds. 33 To him Y that rideth upon the heavens of 35 O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy heavens, which were of old ; lo, ? he doth 16 send || places: the God of Israel is he that giveth strength out his voice, and that a mighty voice.
and power unto his people. Blessed be God.
-2 Psa. xxix. 3.
16 Heb. a Psa. xxix. 1.
y Psa. xviii. 10; civ. 3 ; Verse 4.
17 Or, heavens. -b Psa. xlv. 4; lxv.5; lxvi. 5;
lished, the more distant nations, even those which them, and is employed for them, as occasion requires. had been most given to idolatry, sued for her friend. He is indeed the universal Lord of the whole heaven ship, and came to Jerusalem with gifts and obla- | and earth, but in a special and excellent manner he tions.”—Horne. But this prophecy, as also that is the God of Israel, and his kingdom is particularly contained in the next verse, evidently belongs to the exalted over them. He hath taken them for his petimes of the Messiah, when the Gentiles were to beculiar inheritance; and by them alone he is adored brought to the knowledge and worship of the true and worshipped as the universal Creator, the suGod; with the thoughts and hopes whereof David preme Lord of heaven and earth. His strength is in often comforted himself in that confined and afflicted the clouds—Hebrew, prys, in the heavens, or state of the church in his time.
skies. He hath two dwellings and thrones, the one Verses 32, 33. Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the in his church and among his people, and the other in earth-Not only Egypt and Ethiopia, but other king-heaven, and in both these he manifests his power; doms and nations also, who shall partake of the same redeeming, preserving, and sanctifying the former, grace with them. To him that rideth upon the hea- || and directing and governing the mighty orbs of the vens of heavens—Upon the highest heavens, his latter in all their motions, and from thence upholdtruest and best sanctuary; dwelling there in infinite ing and influencing the whole universe, animate and glory and majesty, and from thence looking down inanimate, rational and spiritual, and sending forth upon all the inhabitants of the earth, and ruling them both the thunder of his power, and the great and by his almighty power, and therefore most fit to be small rain of his strength. acknowledged and received by all kings and king- Verse 35. O God, thou art terrible-Hebrew, 4712, doms as their Lord and Governor; which were of || nora, venerable, yea, infinitely worthy to be both old—From the very beginning of the world ; where- reverenced and feared. Out of thy holy places-Or, as the ark was only a few hundreds of years old. | sanctuaries. “ Heaven was his sanctuary of old; Lo, he doth send out his voice–Thunder is described his earthly sanctuary was in Zion: he was worthy in Scripture as the voice of God, (Psalm xxix.,) and to be feared as inhabiting both, and he is represented is peculiarly awful and terrible in the eastern and as going out of them, to take vengeance on the enewarmer parts of the earth. But the word of God mies of his people, and as dreadful on account of the seems to be here meant, namely, the gospel, pub- || judgments which, from thence, as the places of his lished by Christ and his apostles, with the Holy dwelling, he executes on them. He giveth strength Ghost sent down from heaven; which might well be and power to his people—Though the marks of his called God's voice, and that a mighty voice, because displeasure are dreadful to his enemies, yet he gives it produced such great and wonderful effects, as are fortitude and courage unto his people, inspires them here mentioned, in converting the kings and king-with resolution and vigour, and renders them victodoms of the earth.
rious over all that oppose them. The psalmist adds, Verse 34. Ascribe ye strength unto God-AC- Blessed be God! And surely men nd angels, heaknowledge that he is mighty, and able to do whatso- ven and earth, ought to say, Amen! All is from ever he pleaseth for his people, or against his or him; let all be returned to him, in praise and thankstheir enemies. His excellency is over Israel-His giving; and let the whole intelligent creation exexcellent power and goodness; Hebrew, inixd, gaa- claim, Blessed be God, who hath so wonderfully vatho, his highness, or majesty; this dwells among blessed us!
PSALM LXIX. This Psalm was composed by David when he was in great trouble, but on what account it is not easy to determine.
Bishop Patrick thinks it might be about the time when he concluded that he should one day perish by the hand of Saul; and that he revised it again when he was in those straits to which he was reduced by the rebellion of Absa. lom, at which time he supposes that he added the 35th verse concerning God's love to Zion, which was not in pos. session of the Israelites till after the time of Saul. The general contents of it are as follows. (1,) He complains of the great distress he was in, and earnestly begs of God to relieve and succour him, 1-21. (2) He foretels tke judgments of God upon his persecutors, 22-29. (3) He concludes with the voice of joy and praise, in an assurance
The psalmist describes
his afflicted state.
that God would succour him, and bless his church, 30–36. Now in all this David was a type of Christ, to whom, accordingly, divers passages in this Psalm are applied in the New Testament, and in whom they are said to have had their accomplishment ; as divers other passages of it are quoted therein 18 referring to Christ's enemies. In. deed every one must perceive, that there are several derses in it, which, if they were applicable to David at all, evi. dently refer, in a much higher and more obvious sense, to the passion of the Lord Jesus. Theodoret observes, that “the Psalm is prophetical, and foretold the sufferings of our Lord, and the final destruction of the Jews on that account.” So that, like the 22d, it begins with the humiliation, and ends with the exaltation of Christ, one branch
of which was the destruction of those that persecuted and put him to death. To the chief Musician 'upon Shoshannim, A || more than the hairs of my head : they A. M. 2983.
B. C. 1021. Psalm of David.
that would destroy me, being mine 8: M: 2083: SAVE me, o God; for a the waters enemies wrongfully, are mighty: then I restored are come in unto my soul.
that which I took not away. 2 I sink in a deep mire, where there is no 5 O God, thou knowest my foolishness; and standing : I am come into 3 deep waters, where my sins are not hid from thee. the floods overflow me.
6 Let not them that wait on thee, O Lord 3 ° I am weary of my crying: my throat is God of hosts, be ashamed for my sake : let not dried : d mine eyes fail while I wait for my | those that seek thee be confounded for my sake, God.
O God of Israel. 4 They that hate me without a cause are 7 Because for thy sake I have borne re
NOTES ON PSALM LXIX.
Verse 5. O God, thou knowest my foolishnessVerses 1, 2. Sare me, O God–O most mighty | Hebrew, in bix, ivalli, rendered in the Liturgy verGod, in whom alone I trust for safety, deliver me sion, my simpleness. As if he had said, Thou knowfrom these distresses; for the waters—Of tribula- | est the simplicity and uprightness of my heart, that tion; are come unto my soul-Have reached my I have never intentionally injured those that thus vital parts, so that I am ready to expire, and my soul cruelly hate and persecute me, but have always deis exceeding sorrowful even unto death. I sink in signed and endeavoured to act right toward them. deep mire-Hebrew, 75139 in), in the mud of the And my sins are not hid from thee-But, O Lord, deep. I am not in the shallows, or nigh the bank, although I have been innocent toward mine enebut in the middle and deepest parts, and sinking in mies, yet I must confess I am guilty of many sins the very mire which is at the bottom of the waters. and follies against thee, and have given thee just Where there is no standing—No firm and sure foot- cause to punish me by giving me up into their hands, ing, but I sink deeper and deeper, and without thy and by denying or delaying to help me. speedy and almighty help I shall be overwhelmed Verse 6. Let not them that wait on thee-The and perish.
truly pious, who believe thy promises, and look to Verses 3, 4. I am weary of my crying-I have thee for the fulfilment of them; who are conscious prayed and cried to God long and fervently, and yet of their own weakness, and of the insufficiency of God seems to neglect and forsake me. My throat | all human aid, and therefore apply to thee, and trust is dried—With loud and frequent cries. Mine eyes || in thee for the help they want; be ashamed—That fail-With looking to God for that aid and deliver- || is, frustrated of their just and reasonable expectaance which he hath promised, and which I confi- tions, which would make them ashamed of their dently expected, but hitherto in vain. They that | past confidence in thee, and either to look up to thee hate me without a cause-Without any injury or occa- in future, or to look upon their enemies with assusion given them by me; are more than the hairs of rance, when they shall reproach them for their trust my head—Are grown more formidable, both for in thee; for my sake-Because of my sad disaptheir number, which is exceeding great, and for pointments. For, if they see me forsaken, they will their power, for they are mighty-So that, if thou' be discouraged by this example; or, let them not do not interpose for my deliverance, they are well hang down their heads for shame to see me, who able to destroy me, to which they do not want the am thy worshipper, deserted of thee. He was afraid, will, having conceived an implacable and undeserved if God did not appear for him, it would be a discouhatred against me. Though “I have been so far ragement to other pious people, and give their enefrom provoking their malice, that I restored that mies cause to triumph over them; and it was his which I took not away-For I was content, rather earnest desire, whatever became of himself, that all than quarrel with them, to part with my own right, | the true people of God might retain their confidence and make them satisfaction for a wrong which I and hope in God, and their boldness in his cause, never did them.”—Bishop Patrick. Under this one and neither be discouraged in themselves, nor exkind of ill usage he comprehends all those injuries posed to contempt from others. and violences which they had practised against him. Verses 7–9. Because for thy sake-For my trust The psalmist describes
his afflicted state.
B. C. 1021.
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A. M. 2983. proach: shame hath covered my face. multitude of thy mercy hear me, in the A. M. 2983.
8 'I am become a stranger unto my truth of thy salvation. brethren, and an alien unto my mother's chil- 14 Deliver me out of the mire, and let me dren.
not sink: let me be delivered from them that 9 8 For the zeal of thy house hath eaten me hate me, and out of the deep waters. up; and the reproaches of them that reproach- 15 Let not the water-flood overflow me, ed thee are fallen upon me.
neither let the deep swallow me up, and let not 10 i When I wept, and chastened my soul the pit P shut her mouth upon me. with fasting, that was to my reproach.
16 Hear me, O LORD; for thy loving-kind11 I made sackcloth also my garment; "andness is good : "turn unto me according to the I became a proverb to them.
multitude of thy tender mercies. 12 They that sit in the gate speak against 17 And hide not thy face from thy servant;
of the 5 drunkards. for I am in trouble: 6 hear me speedily. 13 But as for me, my prayer is unto thee, O 18 Draw nigh unto my soul, and redeem it : LORD, m in an acceptable time: O God, in the deliver me because of mine enemies.
me; and 'I
Psa. xxxi. 11; Isa. liii. 3; John i. 11; vii. 5.- -8 Psa.cxix.
5 Heb. drinkers of strong drink. cm Isa. xlix. 8; lv. 6; 2 Cor. 139; John ii. 17. ch Psa. Ixxxix. 50, 51; Rom. xv. 3.-Psa. vi. 2.- Psa. cxliv. 7.- Verses 1,2, 15.- P Num. xvi. 33. xxxv. 13, 14. Lk 1 Kings ix. 7; Jer. xxiv. 9.—Job xxx. 9; 9 Psa. Ixiii. 3. - Psa. xxv. 16; Ixxxvi. 16. - Psa. xxvii. 9; Psa. xxxv. 15, 16.
cii. 2.- Heb. make haste to hear me. in thy promises, obedience to thy commands, and is, as it is generally interpreted, the judges and mazeal for thy glory; “because I adhere to thee, and gistrates, the gates of cities being the places of judiwill use no unlawful means to right myself;" I have cature. But it seems better to agree with the design borne reproach—For they turn all these things into of the psalmist, and to suit with the next clause, to matter of contempt and derision. I am become a suppose that he rather meant vain and idle persons, stranger to my brethren, &c.— They behave them- | that spent their time in the gates and markets; or selves toward me as if I were a perfect stranger, or such as begged at the gates of the city, as St. Hilary a man of another country and religion. For the zeal interprets it. And I was the song of the drunkards of thy house–That fervent love which I have for –Of the scum of the people; of all lewd and dethy house and service, and glory, and people; hath bauched persons. eaten me up—Exhausted my spirits
. And this is Verse 13. But my prayer is unto thee-While the reason of that alienation of my brethren and they scoff, I will pray, and not be driven from thee, others from me, because there is a great difference nor from prayer and other duties, by all their reand contrariety in our dispositions, desires, and de-'proaches, or any other discouragements. In an acsigns. For they regard not thy service and glory, ceptable time-Hebrew, 1137 ny, gneet ratzon, in a nor the concerns of religion ; but are wholly taken time of grace, of good will, or good pleasure. These up with the world, and the cares and pursuits of it. words may be joined, either, 1st, With the followAnd the reproaches of them that reproached thee, ing, by way of limitation, thus: Hear me in thy acThat spoke contemptuously or wickedly of thy || cepted time, that is, I do not limit thee to any time; name, or providence, or truth, or worship, and ser- but when thou seest it will be best, hear and help vice; are fallen upon me,I have been as deeply me. Or rather, with the foregoing, as an argument affected with thy reproaches as with my own. This to enforce his prayer: as if he had said, I pray in a whole verse, though truly belonging to David, yet time of grace, or acceptance; I seek thee when thou was also directed by the Spirit of God in him to a mayest be found, (see Psa. xxxii. 6; Isa. lv. 6,) in a higher use, to represent the disposition and condition good day, as they said, 1 Sam. xxv. 8, in the day of of Christ, in whom this was more truly and fully grace and mercy: or, in a time of great trouble, accomplished than in David; and to whom, there which is the proper season for prayer, Psa. l. 15; fore, it is applied in the New Testament, the first and while I have thee engaged to me by promises, part of it, John ii. 17, and the latter, Rom. xv. 3. which thy honour and truth oblige thee to perform.
Verses 10-12. When I wept-For their impiety, || I come not too late, and therefore do thou hear me. and the reproaches they cast upon God and godli- In the truth of thy salvation—That is, for, or acness; and chaslened my soul with fasting—That is, || cording to, thy saving truth, or faithfulness; whereeither my body or myself; that was my reproach— by thou hast promised to deliver those who trust in They derided me for my piety and devotion, and for thee. my faith in God's promises and hopes of assistance Verses 14-18. Let me be delivered from them that from him. I made sackcloth also my garment-In | hate me- -By thus speaking, he explains his meantoken of my humiliation and hearty sorrow, as the ling in the metaphors here used of mire, waters, manner then was in days of fasting. I became a deep, and pit. For thy loving-kindness is good—Is proverb to them—They used my name proverbially eminently and unspeakably good; is gracious, or of any person whom they thought to be vainly and bountiful; the positive degree being put for the sufoolishly religious. They that sit in the gate-That || perlative: it is most ready to communicate itself to
The psalmist describes
his afflicted state.
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19 Thou hast known my reproach, || 21 They gave me also gall for my A. M. 2983.
and my shame, and my dishonour : | meat; Y and in my thirst they gave me mine adversaries are all before thee.
vinegar to drink. 20 Reproach hath broken my heart; and I 22 z Let their table become a snare before am full of heaviness: and I looked for some them : and that which should have been for
to take pity, but there was none; and for their welfare, let it become a trap. * comforters, but I found none.
23 Let their eyes be darkened, that they see
' Psalm xxii. 6,7; Isa. lii. 3; Hebrews xii. 2.- Lu Psalm y Matt. xxvii. 34, 48; Mark xv. 23; John xix. 29. Rom. cxlii. 4; Isa. Ixiii. 5.- -> Hebrew, to lament with me. * Job | xi. 9, 10. -a Isaiah vi. 9, 10; John xii. 39, 40; Rom. xi. 10; xvi. 2.
2 Cor. iii. 14.
miserable and indigent creatı: es: the Hebrew word could enable him to bear up steadily against guilt, non, chesed, here used, signifying abundance of infamy, and the evil world united; from a principle goodness, or mercifulness. Draw nigh unto my of true religion! and, in the end, even rejoice in his soul—To support and relieve it, O thou who seem- sad estate; as he plainly perceived it must finally est to be departed far away from me. Deliver me tend to promote the true interest of virtue, and the because of mine enemies-Because they are enemies glory of God; that is, must finally tend to promote to thee as well as to me, and if they succeed, will that interest, which was the great governing princitriumph, not only over me, but in some sort over i ple and main purpose of his life.”—Life of David, thee and over religion.
b. iii. vol. iii. pp. 30–33. Verses 19, 20. Thou hast known my reproach, Verse 21. They gave me gall for my meat-In&c.-Thou seest how much of it I suffer, and that stead of affording me that pity and comfort which for thy sake. Mine adversaries are all before thee my condition required, they barbarously added to my - Thou knowest them thoroughly, and all their in- affliction. These words were only metaphorically jurious and wicked devices, and implacable malice fulfilled in David, but were properly and literally against me. None of them, nor of their secret plots accomplished in Christ; the description of whose and subtle lies, whereby they seek to defame and sufferings, it seems, was principally intended here undo me, are hidden from thy all-seeing view: nor by the Holy Ghost, who therefore directed David's art thou unacquainted with their impiety and con- pen to these words. And hence what follows may tempt of thee and thy truth. Reproach hath broken as truly, and perhaps more properly, be considered my heart-Reproach is the most grievous to those as predictions of the punishment which should be whose spirits are the most generous and noble; and inflicted on the persecutors of our Lord, than as imthis was the highest degree and the worst kind of precations of David against his enemies. reproach, being cast upon him for God's sake, and Verse 22. Let their table, &c.—Dr. Waterland upon God also for his sake. I looked for some to renders the verse, Their table shall be for a snare take pity, but there was none- That is, few or none; before them, and their peace-offerings for a trap. for whether it be understood of David or of Christ, “This and the following verses are to be read in the there were some who pitied both of them. Dr. De- future tense, and considered as predictions rather laney, who considers the distress which David was than as imprecations. The meaning of the whole now in as being occasioned by his fall, observes, , verse seems to be, The oblations and prayers of " There were two circumstances of it which, though those who have dealt thus barbarously with me, they are beyond all question the greatest and se- / shall be so far from pacifying God, or being acverest which human nature can suffer, are not sufi- cepted of him, that, like the offerings made to false ciently considered. The first is, the distress he en- | gods, styled the preparing a table, Isa. Ixv. 11, they dured on account of the obloquy and reproach shall provoke God, and turn to their mischief: see brought upon the true religion and the truly reli- Rom. xi. 9.”—Dodd. The sacrifices, peace-offerings, gious by his guilt; and the second, the reproach and and other oblations of the Jews, were, in a remarkable endless insults brought upon himself, even by his manner, a snare to them, in that their dependance on repentance and humiliation before God and the them, and their conceit of the everlastingness of the world. Let any ingenuous man, who feels for virtue | Mosaic dispensation, was one chief cause of their and is not seared to shame, put the question to him- | rejection of Christ. self: I appeal to his own heart, whether he would Verse 23. Let their eyes, &c.—Their eyes shall not infinitely rather die than endure the state now be darkened-Not the eyes of their bodies, (sor, in described one day; forsaken by his friends, scorned that sense, the prediction was neither accomplished by his enemies, insulted by his inferiors, the scoff | in David's nor in Christ's enemies,) but of their of libertines, and the song of sots? What then must minds, that they will not discern God's truth, nor we think of the fortitude and magnanimity of that their own duty, nor the way of peace and salvation. man who could endure all this for a series of years ? || As they shut their eyes and will not see, so they Or rather, how shall we adore that unfailing mercy || shall be judicially blinded. This was most solemnly and all-sufficient goodness which could support him threatened, or rather foretold, Isaiah vi. 9–12, and thus, under the quickest sense of shame and infamy, most awfully fulfilled : see the margin. “They who and deepest compunctions of conscience; which || loved darkness rather than light,” says Dr. Horne, VOL. II. ( 54 )